The event of Ghadir Khumm
|The event of Ghadir Khumm|
|Also called||Eid Al-Ghadeer|
|Significance||Appointment of Ali as the successor of Muhammad according to Shia|
|Observances||Prayers, giving gifts, festive meals, doing Ghusl,and reciting Du'a Nudba|
|Date||18 Dhu al-Hijjah|
|2015 date||2 October|
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The event of Ghadir Khumm (Persian: واقعه غدیر خم) refers to the appointment of Ali ibn Abi Talib by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, as his successor according to the Shia beliefs. Sunnis, however, do not believe that there was any appointment of a successor by Muhammad in Ghadir Khumm or elsewhere. On February 632, last year of his life, Muhammad attended Hajj rituals known as farewell pilgrimage. On 18th Dhu al-Hijjah and in the way back to Medina, due to revelation of the verse of announcement, Muhammad gathered all Muslims and made a speech. The most significant sentence of his remark was: "Whomsoever to him I am master (Maula), Ali is also his/her master (Maula). O God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him."
Ten years after the migration and on last days of Dhu al-Qi'dah (coinciding with February 632), Muhammad moved from Medina to Mecca accompanied by thousands of his followers. He only once attended Hajj rituals and it was few months before he died. Since, this Hajj took place in the last year of his life, he made farewell to people. Ali was in Yemen for preaching Islam when he was informed about Muhammad’s Hajj, so he moved towards Mecca together with some people and joined Muhammad before rituals began. When rituals of Hajj finished, Muhammad left Mecca for Medina together with other Muslims.
Revelation of the verse of announcement
O Messenger! proclaim the (message) which hath been sent to thee from thy Lord. If thou didst not, thou wouldst not have fulfilled and proclaimed His mission. And Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mischief). For Allah guideth not those who reject Faith (5:67).
According to the verse, Muhammad was obliged to proclaim an important message. The verse clearly denotes the importance of the message that if he does not announce it, he did not performed his mission. After revelation of the verse, Muhammad ordered the caravan to stop and ordered those who have passed Ghadir Khumm return and wait until those who had not yet arrived there join them.
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It was very hot. There were about 10 thousands. By the order of Muhammad a rostrum of camel saddles was made. After performing Zuhr prayer, Muhammad made a speech known as Ghadir Sermon (Arabic: خطبة الغدير). It was a long speech. He recited numerous verses from the Quran and reminded and warned people of their deeds and future. However the well-known sentence was, while he had raised Ali’s hand, "whomever I am his Master, this Ali is his Master (Mawla)."
Revelation of the verse of Ikmal al-Din
Oath of allegiance
Only then, he left the rostrum and ordered to establish a tent in which Ali would sit to receive allegiance oath of Muslims. Thousands of people group by group, including women, went to him and saluted and congratulated him as Amir al-Mu'minin, commander of the faithful. Umar ibn Al-Khattab was the first to congratulate.
Narrators of the event
The event of Ghadir Khumm has been revealed in both Shia and Sunni sources. However, Sunnis do not believe in the Shia interpretation of the Hadith. Narrators of the Hadith of Ghadir Khum are many including:
- Ahl al-Bayt: Ali, Fatimah, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali
- 110 Sahabah (companions) of Muhammad: Umar, Uthman, Aisha, Abu Hurairah, Abu Dhar al-Ghifari, Salman the Persian, Zubayr ibn al-Awam, Jabir ibn Abd Allah, and etc. who were all present in Ghadir Khum and narrated the event directly.
- 83 of the Tabi‘un (followers): Salim ibn Abd-Allah, Umar II, Tawus ibn Kaysan, and etc.
- 360 Sunni scholars of 2nd to 4th century AH: Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfīʿī (the founder of the Shafi'i school), Ahmad ibn Hanbal (the founder of the Hanbali school), Al-Nasa'i, Ibn al-Maghazili, Ahmad ibn Abd Allah, and Ahmad ibn Abd Rabbih.
- Shia Hadith scholars: Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni, Ibn Babawayh, Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Sharif al-Murtaza, and etc.
This Hadith is considered as Hasan by many scholars and some considers it Sahih. Furthermore, all Shia Hadith scholars and some great Sunni scholars consider this Hadith as Mutawatir. Shia scholar Sheikh Abdul Hosein Amini collected all the references for the event of Ghadir Khum from Sunni sources and issued them together with all other reasons for this event in 11 volumes in his book Al-Ghadir.
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Shias celebrate the occasion of Muhammad appointing Ali as his successor. Fasting, doing Ghusl (ritual bath), reciting Du'a Nudba and giving food to believers is among recommended practice of Eid al-Ghadeer.
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