Gemmatimonadetes

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Gemmatimonadetes
Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Gemmatimonadetes
Order: Gemmatimonales
Zhang et al. 2003
Family: Gemmatimonaceae
Zhang et al. 2003
Genus: Gemmatimonas
Zhang et al. 2003
Species: G. aurantiaca
Zhang et al. 2003
Binomial name
Gemmatimonas aurantiaca
Zhang et al. 2003

The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.[1] Gemmatimonadetes have been found in a variety of arid soils, such as grassland, prairie, and pasture soil, as well as eutrophic lake sediments and alpine soils. This wide range of environments where Gemmatimonadetes have been found suggests an adaptation to low soil moisture.[2] A study conducted showed that the distribution of the Gemmatimonadetes in soil tends to be more dependent on the moisture availability than aggregation, reinforcing the belief that the members of this phylum prefer dryer soils.[3] The phylum Gemmatimonadetes is distinct from the phylum Cyanobacteria and may have diverged in early microbial evolution at least 3 billion years ago.[4]

The first member of this phylum was discovered in 2003 in activated sludge in a sewage treatment system. The bacterium was named Gemmatimonas aurantiaca.[5] This bacterium is identified as strain T-27T, is Gram-negative, and is the only member of this phylum that has been studied in depth. The metabolic pathways and enzymes of this bacterium are unique and it is able to grow by both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fawaz, Mariam (2013). "Revealing the Ecological Role of Gemmatimonadetes Through Cultivation and Molecular Analysis of Agricultural Soils". Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee: vi. 
  2. ^ DeBruyn, J, Nixon, L, Fawaz, M, Johnson, M, Radosevich, M (2011). "Global Biogeography and Quantitative Season Dynamics of Gemmatimonadetes in Soil". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77 (17): 6295–300. doi:10.1128/AEM.05005-11. 
  3. ^ Fawaz, Mariam (2013). "Revealing the Ecological Role of Gemmatimonadetes Through Cultivation and Molecular Analysis of Agricultural Soils". Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee: vi. 
  4. ^ Takaichi, S, Maoka, T, Takasaki, K, Hanada, S (2009). "Carotenoids of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (Gemmatimonadetes): identification of a novel carotenoid, deoxyoscillol 2-rhamnoside, and proposed biosynthetic pathway of oscillol 2,2′-dirhamnoside". Microbiology 156 (3): 757–763. doi:10.1099/mic.0.034249-0. 
  5. ^ Zhang H, Sekiguchi Y, Hanada S, Hugenholtz P, Kim H, Kamagata Y, Nakamura K (2003). "Gemmatimonas aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov.". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53 (Pt 4): 1155–63. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02520-0. PMID 12892144. 
  6. ^ Takaichi, S, Maoka, T, Takasaki, K, Hanada, S (2009). "Carotenoids of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (Gemmatimonadetes): identification of a novel carotenoid, deoxyoscillol 2-rhamnoside, and proposed biosynthetic pathway of oscillol 2,2′-dirhamnoside". Microbiology 156 (3): 757–763. doi:10.1099/mic.0.034249-0. 

External links[edit]