Gastrodia

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Gastrodia
Gastrodia elata 1.JPG
Gastrodia elata in bloom
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Gastrodieae
Subtribe: Gastrodiinae
Genus: Gastrodia
R. Br.
Synonyms[1]
  • Gamoplexis Falc.
  • Epiphanes Blume
  • Neoclemensia Carr
  • Demorchis D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem.

Gastrodia is a genus of achlorophyllous orchids with 64 currently accepted species. They are native to Asia (China, the Russian Far East, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent), Australia, New Zealand, central Africa, and various islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[1][2]

Gastrodia elata is a traditional Chinese herb, Tian Ma (Chinese: 天麻), and is commonly used in China to treat hypertension, improve circulation and resolve headaches.

Species[edit]

Species accepted as of December 2016:[1]

  1. Gastrodia abscondita - Java
  2. Gastrodia africana - Cameroon
  3. Gastrodia albida - Taiwan
  4. Gastrodia albidoides - Yunnan
  5. Gastrodia angusta - Yunnan
  6. Gastrodia arunachalensis - Arunachal Pradesh
  7. Gastrodia ballii P.J.Cribb & Browning - Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique
  8. Gastrodia boninensis - Ogasawara-shoto (Bonin Islands of Japan)
  9. Gastrodia callosa - Java, Taiwan
  10. Gastrodia celebica - Sulawesi
  11. Gastrodia clausa - Taiwan, Okinawa
  12. Gastrodia confusa - Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Bonin Islands, Ryukyu Islands
  13. Gastrodia confusoides - Taiwan
  14. Gastrodia cooperae - New Zealand
  15. Gastrodia crassisepala - New Guinea
  16. Gastrodia crebriflora - Queensland
  17. Gastrodia crispa - Java
  18. Gastrodia cunninghamii - Vanuatu, New Zealand (including Chatham Island)
  19. Gastrodia dyeriana - Sikkim, Darjiling
  20. Gastrodia effusa -Sabah, Peninsular Malaysia
  21. Gastrodia elata - much of China (including Tibet and Taiwan), Japan, Korea, Russian Far East, Assam, Bhutan, Nepal
  22. Gastrodia entomogama - New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania
  23. Gastrodia exilis - India, Assam, Thailand, Sumatra
  24. Gastrodia falconeri - Pakistan, northern India, Nepal
  25. Gastrodia fimbriata - Thailand
  26. Gastrodia flavilabella - Taiwan
  27. Gastrodia flexistyla - Taiwan
  28. Gastrodia fontinalis - Taiwan
  29. Gastrodia gracilis - Taiwan, Honshu
  30. Gastrodia grandilabris - Sabah
  31. Gastrodia javanica - Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Taiwan, Fujian, Ryukyu Islands
  32. Gastrodia kuroshimensis - Japan
  33. Gastrodia lacista - Western Australia
  34. Gastrodia longitubularis - Hainan
  35. Gastrodia madagascariensis - Madagascar
  36. Gastrodia major - Vietnam
  37. Gastrodia menghaiensis - Yunnan
  38. Gastrodia minor - New Zealand
  39. Gastrodia molloyi - New Zealand
  40. Gastrodia nipponica - Taiwan, Japan, Ryukyu Islands
  41. Gastrodia papuana - New Guinea
  42. Gastrodia peichatieniana - Guangdong, Taiwan
  43. Gastrodia procera - Victoria
  44. Gastrodia pubilabiata - Taiwan, Japan
  45. Gastrodia punctata - Vietnam
  46. Gastrodia queenslandica - Queensland
  47. Gastrodia rwandensis - Rwanda
  48. Gastrodia sesamoides - all 6 states of Australia; naturalised in South Africa
  49. Gastrodia shimizuana - Iriomote, Taiwan
  50. Gastrodia silentvalleyana - Kerala
  51. Gastrodia similis - Réunion
  52. Gastrodia spatulata - Sabah
  53. Gastrodia sui - Taiwan
  54. Gastrodia surcula - New South Wales
  55. Gastrodia taiensis - Vietnam
  56. Gastrodia tembatensis - Peninsular Malaysia
  57. Gastrodia theana - Vietnam
  58. Gastrodia tuberculata - Yunnan
  59. Gastrodia uraiensis - Taiwan
  60. Gastrodia urceolata - Queensland
  61. Gastrodia verrucosa - Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Sumatra
  62. Gastrodia vescula - South Australia
  63. Gastrodia wuyishanensis - Fujian
  64. Gastrodia zeylanica - Sri Lanka

References[edit]

  • Brown, R. (1810) Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 330.
  • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2006). Epidendroideae (Part One). Genera Orchidacearum 4: 444 ff. Oxford University Press.
  • Cribb, P., Fischer, E. & Killmann, D. (2010). A revision of Gastrodia (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae, Gastrodieae) in Tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 65: 315–321.
  • Lehnebach, C.A., Rolfe, J.R., Gibbins, J. & Ritchie, P. (2016) Two new species of Gastrodia (Gastrodieae, Orchidaceae) endemic to New Zealand. Phytotaxa 277: 237–254.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Gastrodia at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Gastrodia at Wikispecies