A white Standard Poodle in the Scandinavian clip, tail not docked.
|Other names||Pudle (Old English)
|Country of origin||Germany then standardized in France|
|Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
|Classification and standards|
|Standard, medium, miniature, toy|
|Standard, miniature, and toy|
|ANKC||Group 7 (Non-sporting)||Standard
Group 9 – Sporting
Group 9 – Sporting
Group 5 – Toys
|Standard, miniature, and toy|
The poodle is a group of formal dog breeds, the Standard Poodle, Miniature Poodle and Toy Poodle (one registry organisation also recognizes a Medium Poodle variety, between Standard and Miniature), with many coat colors. Originally bred in Germany as a type of water dog, the breed was standardized in France. The poodle is skillful in many dog sports, including agility, obedience, tracking, and even herding. Poodles have taken top honors in many conformation shows, including "Best in Show" at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in 1991 and 2002, and at the World Dog Show in 2007 and 2010.
Toy Poodles won "Best in Show" at Crufts in 1966 and 1982. Standard Poodles achieved the award in 1955, 1985, 2002 and 2014. The 2002 winner came from Norway and was the first overseas exhibit to win the Crufts best in show award.
- 1 History
- 2 Description
- 3 Health
- 4 Poodle mixes
- 5 Hypoallergenic qualities
- 6 Cultural visibility
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The poodle is believed to have originated in Germany, where it was known as the Pudelhund. Pudel (cognate with the English word "puddle"), is derived from the Low German verb meaning "to splash about", and the word Hund in German means "dog" (cognate with "hound"). The breed was standardized in France, where it was commonly used as a water retriever. Due to the breed's popularity in France, it became established as its national breed.
The European mainland had known the poodle long before it was brought to England. Drawings by German artist Albrecht Dürer established the popular image of the breed in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was the principal pet dog of the late 18th century in Spain, as shown by the paintings of the Spanish artist Francisco Goya. France had toy poodles as pampered favorites during the reign of Louis XVI at about the same period.
The poodle has been bred in at least three sizes, including Standard, Miniature, and Toy. According to the American Kennel Club, the Standard Poodle is the oldest of the three varieties, and was later bred down to the miniature and toy sizes. Despite the Standard Poodle's claim to greater age than the other varieties, some evidence shows the smaller types developed only a short time after the breed assumed the general type by which it is recognized today. The smallest, or Toy variety, was developed in England in the 18th century.
Traditionally the Standard Poodle, the largest of the subtypes, was a retriever or gun dog, used in particular for duck hunting and sometimes upland bird hunting. The breed has been used for fowl hunting in USA and Canada since the early 1990s, in and out of hunting tests. The modern Standard retains many of the traits prized by their original owners: a keen working intelligence that makes the dog easy to command, webbed feet that make it an agile swimmer (all of the poodle's ancestors and descendants had or share the love of water) athletic stamina, and a moisture-resistant, curly coat that acts like a wool jumper in damp conditions. Towards the second half of the nineteenth century their use in hunting declined in favour of their use in circuses and status symbols of the wealthy, so that by the 20th century they were only found as companions or circus dogs. However, in the past 20 years, some breeders in the United States and Canada have been selecting for dogs with drive for birds in order to revive the breed for hunting, with some success. The Canadian Kennel Club admitted the Standard Poodle for hunting trials in 1996 and the American Kennel Club in 1998, respectively. As of July 2014, the end results of 20 years of breeding to reawaken the hunting instinct have been dogs that are very eager to please their masters. It has resulted in a gun dog with extreme intelligence that requires special training: their aptitude is second only to the British Border Collie and thus the hunting Standard Poodle requires the gunman to be quite specific as to what he wants and how he wants it done. Unlike other spaniels and retrievers, Standard Poodles will attempt to solve a problem independently and need to be told specifically what is wanted when tracking and retrieving a bird. Hunting poodles typically are dogs with lightning quick reflexes, sprinting hard on command after the downed bird and having a prodigious ability to remember where the bird fell and (though not as good as the English Pointer) a decent nose to sniff and track a bird hiding in tall grass
Standard Poodles have been winning titles against the more widely used native breeds like the Chesapeake Bay Retriever, Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever, American Water Spaniel and Labrador Retriever. Thus far 13 Standard Poodles have won Master Hunt titles (12 in the United States, 1 in Canada) and several more have won senior and junior titles on both sides of the border. Currently only the United Kennel Club in the US recognizes the Standard Poodle as a Sporting dog, thus in spite of this subtype of poodle being ineligible for field competitions more and more are appearing in the field as waterfowl dogs and hunters of pheasant, the latter especially in the Midwest.
