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Father figure

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Father Figure and Baby

A father figure is usually an older man, normally one with power, authority, or strength, with whom one can identify on a deeply psychological level and who generates emotions generally felt towards one's father. Despite the literal term "father figure", the role of a father figure is not limited to the biological parent of a person (especially a child), but may be played by uncles, grandfathers, elder brothers, family friends, or others.[1] The similar term mother figure refers to an older woman.

Several studies have suggested that positive father figures and mother figures (whether biological or not) are generally associated with healthy child development,[2] both in boys and in girls.[3]



The International Dictionary of Psychology defines "father figure" as "A man to whom a person looks up and whom he treats like a father."[4] The APA Concise Dictionary of Psychology offers a more extensive definition: "a substitute for a person's biological father, who performs typical paternal functions and serves as an object of identification and attachment. [Father figures] may include such individuals as adoptive fathers, stepfathers, older brothers, teachers and others." This dictionary goes on to state that the term is synonymous with father surrogate and surrogate father.[5] The former definition suggests that the term applies to any man, while the latter excludes biological fathers.

Significance in Child Development


As a primary caregiver, a father or father-figure fills a key role in a child's life. Attachment theory offers some insight into how children relate to their fathers, and when they seek out a separate "father figure". According to a 2010 study by Posada and Kaloustian, the way that an infant models their attachment to their caregiver has a direct impact on how the infant responds to other people.[6] These attachment-driven responses may persist throughout life.

Studies by Parke and Clark-Stewart (2011) and Lamb (2010) have shown that fathers are more likely than mothers to engage in rough-and-tumble play with children.[7]

Other functions a father figure can provide include: helping establish personal boundaries between mother and child;[8] promoting self-discipline, teamwork and a sense of gender identity;[9] offering a window into the wider world;[10] and providing opportunities for both idealization and its realistic working-through.[11]



Studies have shown that a lack of a father figure in a child's life can have severe negative psychological impacts upon a child's personality and psychology,[12] whereas positive father figures have a significant role in a child's development.

Research found that there is a strong negative causal effect of father figure absence on a child’s social emotional development, specifically an increase in externalizing behaviors. Further, if absence occurred in early childhood, effects are more pronounced for boys than girls. Proceeding into adolescence, there is also strong evidence that father figure absence increases adolescent risk behaviors, such as substance use and early childbearing. There is a strong and consistent finding on the negative effects of absence on highschool graduation, resulting in a lower graduation rate. There is little evidence supporting that the absence of a father figure has an effect on children and adolescent’s cognitive ability. [13]

Through examining long-term effects of father figure absence on adulthood, there is strong evidence that there is a strong causal effect of father absence on adult mental health. Results denote that psychological harm due to father figure absence in childhood persists throughout life. There is also weak evidence supporting that father figure absence influences adult financial or family outcomes. A few studies indicated that there is a negative correlation on adult employment. There is inconsistent evidence supporting that there are negative effects on marriage and divorce, income, or college education. [13]

In Psychoanalytic Theory


From a psychoanalytic point of view, Sigmund Freud described the father figure as essential in child development, specially in pre-Oedipal and Oedipal stages. Particularly for boys, resolution of the Oedipal stage and development through developing a loving attachment with the father figure is crucial and healthy. In Freud’s theory, boys perceived father figures as a rival, a figure causing them to experience guilt and fear, ceases incestuous sexual impulses, and an object of enmity and hatred. Dorothy Burlingham also mentioned that Freud perceived father figures in a more positive light, idealizing the figure as a "protector" who is "great" and "God like" in the child’s perspective. [14]

Pop Culture Examples


See also



  1. ^ M. E. Lamb ed., The Role of the Father in Child Development (2010) p. 388
  2. ^ Science news
  3. ^ "Daughters need fathers, too". Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
  4. ^ Sutherland, Stuart. The International Dictionary of Psychology. 2nd. ed. New York: Macmillan Press, 1996. 166. Print.
  5. ^ American Psychological Association. APA Concise Dictionary of Psychology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2009. 189. Print.
  6. ^ Santrock, John W. Children. 12th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013. 218. Print.
  7. ^ Santrock, John W. Children. 12th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013. 225. Print.
  8. ^ Robin Skynner/John Cleese, Families and how to survive them (1994) p. 196-9
  9. ^ Skynner, p. 21-2, p. 199-201 and p. 244-6
  10. ^ D. W. Winnicott, The Child, the Family, and the Outside World (1973) p. 115-6
  11. ^ Winnicott, p. 116-7
  12. ^ L. L. Dunlap, What All Children Need (2004) p. 79
  13. ^ a b McLanahan, Sara; Tach, Laura; Schneider, Daniel (2013-07-30). "The Causal Effects of Father Absence". Annual Review of Sociology. 39 (1): 399–427. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-071312-145704. ISSN 0360-0572. PMC 3904543. PMID 24489431.
  14. ^ Jones, Kim A. (2007-03-29). "Assessing the Impact of Father-Absence from a Psychoanalytic Perspective". Psychoanalytic Social Work. 14 (1): 43–58. doi:10.1300/J032v14n01_03. ISSN 1522-8878.
  15. ^ D. N. Tutoo, Educational Psychology (1998) p. 476
  16. ^ Antonia Fraser, Perilous Question (London 2013) p. 130 and p. 175-6
  17. ^ Lana A. Whited, The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter (2004) p. 110-2
  18. ^ Quoted in V. Glendinning, Leonard Woolf (2006) p. 289