Queen bee (sociology)
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In a business environment, a "queen bee" may refer to a woman in upper management who advanced in the ranks without the help of any type of affirmative action programs. Many of those executive women tend to be politically conservative and they choose not to publicly identify with feminism. They often see other, usually younger, women as competitors and will refuse to help them advance within a company, preferring to mentor a male over a female employee. Some such "queen bees" may actively take steps to hinder another woman's advancement as they are seen as direct competitors. Such tactics are sometimes referred to as heterophily (in the sense of positive preference and favoritism for opposite-sex colleagues) or the queen bee syndrome.
The term "loophole woman", coined by Caroline Bird in her book Born Female: The High Cost of Keeping Women Down (1968), has a similar meaning. Marie Mullaney defines the loophole woman as one who, "successful in a predominantly male field like law, business or medicine, is opposed to other women's attaining similar levels of success. Such success, if attained by women on a large scale, would detract from, if not substantially reduce, her own status and importance." (The term "honorary male" is related, but does not imply opposition to other women's success).
A queen bee in a school setting is sometimes referred to as a school diva or school princess. These queen bees are often stereotyped in the media as being beautiful, charismatic, manipulative, and wealthy, holding positions of high social status, such as being head cheerleader (or being the captain of some other, usually an all-girl, sports team), the Homecoming or Prom Queen (or both), or even being the daughter of the principal or a teacher (usually the principal). The phenomenon of queen bees is common in finishing schools.
Queen bees may wield substantial influence and power over their cliques, and are considered role models by clique members and outsiders. Her actions are closely followed and imitated. Sussana Stern identifies the following qualities as characteristic of queen bees:
- Having an overly-heightened self-esteem, which may lead to arrogance
- Being overly-aggressive, selfish, manipulative and strong-willed
- Behaving as a bully or sociopath
- Being wealthy and/or "spoiled"
- Being pretty, popular, talented, rich, or privileged
- Being envied/hated/admired by peers (mainly female peers)
Fictional portrayals of queen bees in schools include the films Heathers and Mean Girls. The latter was partially adapted from the nonfiction book Queen Bees and Wannabes. The television series Gossip Girl is highlighted for its portrayal of Blair Waldorf as a queen bee, as she has a league of minions for friends and is frequently referred as 'Queen B' by her peers. Another television series Pretty Little Liars is also highlighted for its portrayal of Alison DiLaurentis as queen bee, as she has a clique, seems to be bossy and mean to people who are not her friends, and everyone treats her as a Queen. She is sometimes referred as 'Queen Ali'. Quinn Fabray from Glee is also described as "queen bee" due to her being rich, popular, beautiful and head cheerleader.
Fictional queen bees
- Courtney Alice Shane from Jawbreaker
- Lexi Reed from A.N.T. Farm
- Joan Holloway from Mad Men
- Heather Chandler and Heather Duke from Heathers
- Christy Masters from Romy and Michele's High School Reunion
- Quinn Fabray and Santana Lopez from Glee
- Chanel Oberlin from Scream Queens
- Coco Connors from Dear White People
- Blair Waldorf, Serena van der Woodsen and Jenny Humphrey from Gossip Girl
- Brooke McQueen from Popular
- Aphrodite LaFonte from House of Night
- Regina George and Cady Heron from the film Mean Girls
- Sandi Griffin, from Daria
- Nina Sandoval from Niñas mal
- Stacey Larson from Odd Girl Out
- Tami from The Amazing Spiez!
- Mandy and Mindy from Totally Spies!
- Cleo de Nile from Monster High.
- Carla Cabrera from Growing Up Creepie
- Sierra McCool from The Replacements
- Dawn Swatsworthy from The Buzz on Maggie
- Jinx Slater from Those Girls book series
- Ring-Ring from Pucca
- Lisa Silver from American Dad!
- Amber Addison and Ashley Dewitt from Hannah Montana
- The Crust Cousins (Brit and Tiff) from My Life as a Teenage Robot
- Tricia and Tara Johansson (Snow Job) from 6teen
- Saphira from Pearlie
- Nanette Manoir from Angela Anaconda
- Angela Smith from Mona the Vampire
- Muffy Crosswire from Arthur
- Priscilla and Penelope Pinkpaws from Angelina Ballerina
- Paige Michalchuk, Heather Sinclair and Holly J. Sinclair from Degrassi: The Next Generation
- Connie D'Amico from Family Guy
- Chris Hargensen from Carrie
- Reika Tamaki (Josie Huffington in the English dub) from Ojamajo Doremi
- Paige Logan from Grossology
- Portia Gibbons from The Mighty B!
