the older (left) and later (right) coat of arms
|Country||Republic of Venice|
Kingdom of Croatia
|Founder||Dujam I Krčki|
|Final ruler||Fran Krsto Frankopan|
|Titles||Count of Krk, Modruš, Senj and Tržac|
Ban of Croatia
The Frankopan family (Croatian: Frankopani, Frankapani, Italian: Frangipani, Hungarian: Frangepán, Latin: Frangepanus/Francopanus), was a Croatian noble family, whose members were among the great landowner magnates and high officers of the Croatia in personal union with Hungary.
The Frankopan family was one of the leading Croatian aristocratic families from 12th to 17th century. Since the 15th century they were trying to link themselves to the Roman patrician Frangipani family (which claimed descent from a Roman plebeian family of Anicii and ended in 1654 with Mario Frangipane being its last male descendant). However Croatian Encyclopedia, Italian Encyclopedia and German Biographical Lexicon of the History of Southeastern Europe by the Leibniz Institute for East and Southeast European Studies highly question the bloodline connection between the two families and remind of the common fashion of medieval noble families in Europe to try and connect themselves to ancient Roman nobility. Along with the members of the Zrinski family the Frankopan ranked high in terms of importance by virtue of power, wealth, fame, glory and role in Croatian and Hungarian history. The first known member of Croatian lineage of the Frankopan family was Dujam I Krčki (Doymus Veglenfis in Latin sources that also attribute the title of comes to him), lord of Krk who received permission by Domenico Michieli, Doge of Venice from 1118 to 1130, to rule the island of Krk as vassal of the Republic of Venice. His exact origin is unknown, but he and his descendants were referred to as the Counts of Krk in historical documents. In 1428 Nikola IV Krčki (Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia from 1426 to 1432) was the first of the Counts of Krk to call himself Frankapan. In 1430 he managed to receive recognition from Pope Martin V for being a descendant of the old Roman patrician family Frangipani and officially started using their name and coat of arms.
In 1240–1241 the Mongol Empire advanced from Poland toward Hungary whose King, Béla IV resisted bravely but finally had to seek refuge in Dalmatia. King Béla stayed with the Frankopans who assisted him with arms and funds and brought him into safety in Veglia and then brought him back to his own land. As reward the King gave the Frankopans the county of Senj with surrounding lands and the castle of Modruš.
In 1246 there was another war, between Frederick II, Duke of Austria and Béla, who, with the assistance of the Frankopan, won a victory. As a further reward, King Béla then, by royal decree, created the Frankopans as Lords of their territory for them and their descendants.
The Frankopans constantly supported the Catholic Church. In particular, Nikola Frankopan reconstructed the Holy House of Our Lady in 1294 in Tersatto (Trsat). It is recorded that in 1291, Nikola Frankopan sent a delegation to Nazareth to measure the Holy House after the House had been saved, presumably by the Crusaders, and brought to Trsat or Tersatto, on the Adriatic Coast where the Frankopans had a castle. In 1294 Nikola Frankopan, gave the Holy House to the Pope to be placed on Papal lands, at Loreto, near Ancona.
Although the possessions of the family were exposed to every assault both from the east and the west, their power increased steadily until the 17th century when their lands reached further east. The Zrinski and Frankopan families came into closer affinity by marriage ties until in the eyes of the European courts they had become one of the most important families of Croatia.
In 1420 the Swedish King Erik of Pomerania called Ivan VI Frankopan, the eldest son of the Croatian ban Nikola IV, to Sweden to accompany the Swedish King to the Holy Land and later to assist the King at the Court in Sweden. Ivan VI Frankopan lived in Sweden at intervals between 1420 and 1430. After his father's death he returned to his home country. His eldest son called Matthias (Matija) stayed in Sweden.
In 1425 Emperor Sigismund confirmed the noble status of Nikola Frankopan referring to him as Niklas Frangiapan Comes de Begle, Segnie et Modrusse (Nikola Frankopan, Count of Krk, Senj and Modruš) using the Latin title of comes. He also granted the family the privileges of red wax, (Rotwachsprivilegien), i.e., the right to use red wax for their seals. Sigismund underlines at the end of this document that no one must ever dispute these rights of the family.
Bernardin Frankopan's (1453–1529) paternal grandmother Dorothy was from a prominent Hungarian noble family, Garay, while his mother Isotta from Este family was Duchy of Ferrara of Ferrara. Through ancestry from royal Spanish families Bernardin had even Árpád ancestry (the Árpád dynasty founded the Kingdom of Hungary.) The Frankopan family was persecuted after the Zrinski-Frankopan conspiracy, where the Count Fran Krsto Frankopan participated in an uprising against Habsburg King Leopold I. He and his brother-in-law, Petar Zrinski were executed in Wiener Neustadt.