Members of the second variety, the Miniature Poodle, had ancestors that were originally never said to go anywhere near the water. Truffle hunting was widely practiced in England, and later in Spain, France, and Germany, where the edible fungus has always been considered a delicacy. For scenting and digging up the fungus, the smaller dogs were favoured, since they did less damage to the truffles with their feet than the larger kinds. So it is rumored that a terrier was crossed with the poodle to produce the ideal truffle hunter. An 1837 account describes the narrator meeting up with a Frenchman upon a truffle hunt with a pig with the Frenchman lamenting that he did it "for want of a poodle", and earlier pages describe exactly how the dog was trained from the age of four months old to fetch and dig for truffles and carefully carry them back to his master: often the prey drive of his larger cousin was left out of the breeding. Otherwise, the Miniature and Toy varieties remained largely the lap dogs of middle and upperclass ladies, especially in France and the UK. The trade in dyeing and affixing their fur to unusual proportions began with the need to compliment the Victorian and Georgian sensibilities of these women, to the point that their status as a dog of the middle and upper classes was quite solid by the time of the founding of the Kennel Club in the 1870s as they were one of the first dog breeds registered.
World War II working dogs
Poodles have been used as working dogs in the military since at least the 17th century. During WWII, Roland Kilbon of the New York Sun, reported that other countries had used dogs in their armies for many years. In his column he quoted Mrs. Milton S. (Arlene) Erlanger, owner of Pillicoc Kennels, a premier breeder of Poodles "The dog must play a game in this thing." Eventually, "With the blessing of the American Kennel Club, the Professional Handlers Association, obedience training clubs across the country, and Seeing Eye, Inc., a nationwide program known as Dogs for Defense, Inc. was initiated and became the official procurement agency for all war dogs used in the Army, Navy and Coast Guard." Dogs for Defense procured the dogs who were then trained by the Army. In 1942, the Poodle was one of 32 breeds officially classified as war dogs by the Army.
The poodle is an active, intelligent and elegant dog, squarely built, and well proportioned. To ensure the desirable squarely built appearance, the length of body measured from the breastbone to the point of the rump approximates the height from the highest point of the shoulders to the ground. The eyes should be very dark, oval in shape, and have an alert and intelligent expression. The ears should fold over close to the head, set at, or slightly below, eye level. The coat should be of naturally curly texture, dense throughout, although most AKC-registered show dogs have a lion-cut or other, similarly shaven look. The sizes of the official AKC-recognized Poodle breeds are determined by height, not by weight.
Poodles are bred in a variety of sizes, distinguished by adult shoulder (withers) height. The exact height cutoffs among the varieties vary slightly from country to country. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) recognizes four sizes of one breed: standard, medium, miniature, and toy. Non-FCI kennel clubs generally recognize three sizes, standard, miniature, and toy, sometimes as sizes of the same breed and sometimes as separate breeds. Only the FCI describes a maximum size for Standard Poodles. France is the country responsible for the breed in the FCI, and in this country, the puppies of all sizes are listed together. The terms royal standard, teacup, and tiny teacup are marketing names, and are not recognized by any major kennel club.
|Size||The Kennel Club (UK)||Australian National Kennel Council||New Zealand Kennel Club||Canadian Kennel Club||American Kennel Club||United Kennel Club||Fédération Cynologique Internationale|
|Standard, Grande||over 38 cm (15 in)||38 cm (15 in) and over||38 cm (15 in) and over||over 38 cm (15 in)||over 38 cm (15 in)||over 38 cm (15 in)||45–60 cm (18–24 in)|
|Medium, Moyen||not used||not used||not used||not used||not used||not used||35–45 cm (14–18 in)|
|Miniature - Dwarf, Nain||28–38 cm (11–15 in)||28–38 cm (11–15 in)||28–38 cm (11–15 in)||10–15 in (25–38 cm)||10–15 in (25–38 cm)||10–15 in (25–38 cm)||28–38 cm (11–15 in)|
|Toy||under 28 cm (11 in)||under 28 cm (11 in)||under 28 cm (11 in)||under 10 in (25 cm)||under 10 in (25 cm)||under 10 in (25 cm)||24–28 cm (9.4–11.0 in)|
All the Fédération Cynologique Internationale Poodles are in Group 9 Companion and Toy, Section 2 Poodle. All the Kennel Club poodles are in the Utility Group. All three sizes of poodles for the Australian National Kennel Council and the New Zealand Kennel Club are in the Non-sporting Group. The Canadian Kennel Club and the American Kennel Club place standard and miniature sizes in the Non-sporting Group, and the toy size in the Toy Group. The United Kennel Club places the miniature and toy in the Companion Group and the standard poodle in the Gundog Group.