- Missy Meanie from Ned's Disclassified School Survivor Guid
- Alison DiLaurentis and Hanna Marin from Pretty Little Liars
- Fiona and her daughters Brianna & Gabriella and Shelby Cummings from A Cinderella Story
- Rachel Witchburn from Sydney White
- Cher Horowitz from Clueless
- Mindy from The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy
- Paulina Sanchez from Danny Phantom
- Melissa O'Malley from The Life and Times of Juniper Lee
- Kimmy from Sym-Bionic Titan
- Massie Block from The Clique series
- Skye Hamilton, Allie A. Abott, Charlie Deery, and Shira Brazille from Alphas (book series)
- Nina Harper from Braceface
- Courtney Gripling from As Told by Ginger
- Piper Hansen from Beautiful World
- Jennifer Check from Jennifer's Body
- Rona Berger from iCarly (She only appeared once in the episode "iChristmas".)
- London Tipton from The Suite Life of Zack and Cody and The Suite Life on Deck
- Cokie Mason from The Babysitters Club
- Mindy Crenshaw and Megan Parker from Drake and Josh
- Cynthia Payne from The Mysteries of Alfred Hedgehog
- Cordelia Chase from Buffy the Vampire Slayer
- Britney Boviac from Lloyd in Space
- Ashley A. from Recess
- Beebe Bluff from Doug and Disney's Doug
- Princess Morbucks from The Powerpuff Girls
- Gemini Stone from Sabrina: The Animated Series
- Cassandra from Sabrina's Secret Life
- Cotilla from Zevo-3
- Kelly Kapowski from Saved by the Bell
- Mertle Edmonds from the Lilo and Stitch universe
- Bonnie Rockwaller from Kim Possible
- Alana Rivera and Bianca from That's So Raven
- Effy Stonem, Katie Fitch, and Mini McGuinness from Skins
- Lauren "Lo" Ridgemount and Kelly from Stoked
- Rhonda Lloyd from Hey Arnold!
- Betty Rizzo from the film Grease
- Mandi Weatherly from Mean Girls 2
- Heather, Courtney and Blaineley from Total Drama
- Penelope Lang from Atomic Betty
- Tess Tyler from Camp Rock
- Gigi Hollingsworth from Wizards of Waverly Place
- Lucy "Tom-Tom" Wyman (young) from 13 Going on 30
- Burdine Maxwell and the Tweevils (Kirstee & Kaycee) from Bratz (TV series)
- Brianna from Olliver's Adventures
- LaCienega Boulevardez from The Proud Family
- Blair Warner from The Facts of Life
- Trina Vega from Victorious
- Sara, Kara, and Lara from Willa's Wild Life
- Natasha Cummings from Tormented
- Ashley from Seventeen Again
- Icy, Mitzi and Diaspro from Winx Club
- Dalia Royce from Suburgatory
- Kira from Taking Five
- Mía Colucci from Rebelde Way
- Amanda Jones from Some Kind of Wonderful
- Cheryl Blossom and Veronica Lodge from Riverdale
- Vicky Brommstick and Kira from Regal Academy
- Heather, Courtney, Anne Maria, Jo, Sugar, Amy, and Josee from Total Drama
- Sissi Delmas from Code Lyoko and Code Lyoko: Evolution
- "Article". Timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-23. (subscription required)
- Cooper, Virginia W. (1997). "Homophily or the Queen Bee Syndrome: Female Evaluation of Female Leadership". Small Group Research. Sage Publications. 28 (4): 483–499. doi:10.1177/1046496497284001. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Mullaney, Marie (1984). "Gender and the Socialist Revolutionary Role". Historical Reflections. 11 (2): 147. JSTOR 41298827.
- Tracy, K. (2003) The Girl's Got Bite: The Original Unauthorized Guide to Buffy's World. Macmillan. p 37.
- Raines, J.M. (2003) Beautylicious!: The Black Girl's Guide to the Fabulous Life. Harlem Moon Publishers. p 13.
- Wiseman, Rosalind (9 December 2011). "Girls' Cliques: What Role Does Your Daughter Play?". iVillage. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Stern, Sussana (2001) Sexual Selves on the World Wide Web: Adolescent Girls' Home Pages as Sites for Sexual Self-Expression; Sexual Teens, Sexual Media, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
- Dickinson, Amy (13 May 2002). "Taming the Teen Queen Bee". Time. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Shearin Karres, Erika V. (2004). Mean Chicks, Cliques, And Dirty Tricks: A Real Girl's Guide to Getting Through the Day with Smarts and Style. Avon, MA: Adams Media. ISBN 1580629334.
- Simmons, Rachel (2002). Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls. New York: Harcourt. ISBN 0151006040.
- Wiseman, Rosalind (2002). Queen Bees and Wannabes: Helping Your Daughter Survive Cliques, Gossip, Boyfriends, and Other Realities of Adolescence. New York: Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 0609609459.