||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Electrochemical engineering is the branch of chemical engineering dealing with the technological applications of electrochemical phenomena, such as electrosynthesis of chemicals, electrowinning and refining of metals, flow batteries and fuel cells, surface modification by electrodeposition, electrochemical separations and corrosion. This discipline is an overlap between electrochemistry and chemical engineering.
According with the IUPAC, the term electrochemical engineering is reserved for electricity intensive processes for industrial or energy storage applications, and should not be confused with applied electrochemistry, which comprises small batteries, amperometric sensors, microfluidic devices, microelectrodes, solid-state devices, voltammetry at disc electrodes, etc.
More than 6% of the electricity is consumed by large-scale electrochemical operations in the USA.
Electrochemical engineering combines the study of heterogeneous charge transfer at electrode/electrolyte interphases with the development of practical materials and processes. Fundamental considerations include electrode materials and the kinetics of redox species. The development of the technology involves the study of the electrochemical reactors, their potential and current distribution, mass transport conditions, hydrodynamics, geometry and components as well as the quantification of its overall performance in terms of reaction yield, conversion efficiency, and energy efficiency. Industrial developments require further reactor and process design, fabrication methods, testing and product development.
Electrochemical engineering considers current distribution, fluid flow, mass transfer, and the kinetics of the electro reactions in order to design efficient electrochemical reactors.
Most electrochemical operations are performed in filter-press reactors with parallel plate electrodes or, less often, in stirred tanks with rotating cylinder electrodes. Fuel cell and flow battery stacks are types of filter-press reactors. Most of them are continuous operations.
This branch of engineering emerged gradually from chemical engineering as electrical power sources became available in the mid 19th century. Michael Faraday described his laws of electrolysis in 1833, relating for the first time the amount of electrical charge and converted mass. In 1886 Charles Martin Hall developed a cheap electrochemical process for the extraction of aluminium from its ore in molten salts, constituting the first true large-scale electrochemical industry. Later, Hamilton Castner improved the process aluminium manufacturing and devised the electrolysis of brine in large mercury cells for the production of chlorine and caustic soda, effectively founding the chlor-alkali industry with Karl Kellner in 1892. The next year, Paul L. Hulin patented filter-press type electrochemical cells in France. Charles Frederick Burgess developed the electrolytic refining of iron ca. 1904 and later run a successful battery company. Burgess published one of the first texts on the field in 1920. During the first three decades of the 20th century, industrial electrochemistry followed an empirical approach.
After the Second World War, interest focused towards the fundaments of electrochemical reactions. Among other developments, the potentiostat (1937) enabled such studies. A critical advance was provided by the work of Carl Wagner and Veniamin Levich in 1962 who linked the hydrodynamics of a flowing electrolyte towards a rotating disc electrode with the mass transport control of the electrochemical reaction through a rigorous mathematical treatment. The same year, Wagner described for the first time "The Scope of Electrochemical Engineering" as a separated discipline from a physicochemical perspective. During 60s and 70s Charles W. Tobias, who is regarded as the "father of electrochemical engineering" by the Electrochemical Society, was concerned with ionic transport by diffusion, migration, and convection, exact solutions of potential and current distribution problems, conductance in heterogeneous media, quantitative description of processes in porous electrodes. Also in the 60s, John Newman pioneered the study of many of the physicochemical laws that govern electrochemical systems, demonstrating how complex electrochemical processes could be analysed mathematically to correctly formulate and solve problems associated with batteries, fuel cells, electrolyzers and related technologies. In Switzerland, Norbert Ibl contributed with experimental and theoretical studies of mass transfer and potential distribution in electrolyses, especially at porous electrodes. Fumio Hine carried out equivalent developments in Japan. Several individuals, including Kuhn, Kreysa, Rousar, Fleischmann, Coeuret, Pletcher and Walsh established many other training centers and, with their colleagues, developed important experimental and theoretical methods of study. Currently, the main tasks of electrochemical engineering consist in the development of efficient, safe and sustainable technologies for the production of chemicals, metal recovery, remediation and decontamination technologies as well as the design of fuel cells, flow batteries and industrial electrochemical reactors.
Electrochemical engineering is applied in industrial water electrolysis, electrolysis, electrosynthesis, electroplating, fuel cells, flow batteries, decontamination of industrial effluents, electrorefining, electrowinning, etc. The main example of an electrolysis based process is the Chloralkali process for production of caustic soda and chlorine. Other inorganic chemicals produced by electrolysis include:
- Sodium chlorate
- Sodium chlorate
- Ammonium persulfate
- Sodium persulfate
- Sodium hypochlorite
- Potassium permanganate
- Potassium dichromate
- Hydrogen peroxide
- Manganese dioxide
- Silver nitrate
- Electrochemical energy conversion
- Electrochemical cell
- Galvanic cell
- Isotope electrochemistry
- Fuel cell
- Flow battery
- Chloralkali process
- H. Wright (Ed.), Electrochemical Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications, Willford Press, 2016.
- D. Stolten, B. Emonts, Fuel Cell Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
- D.D. Macdonald, P. Schmuki (Eds.), Electrochemical Engineering, in Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, Vol. 5, Wiley-VCH, 2007.