Unlike most dogs which have double coats, poodles have a single layer coat (no undercoat is present) composed of dense, curly fur that sheds minimally. They could be considered hypoallergenic (though not completely allergen free). The poodle does shed, but instead of the fur coming off the dog, it becomes tangled in the surrounding hair. This can lead to matting without proper care. Texture ranges from coarse and woolly to soft and wavy. Poodle show clips require many hours of brushing and care per week, about 10 hours/week for a Standard Poodle. Poodles are usually clipped down into lower-maintenance cuts as soon as their show careers are over. Pet clips are much less elaborate than show and require much less maintenance. A pet owner can anticipate grooming a poodle every six to eight weeks. Although professional grooming is often costly, poodles are easy to groom at home with the proper equipment.
In most cases, whether a poodle is in a pet or show clip, the hair is completely brushed out. Poodle hair can also be "corded" with rope-like mats similar to those of a Komondor or human dreadlocks. Though once as common as the curly poodle, corded poodles are now rare. Corded coats are difficult to keep clean and take a long time to dry after washing. Any poodle with a normal coat can be corded when its adult coat is in. Corded poodles may be shown in all major kennel club shows.
Different show clips
Generally, the owners clip their dogs as they want; however, if they want to their dogs in conformation shows, a show clip is a requirement. Many breed registries allow only certain clips for poodles shown in conformation. In American Kennel Club (AKC) shows, adults must be shown in the "Continental" or "English saddle" clips. Dogs under 12 months old may be shown with a "puppy clip". The AKC allows the "Sporting" clip in Stud Dog and Brood Bitch classes, as well.
Some sources believe the show clips evolved from working clips, which originally provided warmth to major joints when the dogs were immersed in cold water. The rest of the body is shaved for less drag in the water. Others express skepticism at this theory, instead citing the French circus as the origin of the entertaining and unique clips.
The second puppy clip is also called the Scandinavian clip or puppy clip. It was invented by Swedish and Norwegian show groomers in the 1970s. It is the most common one in all sizes for shows in Europe, and is allowed for adult poodles to be shown in the FCI countries. The face, throat, belly, feet and the base of the tail are shaved five to seven days before the show to get a nice, smooth appearance of the shaved areas. The hair on the head is left to form a "topknot", fixed in place using latex bands, because in most European countries, hair spray is banned. The rest of the dog is shaped with scissors.
In the continental clip, the face, throat, feet and part of the tail are shaved. The upper half of the front legs is shaved, leaving "fluffy pompons" around the ankles. The hindquarters are shaved except for pompons on the lower leg (from the hock to the base of the foot) and optional round areas (sometimes called "rosettes") over the hips. The continental clip is the most popular show clip today.
English saddle clip
The English saddle clip is similar to the continental, except for the hindquarters, which are not shaved except for a small, curved area on each flank (just behind the body), the feet, and bands just below the stifle (knee) and above the hock, leaving four (4) pompons. This clip is now rarely seen in standard poodles.
Pet clips can be as simple or as elaborate as owners wish. The hair under the tail should always be kept short to keep feces from matting in the dog's curls. Most owners also keep the feet and face clipped short to prevent dirt from matting between toes, tear stains on lighter-coated poodles and food from matting around the dog's muzzle. Beyond these sanitary requirements, desired clips depend on owners' preferences. Some owners maintain a longer clip in winter than summer. The coat is groomed often with a wire slicker brush to remove tangles and prevent matting.
in the past 20 years in North America, as has been intimated earlier in this article, Standard Poodles have begun to be put back to their original purpose as duck and game bird hunters. The more commonly acceptable clips seen in the show ring and the local groomer's have proven extremely impractical in action. In the US and Canada, most hunters are male, lower to upper middle class, and strongly dislike being seen with a dog that has had an effete reputation. Dyeing a white Standard Poodle's hair flamboyant colours and putting bows in their hair has been a habit since the days well-to-do French ladies got their hands on them and circus acts made huge profits on them, but is unnecessary in the field for hiding in blinds.
