Gastrodia

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Potato orchids
Gastrodia elata 1.JPG
Gastrodia elata in Fukushima Prefecture
Scientific classification
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Gastrodia

Synonyms[1]

Gastrodia, commonly known as potato orchids[2] or as 天麻属 (tian ma shu),[3] is a genus of terrestrial leafless orchids in the family Orchidaceae, about ninety of which have been described. Orchids in this genus have fleshy, upright stems and small to medium-sized resupinate flowers with narrow sepals and petals. They are native to Asia (China, the Russian Far East, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent), Australia, New Zealand, central Africa, and various islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[1]

Description[edit]

Orchids in the genus Gastrodia are leafless, terrestrial, mycotrophic herbs with a fleshy, underground rhizome and an upright flowering stem with a few to many brownish, resupinate flowers. The sepals and petals are fused to form a bell-shaped or irregular tube with the tips free. The petals are usually much smaller than the sepals and the labellum has three lobes and is fully enclosed in the tube.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

The genus Gastrodia was first formally described in 1810 by Robert Brown and the description was published in Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen. The type species is Gastrodia sesamoides.[8] The name Gastrodia is derived from a Greek word meaning "pot-bellied", referring to the sometimes bulbous flowers.[9]

List of species[edit]

The following is a list of species of Gastrodia recognised by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as at October 2018:[1]

- Taiwan

Gastrodia umbrosa, a recently described species from Queensland is not yet included in the World Checklist.[10][11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Gastrodia". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  2. ^ a b Jones, David L. (2006). A complete guide to native orchids of Australia including the island territories. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: New Holland. p. 370. ISBN 1877069124.
  3. ^ a b Chen, Xinqi; Gale, Stephen W.; Cribb, Phillip J. "Gastrodia". Flora of China. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  4. ^ Weston, Peter H. "Genus Gastrodia". Royal Botanic Garden Sydney. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  5. ^ Jeanes, Jeff. "Gastrodia". Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  6. ^ "Gastrodia". State Herbarium of South Australia. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  7. ^ "Genus Gastrodia". Orchids of New Guinea. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  8. ^ "Gastrodia". APNI. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  9. ^ "Gastrodia procera (Orchidaceae)". South Australian Seed Conservation Centre, Botanic Gardens of South Australia. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  10. ^ "Gastrodia umbrosa". APNI. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
  11. ^ Gray, Bruce; Low, Yee Wen (2017). "Gastrodia umbrosa B.Gray (Orchidaceae, Gastrodieae): A new mycoheterotrophic orhid endemic to the Atherton Tableland, Queensland, Australia" (PDF). Austrobaileya. 10 (1): 86–92. Retrieved 9 November 2018.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Gastrodia at Wikimedia Commons