The line of Stjepan II Frankopan, Ban of Croatia (d. 1481), died out with Katarina Frankopan in the 16th century. The line of Sigismund Frankopan expired with Franjo Frankopan, Bishop of Eger in 1542. Another branch died out in 1572 with Franjo Frankopan, Ban of Croatia; and the Trsat branch died out with Fran Krsto Frankopan in 1671 (and in the female line with Julianna Frankopan, Countess of Traun).
- Ivan V (Anž) of Krk (died 1393), Ban of Croatia
- Nikola IV Frankopan (c.1360–1432), first "Frankopan" and son of Ivan V of Krk also Ban of Croatia
- Ivan VI Frankopan (Hungarian: János) (died 1436), son of Nikola IV Frankopan and Ban of Croatia
- Stjepan III Frankopan (Hungarian: István) (c. 1416–1481 or 1484), son of Nikola IV Frankopan. Co-ruled with Ban Ivan VI Frankopan.
- Ivan VII Frankopan, ruled the Principality of Krk between 1451 and 1480.
- Bernardin Frankopan (1453–1529) Son of Stjepan Frankopan. Influential nobleman, diplomat, and warrior.
- Nikola V Frankopan (died 1456–1458), son of Nikola IV Frankopan and Ban of Croatia and Slavonia
- Beatrice Frankopan (1480–c. 1510), heiress of Hunyad Castle and wife of John Corvinus
- Krsto Frankopan (1482–1527), son of Bernardin Frankopan and Ban of Croatia
- Juraj III Frankopan (?–1553), signatory of Cetingrad Charter (1527)
- Franjo Frankopan (1536 – 1572), Ban of Croatia
- Vuk II Krsto Frankopan (c. 1578–c. 1652), general of Karlovac generalate
- Franjo Frankopan Cetinski, archbishop, bishop, and diplomat
- Nikola IX Frankopan of Tržac (died 1647), Ban of Croatia
- Katarina Zrinska (c.1625–1673), daughter of Vuk Krsto Frankopan. Married Petar Zrinski, Ban of Croatia.
- Fran Krsto Frankopan (beheaded in 1671), promulgated the Zrinski-Frankopan conspiracy, known as Wesselényi conspiracy in Hungary.
Several of the Frankopan castles remain in Croatia, mostly around the Gorski kotar region and the island of Krk. The castle at Stara Susica near Trsat incorporates structures going back to the Illyrian and Roman periods. The town of Bosiljevo has a medieval fortified castle, renovated in the last century in the spirit of the Romanesque. The castle and park at Severin na Kupi were owned by the Frankopan family until the mid-17th century. Other castles or property of the Frankopans could be found in Ribnik, Bosiljevo, Novi Vinodolski, Drivenik, Ogulin, Slunj, Ozalj, Cetingrad, Trsat, and other surrounding towns. The Frankopan castle in the town of Krk is currently used for open-air performances in the summer months. Some castles which were propriety of the family:
Controversial name claiming
Although the House of Frankopan ended in the 17th century there were unsuccessful attempts of seizing their name and holdings in the centuries that followed. The newest such a case is claim by some members of the Dojmi di Delupis (Croatian version of the name) / Doimi de Lupis (Italian version of the name) family, originally a 13th-century minor nobles (knighthood) from the island of Vis who were never connected to the Frankopans in historical documents. In the year 2000 Louis Doimi de Lupis, by then a British citizen, changed his surname to Doimi de Frankopan Šubić Zrinski under British Civil law, adding several names of ancient Croatian noble families that combined in such a fashion were historically never attributed to any member of mentioned noble families. Subsequently, the Croatian Nobility Association expelled the Doimi de Lupis family from their membership calling the name reverting a falsification. Additionally, John Kennedy, editor of directory of Europe's royalty and nobility Almanach de Gotha, stated that the use of the name Frankopan by Doimi de Lupis family is "more aspirational than inherited". In the late 1990s, trying to save the reputation of his family name, Louis's cousin Mirko Jamnicki-Dojmi di Delupis wrote an open letter where he denounced claims over Frankopan, Šubić and Zrinski names by his family and presented the family tree of Dojmi di Delupis containing 129 names from the year 1200 onwards. In 1990s the wife of Louis Doimi de Lupis Swedish lawyer Ingrid Detter bought the Ribnik Castle (once propriety of the Frankopans, the Counts of Krk) for the price of 1,6 million kunas. Having previously adopted the title of Count, Louis Doimi de Lupis together with his wife and children eventually started to use the title of Prince (a royal title never held by the Frankopans) claiming that an Italian court[verification needed][dubious ] gave them the right to use the name of Croatian noble family the Frankopans as well as the style of Prince/Princess in the late 2000s. The Frankopan's historical title knez was (at the time) high feudal hereditary title which was translated as conte in Italian historical sources and is equivalent of Count in English. Apart from the sources where certain members of Doimi de Lupis family claim to be Croatian princes it is possible to find online sources where they are styled as "Prince/Princess ... of Croatia" which is a royal title that only the heir apparent of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine could legitimately claim.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Frankopan family.|
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