The clips otherwise do not guard against the pitfalls of chasing after ducks, geese, turkey, and pheasant: Continental clips, for example, shave the rump of the dog too close to the skin to provide enough warmth in water below 10 °C in a Quebec or New England winter and the fancier cuts that require the hair to be blown straight can easily get the dog stuck in bramble like a fly in a spiderweb. The lion cut, popular in the UK, is a disaster: an exposed flank makes the dog an easy mark for mosquitoes, black flies, and cuts, and because poodles have lost much bodyfat over the past 150 years, exposed skin in cold weather can make them very sick. Conditions are often muddy, often snowy, and often rugged-the water can get very icy. Either can cause longer hair to become a matted mess or cause ice and slush to become impacted into the fur, not to mention the upkeep of repairing the damage at the groomer's shop becomes prohibitively expensive and time consuming.
Most hunters have their dogs sport a low maintenance modification of the Puppy, Sporting, or Continental clip The cut typically shears the dog all over evenly a quarter inch to an inch and a half off the skin, depending on the time of year, and usually leaves the face shaven so the dog can see well. Some hair on the ankles and on top of the head may be left longer for warmth in the water, and all that is required thereafter is a scrubbing in warm water with a mild soap after a day on the hunt and a little patience to remove the burrs the dog's hair collects in the bushes. An insulated orange jacket in cold weather is preferred and recommended, as the very bright colour makes the dog easily seen from a distance and the insulation compensates for colder temperatures. Inspecting the dog for fleas and ticks is paramount and a shampoo that washes them out and kills them is highly recommended.
The Poodle has a wide variety of coloring, including white, black, brown, parti, silver, gray, silver beige, apricot, red, cream, sable, and patterns such as phantom and brindle. The ACK recognises Poodles in either solid-colored or parti-colored coats. Recognition of particolor (spotted) Poodles varies by registry. Phantom, brindle, and sable are considered out of standard by all major registries. Recognised FCI colourations are black, white, brown, gray, apricot, and red.
For solid-colored poodles, the coat is an even and solid color at the skin. In blues, grays, silvers, browns, cafe-au-laits, apricots and creams, the coat may show varying shades of the same color. This is frequently present in the somewhat darker feathering of the ears and in the tipping of the ruff. While clear colors are preferred by registries, such natural variation in the shading of the coat is not to be considered a fault. Brown and cafe-au-lait poodles have liver-colored noses, eye rims and lips, dark toenails and dark amber eyes. Black, blue, gray, silver, cream and white poodles have black noses, eye rims and lips, black or self-colored toenails and very dark eyes. In the apricots, while the foregoing coloring is preferred, liver-colored noses, eye rims and lips, and amber eyes are permitted, but are not desirable. Incomplete color of nose, lips and eye rims, or a "mismatched" color are considered faults by registries.
Parti-colored poodles are recognized in poodle history as the original coloring of the poodle. A parti poodle has solid-colored patches over a white coat. The coat will usually be white and colored in equal amounts, though it can vary with a larger percent of white. Registries prefer that parti poodles have the same points as its correlating solid-colored descendants. Brown and white parti poodles have liver-colored noses, eye rims and lips, dark or self-colored toenails and amber eyes. This is also permitted, but not preferred, in apricot and white parti poodles. Black/white, Blue/white, and silver/white poodles have black noses, eye rims and lips, black or self-colored toenails and very dark eyes. When the dog has markings that resemble those of a tuxedo, it is called a "tuxedo" poodle. The upper coat is solid: head, back, tail; and the lower coat is white: neck, chest, abdomen, and legs, making up usually 40% or more of the coat.
Phantom poodles have the coloring of a Doberman Pinscher, with a lighter color appearing on their "eyebrows", muzzle and throat, legs and feet and below their tail. Like Dobermans, phantom poodles have either a black or brown main coat with a tan (usually apricot or red) lighter colorings around the eyebrows, muzzle, throat, legs, feet, and below their tail.
