Eslöv was a small village until the beginning of the railway age. In 1858 a station on the main line between Stockholm and Malmö was opened. In the 1860s more railways were built and Eslöv became a junction with lines in six different directions. The population began to grow and in 1875 it had reached 1,240 and Eslöv got the status of a köping (market town). In 1911 it had 5,400 inhabitants and got town privileges (See stad). The population continued to grow and reached 7,000 in 1951, 11,000 in 1964 and 15,000 in 1995. The local government reform of 1971 made Eslöv the seat of Eslöv Municipality, which today has more than 30,000 inhabitants.
A local airstrip, ESME, was originally used for mail, but also military training during second world war. Nowadays, it is mostly used for private pilots and parachute jumping.
Sweden's tallest wooden house, Lagerhuset, is located in the city. In 2007, a large scale renovation of the building took place and it is now converted into an apartment complex. The building was first built as a storage magazine for cereal during World War I.
The medicine Salubrin was invented in Eslöv. Several other big companies have also have their main offices in the town.
Eslöv church, built 1890 in Neo-Gothic. This style became known as Eslöv Gothic in Sweden.