Fazal Pookoya Thangal

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Fazal Pookoya Thangal (Arabic: سيّدفضل بوكوي‎‎ سيّدفضل بوكوي; Yemen, c.1820 - Turkey, 1901) known as Sayyid Fadl and Fadl Pasha, was a Yemeni Islamic missionary active in Kerala.[1][2]

His family root reached to Hazarath Ali through Mamburam Sayyid Alavi Mouladhavila. Latter came from Hazarmouth of Yemen in Hijrah 1183 Ramdan 18 at age 17 to spread Islam in Malabar.[3][not in citation given] He was the only son of Mamburam Thangal.[4] Fazal Thangal entered the way at his father after the departure of Alavi Thangal as leader of Mappila Muslims.

Birth and childhood[edit]

Sayyid Fazal Pookoya Thangal was born in the 1820s, the son of mappila Muslim mystical and political leader Sayyid Alavi Thangal of Mamburam. His mother was Fathima Beevi, the daughter of Muslim mystic Aboobacker Madani (Koyalandi). He spent his childhood studying under his father.[5][not in citation given]

Fazal Thangal first learnt from one of his father's personal assistants, Alhaji Chalilakath Kuday, then from Parapanangadi Aboobacker Koya Musliyar, Baithan Musliyar Velliyangod Umar Khazi, Moideen Khazi, Calicut Khazi, Zainudeen Musliyar Thirurangadi and Sheikh Sayyid Abdulla Bin Umar. He studied Hadith, Fiqh, and languages.[4][dead link]

Family background[edit]

Sayyid Fazal Pookoya Thangal had three daughters and six sons with two wives. His two daughters died in childhood. Sayyid Sahal, Sayyid Ahmed, Sayyid Mohammed, Sayyid Hasan, Sayyid Yousuf and Sayyid Ali are his sons. In Turkey he led a luxurious life with his family; the government gave his family a pension after his death. Sayyid Fazal Pookoya Thangal is the only one son of Alavi Thangal. And only one child to be married the couple of Sayyid Alavi Thangal and Fathima Beevi. Family root of Fazal Thangal reaches to Hazrath Ali. Alavi Thangal had four wives. Two wives have two daughters, one wife has a son and other have no child. Puthiyappila Koya Thangal (Alavi Jiffri), Ali Mouladhavila are his brothers in law.

Father's death[edit]

Mamburam Sayyid Alavi Mouladhaila, social and mystic leader of Kerala Muslims, died of natural causes at the age of 94 in 7th Muharram 1260 (1845) Sunday. Fazal Thangal went to Mecca after the death of his father to study, and returned to Kerala in 1848.

Rebellions[edit]

Main article: Mappila riots

When Fazal Thangal was 20, before his father's death, he was a member of the anti-British movement. At the time Mamburma did not have a Juma mosque; Fazal Thangal built one. In the Khutubba of Juma he spoke about current conditions of Malabar's people. In this Khutuba Islam was studied, and struggle against the British encouraged. The British investigated him.[6]

Manjeri revolt[edit]

In 1848 when Fazal Thangal returned from Mecca, he became active amongst the mappila Muslims, encouraging them to struggle against the Hindu landowners. In August 1849 there was another revolt at Manjeri - where a previous revolt had occurred in 1844 - which was the first rebellion of Fazal Thangal after his return from Mecca. Hasan Moideen Kutukkal and Kunhi Koya Thangal were at the head of 65 mappilas. The rebellion took place in four centres: Pandhallor, Pandikode, Manjeri and Angandipuram. At first the mappilas withstood the British, but later were all killed.[citation needed].

Kulathur revolt[edit]

The Kollathoor revolt broke out on 22 August 1851. In this rebellion six landowners were killed by Mappilas. On 27 August soldiers reached Kulathur and suppressed the revolt. Events were reported by William Logan in his Malabar Manual.[7]

Mattannur revolt[edit]

A revolt at Mattannur was the last rebellion before the exile to Arabia of Sayyid Fadl, and the first at northern Malabar. The revolt started on 2 January 1852 when landowner Keshavu Abrahan increased the rent of many peasants working under him and was killed. The British took action against the revolt, and eventually condemned Sayyid Fadl to exile.

Exile from Malabar[edit]

[clarification needed] The British Empire discussed expelling Fazal Thangal after the release of T.L Strange commission investigation report,[8] but district collector H.V. Conolly wanted to exile him only from Malabar; he was exiled to Arabia. The British were concerned about his encouraging Mappila to rebel and failing to report a rebellion in pap of (1845-1849). They understood the Mamburam Thangal as the spearhead of rebels in Kerala and rebellions from 1849-1852 were led under Mamburam Thangal and from 1849 1852 was led under Fazal Thangal. Only some relatives knew about the migration of Fazal Thangal and his family. Fazal Thangal was convinced that he would be expelled and transferred the landed property of Mamburam to his sister's husband, Sayyid Alavi Jifri. On the night of 19 March 1852 he left Malabar with 57 of his family and servants.