Poodles are known as a highly intelligent, energetic, and sociable breed. They require both physical and intellectual activities. Of note is this breed's keen sense for instinctive behavior. In particular, marking and hunting drives are more readily observable in Poodles than in most other breeds. A typical poodle should be reserved with strangers upon first introduction, but after a while should slowly reveal a warm and personable disposition. Snappy, vicious behavior is considered a serious fault in the breed.
Poodles are highly trainable dogs that typically excel in obedience training. A Poodle will do well at many dog sports, including dog agility, flyball, dock diving, field tracking, and even schutzhund, and can follow owners on hiking trips or any trip involving swimming, as long as the dog is accustomed to water and swimming.
Of the size varieties, Standard Poodles are the most highly recommended for families with children. They have a kindly demeanor and a love of playing games; as with all dogs and babies, introductions should be gradual, though most Standards will tolerate a baby and learn to be gentle and will respect toddlers so long as the child is supervised. A Standard Poodle will be fine in a family with many children provided the environment is a stable, orderly, and relaxed, with enough room for the dog to go out and retire to if needed. Miniature and Toy varieties tend to have less patience with young children and might find certain children's antics too much to handle. They are likely to bite out of fear and thus are better suited to homes with teenagers or older children Poodles dislike being left alone or left out of the family fun and some get anxious at being left in the house alone, but sign of nervousness or neurosis is atypical and not how a poodle of any size is meant to behave.
The most common serious health issues of Standard Poodles (listed in order of the number of reported cases in the Poodle Health Registry (as of 20 August 2007) are Addison's disease, gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV = bloat/torsion), thyroid issues (hyperthyroid and hypothyroid), tracheal collapse, epilepsy, sebaceous adenitis, juvenile renal disease, hip dysplasia, and cancer. Standard Poodles are also susceptible to some health issues usually too minor to report to the health registry. The most common of these minor issues is probably ear infection. Ear infections are a problem in all poodle varieties because their nonshedding coat grows into the ear canal, where it traps wax and dirt. Ear problems can be minimized by proper ear care, including regular cleaning and plucking of hair within the ear canal. A veterinarian should be consulted if the dog shows signs of an ear infection.
Addison's disease is (as of 20 August 2007) the illness most commonly reported to the Poodle Health Registry. The number of reported cases is nearly twice as high as the next most common problem (GDV). Addison's disease is characterized by insufficient production of glucocorticoid and/or mineralocortoid in the adrenal cortex (near the kidneys). Addison's is often undiagnosed because early symptoms are vague and easily mistaken for other conditions. Standard Poodles with unexplained lethargy, frequent gastric disturbances, or an inability to tolerate stress should be tested for it. Addison's can cause fatal sodium/potassium imbalances, but if caught early and treated with lifelong medication, most dogs can live a relatively normal life.
Gastric dilatation volvulus
Standard poodle owners should take special note of the high incidence of GDV in this breed. Excess gas trapped in the dog's stomach causes "bloat". Twisting of the stomach (volvulus or "torsion") causes or is caused by excess gas. Symptoms include restlessness, inability to get comfortable, pacing, or retching without being able to bring up anything. The dog's abdomen may be visibly swollen, but bloat or torsion can occur without visible swelling. A dog with GDV requires immediate veterinary care. The dog's survival usually depends on whether the owner can get to a veterinarian in time. GDV risk is increased with faster eating and a raised feeding bowl.
Standard Poodles in UK, Denmark and USA/Canada surveys had a median lifespan of 11.5 to 12 years. In a UK survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (30%), old age (18%), GDV (6%), and cardiac disease (5%).
Miniature and Toy Poodles in UK surveys had median lifespans of 14 to 14.5 years. In Miniatures, the leading cause of death was old age (39%). In Toys, the leading causes of death were old age (25%), and kidney failure (20%).
Some Toy Poodles can live up to 20 years, if they have healthy lives and are not overweight. The oldest poodle that ever lived was Lady who lived to be 28 years and 218 days old. She was born in 1908 and died on 6 August 1937.