- J. Newman, K.E. Thomas-Alyea, Electrochemical Systems, 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken NJ, 2004. (1st ed. 1973).
- V.M. Schmidt, Elektrochemische Verfahrenstechnik, Wiley-VCH, 2003.
- H. Pütter, Industrial Electroorganic Chemistry, in Organic Electrochemistry, 4th Ed., H. Lund, O. Hammerich (Eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001.
- F.C. Walsh, Un Primer Curso de Ingeniería Electroquímica, Editorial Club Universitario, Alicante, España, 2000.
- H. Wendt, G. Kreysa, Electrochemical Engineering: Science and Technology in Chemical and Other Industries, Springer, Berlin 1999.
- R.F. Savinell, Tutorials in Electrochemical Engineering - Mathematical Modeling, Pennington, The Electrochemical Society, 1999.
- A. Geoffrey, Electrochemical Engineering Principles, Prentice Hall, 1997.
- F. Goodrige, K. Scott Electrochemical Process Engineering - A Guide to the Design of Electrolytic Plant, Plenum Press, New York & London, 1995.
- F. Lapicque, A. Storck, A.A. Wragg, Electrochemical Engineering and Energy, Springer, 1994.
- F.C. Walsh, A First Course in Electrochemical Engineering, The Electrochemical Consultancy, Romsey UK, 1993.
- F. Coeuret, A. Storck, Eléments de Génie Électrochimique, 2nd Ed., Éditions TEC et DOC / Lavoisier, Paris, 1993. (1st ed. 1984)
- F. Coeuret, Introducción a la Ingeniería Electroquímica, Editorial Reverté, Barcelona, 1992.
- K. Scott, Electrochemical Reaction Engineering, Academic Press, London, 1991.
- G. Prentice, Electrochemical Engineering Principles, Prentice Hall, 1991.
- D. Pletcher, F.C. Walsh, Industrial Electrochemistry, 2nd Ed., Chapman and Hall, London, 1990.
- J.D. Genders, D. Pletcher, Electrosynthesis - From Laboratory, to Pilot, to Production, The Electrosynthesis Company, New York, 1990.
- M.I. Ismail, Electrochemical Reactors: Fundamentals, Electrolysers, Batteries, and Fuel Cells, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989.
- T.R. Beck, Industrial Electrochemical Processes, in Techniques of Electrochemistry, E. Yeager, A.J. Salkind (Eds.), Wiley, New York, 1987.
- E. Heitz, G. Kreysa, Principles of Electrochemical Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 1986.
- I. Roušar, A. Kimla, K. Micka, Electrochemical Engineering, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986.
- T.Z. Fahidy, Principles of Electrochemical Reactor Analysis, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985.
- F. Hine, Electrode Processes and Electrochemical Engineering, Springer, Boston, 1985.
- R.E. White, (Ed.), Electrochemical Cell Design, Springer, 1984.
- P. Horsman, B.E. Conway, S. Sarangapani (Eds.), Comprehensive Treatise of Electrochemistry: Vol 6 Electrodics: Transport, Springer, New York, 1983.
- D.J. Pickett, Electrochemical Reactor Design, 2nd ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979.
- P. Gallone, Trattato di Ingegneria Elettrochimica, Tamburini, Milan, 1973.
- A. Kuhn, Industrial Electrochemical Processes, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1971.
- C.L. Mantell, Electrochemical Engineering, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960.
- C.F. Burgess, H.B. Pulsifer, B.B. Freud, Applied Electrochemistry and Metallurgy, American Technical Society, Chicago, 1920.
- Bebelis, S.; Bouzek, K.; Cornell, A.; Ferreira, M.G.S.; Kelsall, G.H.; Lapicque, F.; Ponce de León, C.; Rodrigo, M.A.; Walsh, F.C. (October 2013). "Highlights during the development of electrochemical engineering". Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 91 (10): 1998–2020. doi:10.1016/j.cherd.2013.08.029.
- Newman, John (1968). "Engineering design of electrochemical systems". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 60 (4): 12–27. doi:10.1021/ie50700a005.
- "List of Electrochemistry Books Published Before 1950". The Electrochemical Society.
- Wagner, C. (1962). "The scope of electrochemical engineering". Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering. 2: 1–14.
- Wendt, H.; Kreysa, G. "The Scope and History of Electrochemical Engineering". Electrochemical Engineering: 1–7. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-03851-2_1.
- Lapicque, F. (2004). "Electrochemical Engineering: An Overview of its Contributions and Promising Features". Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 82 (12): 1571–1574. doi:10.1205/cerd.82.12.1571.58046.
- Stankovic, V. (2012). "Electrochemical Engineering - its appearance, evolution and present status. Approaching an anniversary.". Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering. 2: 1–14. doi:10.5599/jese.2012.0011.
- Kreysa, G. (1985). "Performance criteria and nomenclature in electrochemical engineering". Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. 15 (2): 175–179. doi:10.1007/BF00620931.
- Gritzner, G.; Kreysa, G. "Nomenclature, symbols and definitions in electrochemical engineering". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 65 (5): 1009–1020.