Background of exile[edit]

A Thrikkaloor resident named Kutti Hasan visited the Maqbra of Mamburam Sayyid Alavi Thangal; on his return he took a sword engraved with Fazal Thangal's name, reportedly without Thangal's knowledge. Kutti Hasan used this sword in a rebellion against British rule and was killed. The British, seeing the sword, considered Fazal Thangal the ringleader, although he denied this. British Collector H.V Conolly exiled Fazal Thangal from Malabar to [Arabia..

Murder of Collector Conolly[edit]

The mappila retaliated for Fazal Thangal's exile by killing Conolly. The British historian William Logan wrote that there were two reasons for killing Conolly: his announcing he would arrest all Mappilas, and exiling Fazal Pookoya Thangal.

Fazal Thangal in Arabia[edit]

He went to Arabia in the hope of sudden returning in March 19 Hijrah 1264. He arrived in Yemen and visited the birthplace of his father and grandfathers, Hazarmouth. After some days he went to Mecca and spend 18 years near Haram. He married the daughter of Sayyid Shafiu Habshi. He was under constant surveillance by the British.

In Istanbul[edit]

He left Mecca and went to Istanbul (Constantinople). The Sultan of Turkey gave him the seat of governor at Zutur of Yemen. Between 1852 and his death in 1901 he did his best to return to Malabar. His first attempt was in 1853 while he was in Turkey, with the help of Sultan Abdülmecid I. After this he and his family tried many times, unsuccessfully. After the death of Fazal Pookoya Thangal his family left Turkey.

Writings[edit]

Fazal Thangal wrote in both Arabic and Malayalam. He wrote many books in Arabic and Turkish while living in Istanbul. Main books of Fazal Thangal

  • Hulalul Ehsan Fee Thsyeenul Insane ( حلال الاحسان في تحسين الانسان)
  • Asasul Islam fee Bayani Ahkem (اساس الاسلام في بيان الاحكام)
  • Bavarikul Fathyana: lee Thaqviyathul Bihyana (بوارك الفتيان لتقوية البنتيان)
  • Risalathul Muslim Ila Habir lee Edrakul Gabir (رسالة المسلمين للحابر يدروغ الكبير)
  • ishafful Shafeeque fee Bayarakkelk (اشعاف شفيق في بيارك)
  • Athareekul Hanafiy (التاريخ الحنفية)
  • Thadheerul Hqyar Aquar Min Rukubil Hari Vannur (تظهير الحقيار من رقوب الحاري و النور )
  • Vadhathul Umrah Val Hokum lee Ehanthil Kashrathi Vahabyathul Hayan (وحدة العمرة و الحكوم ل للاعانة الكفرة) وعبودية العصيان)
  • Edhah Ul Asrar (اظهار الاسرار)
  • Al Fuyathul Elahin

Death[edit]

Fazal Thangal died in Istanbul in the year Hijrah 1318 (AD 1901) at 78. Sultan Abdülhamid II of the Turkish Empire allowed a tomb to be built for him in Turkey.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ En. Pi Cekkuṭṭi Muhammad Abdurahman 2006- Page 82 "But even before the report was submitted, the decision to deport Fazal Pookoya Thangal was taken in February, 1852. The deportation order was issued by the Madras Government on February 12. As the news of the deportation spread, ..."
  2. ^ Anne K. Bang Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, - 2003 Page 82 "They turned to the Tannal of Mambram, i.e. to Fadl Pasha. In 1852, the District Magistrate H. V. Conolly issued a warrant for Sayyid Fadl's arrest. Unlike the case of his father, the British this time refused to let matters pass and Sayyid Fadl was "
  3. ^ "DARUL HUDA OFFICIAL WEBSITE". Retrieved 2012-10-23. 
  4. ^ a b "ASHRAFNLKN'S WEBSITE". Retrieved 2012-10-23. [dead link]
  5. ^ "MALIK DEENAR Islamic ACADEMY OFFICIAL WEBSITE". Retrieved 2012-10-23. 
  6. ^ Panikkar, K. N., Against Lord and State: Religion and Peasant Uprisings in Malabar 1836-1921
  7. ^ Śekhara Bandyopādhyāẏa From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India 2004 - Page 164 "Three serious incidents occurred in Manjeri in August 1849, in Kulathur in August 1851 — both in south Malabar — and in Mattannur in the north in January 1852. British armed forces were deployed to suppress the revolt. The repressive ."
  8. ^ P Radhakrishnan Peasant Struggles, Land Reforms and Social Change: Malabar 1836-1982 - Page 33 "... relatively calm north Malabar, in February that year the government appointed T.L. Strange, a judge of the Sadar Adalat with long experience in Malabar, as the first Special Commissioner to inquire into these outbreaks. Strange Commission"