- Addison's disease (hypoadrenocorticism)
- Congenital heart disease
- Chronic active hepatitis
- Cushing's syndrome (hyperadrenocorticism)
- Gastric dilatation volvulus (Standard)
- Gastric torsion
- Intervertebral disc degeneration
- Lacrimal duct atresia
- Legg–Calvé–Perthes syndrome
- Progressive retinal atrophy
- Patellar luxation (Toy and Miniature)
- Hip dysplasia (Standard)
- Mitral valve disease
- Patent ductus arteriosus
- Sebaceous adenitis
- Von Willebrand disease
size at birth
|Range||Stillborn (%)||Early neonatal
Breed size is correlated with litter size and Standard Poodles have the highest litter size followed by Medium, Miniature, and Toy. Toy Poodles have one of the smallest litter size of all breeds. The stillborn rate and early neonatal mortality (death within 1 week from birth) in poodles are lower than the average across all breeds.
Poodles are crossed with other breeds for various reasons, and the resulting puppies (called designer dogs) are described by whimsical portmanteau words, such as cockapoo or spoodle (Cocker Spaniel), maltipoo (Maltese), goldendoodle, labradoodle (Labrador), Schnoodle (Schnauzer), Pekapoos (Pekingese), Cavapoo (Cavalier King Charles), Bernedoodle (Bernese Mountain Dog) and many others.
A cross between a shedding breed and a poodle (which does not shed much) does not reliably produce a nonshedding dog. Traits of puppies from crossbreedings are not as predictable as those from purebred poodle breedings, and the crosses may shed or have unexpected or undesirable qualities from the parent breeds.
Poodle crossbreds (also called hybrids) are not recognized by any major breed registry, as crossbreds are not one breed of dog, but two. If both parents are registered purebreds but of different breeds, it is still not possible to register a puppy as two different breeds. Some minor registries and Internet registry businesses will register dogs as any breed the owner chooses with minimal or no documentation; some even allow the breeder or owner to make up a new "breed name".
Poodles are often cited as a hypoallergenic dog breed. Their individual hair follicles have an active growth period that is longer than that of many other breeds of dogs; combined with the tightly curled coat, which slows the loss of dander and dead hair by trapping it in the curls, an individual poodle may release less dander and hair into the environment. In addition, most poodles are frequently brushed and bathed to keep them looking their best; this not only removes hair and dander, but also controls the other potent allergen, saliva.
Although hair, dander, and saliva can be minimized, they are still present and can stick to "clothes and the carpets and furnishings in your home"; inhaling them, or being licked by the dog, can trigger a reaction in a sensitive person. An air cleaner, air duct outlet and vacuuming with a vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter can help clear dander floating in the air.
The word hypoallergenic, when referring to a dog, is also a misconception; all dogs shed. Poodles shed hair in minimal amounts, and also release dander, but are not as likely to trigger allergies as much as many other breeds. Additionally, Poodle maintenance must include some amount of regular shaving, which releases hair dust in the air.
Poodles are commonly known as extensively groomed show dogs and companions with a distinctive clip, to such a degree that Poodles in short pet clips often go unrecognised or mistaken as Poodle crosses ("Doodles"). This association of the breed's appearance and the resulting preconceptions is strong, and reflects in popular culture, where Poodles most often are depicted as spoiled and perhaps obnoxious pets, or if anthropomorphic, snobby, selfish, and vain. Poodle owners are stereotypically fussy, frivolous, and impractical.
note 1. ^ fur is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "the short, soft hair of certain animals" whereas hair is defined as "any of the fine thread-like strands growing from the skin of mammals and other animals, or from the epidermis of a plant."
- "Poodle (breed of dog)." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.
- Dogworld: Digital Crufts Edition (2010): p. 87
- Dogworld: Digital Crufts Edition (2010): p. 84
- "Norwegian poodle wins Crufts". BBC News. 10 March 2002. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
- "poodle - definition of poodle by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". The Free Dictionary.
- "American Kennel Club - Poodle History". Akc.org. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- "From American Kennel Club site". Akc.org. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Circus bygone". Poodlehistory.org. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Poodles ready to hunt". Denverpost.com. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- Chris Robinson. "The Ultimate Foo-Foo Returns To Its Historic Roots". Fleetfiretimbers.com. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "THE INTELLIGENCE OF DOGS". Stanleycoren.com. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Woodie at Madison.mpg". YouTube. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- [dead link]
- Elaine Bloom; Colleen Kimble. "New York hunters discover some unusual gundog breeds" (PDF). Dec.ny.gov. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "That dog hunts? Yes, poodles can make good hunting dogs, too". Startribune.com. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "The Poodle. Part 3". Chestofbooks.com. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- The Gardener's Magazine..., J. C. Louden, ed., vol. III (London 1837)
- "The genesis of the poodle hairdo.". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- Carter Isaacson, Suzanne. "Poodles in WWII". Poodle History Project. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- "Fédération Cynologique Internationale Group 9, Section 2, Poodle". Fci.be. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- "List of poodle puppies registered to the French Kennel Club". scc.asso.fr. Retrieved 18 February 2006.
- Fédération Cynologique Internationale breed nomenclature
- "What is the difference between hair and fur?". Scientific American. Sciam.com. 20 February 2001. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- "Canine Lymphoma". Marvistavet.com. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
Most breeds have hairs in all different stages of the growth-shed cycle at the same time. A few breeds [incl. poodle] have all hairs in the same stage of growth-shed at the same time.
- Allergic to Dogs, Is Any Dog Safe? Allergy site from an MD. Poodles, airedales, and schnauzers are cited as dogs that only shed their skin every 21 days, and so may be less of a problem for allergic people.
- Grady, Denise (5 February 1997). "Nonallergenic Dog? Not Really". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 April 2011. How hypoallergenic the dog is may vary with the individual dog and the individual person.
- "American Kennel Club: Poodle Breed Standard. Retrieved May 12, 2007". Akc.org. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- Dogdomain.com[dead link], Fédération Cynologique Internationale: Poodle Breed Standard. Retrieved 12 May 2007
- "United Kennel Club: Standard Poodle Breed Standard. Retrieved May 12, 2007".
- "Ten is a perfect poodle for retrieving". kansas. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- [dead link]
- "Feature photo: Hunting poodle". The Billings Gazette. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Gun Dog Breeds: Standard Poodle". Gun Dog Magazine. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "American Kennel Club - Poodle". Akc.org. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Poodle History Project". Poodlehistory.org. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Toy Poodles, Breeds from Pet Health 101". Pethealth101.com. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Versatility In Poodles - Agility Poodles". Vipoodle.org. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "North American Flyball Association - 2013 In the Spotlight". Flyball.org. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Laredo - Fast Fourward Flyball Team - San Diego, CA". Flyball.com. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- Debbie. "Insanity is a Terrible Thing to Waste: Why do we Dock Dive?". Debbiewachel-artist.blogspot.com. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Wasatch Hundesport. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Poodle Dogs- Poodle Dog Breed Info & Pictures - petMD". Petmd.com. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Poodle Dogs and Children - Poodle Savvy". Poodle Savvy. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Poodle (Standard) : Dog Breed Selector : Animal Planet". Animal Planet. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Standard Poodle - Temperament & Personality". Petwave.com. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Miniature Poodle Information, Pictures of Miniature Poodles - Dogster". Dogster.com. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Non-dietary risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in large and giant breed dogs" (PDF). Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Pullman.com Dog Longevity Web Site. Compiled by K. M. Cassidy. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- Thekennelclub.org.uk, Kennel Club/British Small Animal Veterinary Association Scientific Committee. 2004. Purebred Dog Health Survey. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- Poodleclugofamerica.org Poodle Club of America: Health Issues in Poodles. Retrieved 5 May 2007
- UPEI.ca, Canine Inherited Disorders Database: Poodle. Retrieved 5 May 2007
- Canadasguidetodogs.com Standard Poodle, Canada's Guide to Dogs, Retrieved 5 May 2007
- "Poodle Health Problems". Napoleon.org.uk. Retrieved 18 January 2010.[dead link]
- Borge, K. S.; Tønnessen, R.; Nødtvedt, A.; Indrebø, A. (2011). "Litter size at birth in purebred dogs—A retrospective study of 224 breeds". Theriogenology 75 (5): 911–919. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.10.034. PMID 21196028.
- Tønnessen, R.; Borge, K. S.; Nødtvedt, A.; Indrebø, A. (2012). "Canine perinatal mortality: A cohort study of 224 breeds". Theriogenology 77 (9): 1788–1801. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.12.023. PMID 22365700.
- "Hair vs Fur". Dogplay.com. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- [dead link]
- Askoxford.com. "Oxford Dictionaries, Ask Oxford - fur". Askoxford.com. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- Askoxford.com. "Oxford Dictionaries, Ask Oxford - hair". Askoxford.com. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caniche.|