General Operations Force

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General Operations Force
Pasukan Gerakan Am
General Operations Force.svg
The RMP General Operations Force Emblem.
Active 1 August 1948 : Jungle Squad
1963 : Police Field Force
1997–present : General Operations Force
Country British Malaya (1948–1963)
 Malaysia (1963–present)
Branch Royal Malaysia Police
Type Light infantry
Role Domestic counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism, multi-security service, VIPs Close Protection, Border Patrol and law enforcement
Size

12,000 Personnel (Feb 2014)

  • Light infantry (20 battalions)
  • Armored squadrons (six squadrons)
  • Special platoon (one platoon)
Part of Royal Malaysian Police.svg Internal and Public Security
Garrison/HQ Training Centre: Ulu Kinta, Perak
Nickname(s) Polis Hutan
(English: Jungle Squad lit. Jungle Police)
Motto(s) "Cekal, Berani, Setia"
(English: "Gallant, Brave, Loyal")
Colour of Beret

  Dark blue - Standard paramilitary
  Maroon - Senoi Praaq

  • (Both of GOF berets with    yellow liner at beret insignia)
Anniversaries March 25 (Police Day)
August 31 (Independence Day)
Engagements Malayan Emergency 1948-1960
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
Communist insurgency in Malaysia (1968–89)
13 May Incident
Reformation Raid
Ops Fire Palm 2
UNMIT
2013 Lahad Datu standoff

The General Operations Force (Malay: Pasukan Gerakan Am; PGA, Jawi: ڤاسوكن ڬرقن عام) is the light infantry arm of the Royal Malaysia Police. The General Operations Force was established in 1948 during the Malayan Emergency by the British Administration when Malaya was a Colony. The Police service was mobilised to the field role, primarily to engaging Communist guerrillas during the emerging Insurgency. When Malaysia was formed in 1963, this law enforcement unit was then known as the Police Field Force. The title was adopted when it dropped the previous handle widely referred to as the Jungle Squad (Malay: Pasukan Polis Hutan; PPH).

History[edit]

The Police Jungle Squad officers during a jungle patrol.
Two communist guerillas after captured by Jungle Squad officers from their communist camp in the jungle.

The Jungle Squad was established based on Malay States Guides (Malay: Pasukan Pengawal Negeri-negeri Melayu Bersekutu) which formed in 1826.[1] The Malay States Guides is a paramilitary force initially formed with a strength of 900 members and lead by R. S. F. Walker as the first commandant. The regiment involved in World War I and together with Field Force Aden, they fought Turkey forces at Southwest of South Arabia (now Saudi Arabia) for five years. The regiment was disbanded for reasons of economy in 1919.

The British Military Administration (BMA) had mobilised the police General Duties to assume the role of the military effort against the insurgencies. Jungle Squad was established in 1948 for the purpose against communist terrorists. Initially the new police arm was called the Flying Squad. However, it was renamed the "Jungle Squad" in the line with its major role against communist terrorists in the forest. In 1951, Jungle Squad restructured and became known as "Jungle Company". In 1953, the Jungle Company continued to be augmented and became known by the name Police Field Force (Malay: Pasukan Polis Hutan (PPH)). It is under the command of Police Commissioner of the Federation of Malaya and later Malaysia was established when the order was placed under the Chief of Police. The Jungle Company was then deployed together with the British Army to infiltrate and track down communist insurgents operating in the jungles of Malaya. The strength of a single platoon then consisted of a mixture of 15 personnel led by a Lance Corporal to an Inspector. Over the period covering the Malayan Emergency (1948–1960) the Police Field Force suffered over 1,000 casualties.

The Police Field Force was also involved during the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontations. In various actions during the Confrontation, the Police Field Force detained Indonesian Irregulars sent to the peninsula, with the view of running clandestine operations on Malaysian soil.[2] Following the May 13, 1969 incident was the Malaysian government will realise the importance of a team mobile and independent and more capable to the facing of public order situations.

Following the disarmament of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) on 2 December 1989, the organisations of Police Field Force suffered to reformed with attenuation of 21 battalions to the 17 battalions on 1 September 1994. PPH changed its name to the General Operations Force (PGA) on 20 October 1997. On 11 November 1997, the submission of the RMP pennants ceremony officiated by the King of Malaysia. This change of name in accordance with the rating duties GOF background itself. Prior to this duties in GOF associated with the forest for combating the communist threats. After communist disarmed on 2 December 1989, GOF task has changed in the scenario is more varied.

Organisations[edit]

Mens from the indigenous tribes of Sabah and Sarawak were recruited by the Malaysian government as Border Scouts under the command of Richard Noone and other officers from the Senoi Praaq.

Prior to 1997, besides the regular Jungle Squad, there are a few specialised units attached to Police Field Forces which is:

  1. Commando Force; "PPH 69" (English: Jungle Squad 69)
  2. Senoi Praaq Force
  3. Border Scouts (Malay: Pasukan Pengakap Sempadan) (for Sabah and Sarawak)
  4. Unit Kawalan Kawasan (UKK) (English: Area Control Unit)
  5. Unit Pencegah Penyeludupan (UPP) (English: Anti-Smuggling Unit)

After GOF restructure, the Jungle Squad 69 was separated into new police command while Senoi Praaq was absorbed into GOF and renamed to 'GOF 3rd Battalion'. Border Scouts and UKK are disbanded and its members is absorbed into GOF battalions and regular police forces. UPP then formed into federal agency which its members are drawn from the Royal Malaysian Police, Royal Malaysian Customs and Immigration Department of Malaysia. The UPP later renamed to Agensi Keselamatan Sempadan (English: Border Security Agency) in 2015.[3]

In the present days, the Royal Malaysia Police General Operations Force is organised along military lines consisting of Brigades, Battalions, Companies, Platoons and Sections deployed where needed.

GOF Brigades[edit]

There are currently five brigades located in both Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia and every Brigade is headed by those ranked Senior Assistant Commissioner II (SAC II) or above. The five GOF brigades is:

  1. GOF Northern Brigade; based in Ulu Kinta, Perak
  2. GOF Central Brigade; based in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur
  3. GOF Southeast Brigade; based in Kuantan, Pahang
  4. GOF Sarawak Brigade; based in Kuching, Sarawak
  5. GOF Sabah Brigade; based in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

Number of GOF battalions under command of GOF brigades is vary based on the needs. The Central and Sabah Brigades is composed with five battalions each. The Northern Brigade is composed of four battalions while the Southeast and Sarawak Brigades composed with three battalions each.

GOF Battalions[edit]

GOF has a strength of 20 battalions located in both Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia with each commanded by a Police Superintendent. Each battalion consists of about three infantry companies and one mortar platoon.

Senoi Praaq[edit]

Members of the Senoi Praaq in 1953

The Senoi Praaq means War People in the language of the Semai Indigenous people of Peninsula Malaysia. The formation was moved to the Police Field Force in 1968 and increased to two battalions. The Senoi Praaq were established in 1957 employed with tracking and security roles, apart from performing the main function of contact to the aborigines peoples. Manned by the aborigines of Peninsular Malaysia that were skilled for their jungle tracking, it was successful in engaging the communist terrorists during the Malayan Emergency. The Senoi Praaq can be distinguished from other mainline GOF Battalions by the use of the distinctive maroon beret and red hackle.

Tiger Platoon[edit]

With the separation of 69 Commando, which now part of the Pasukan Gerakan Khas (English: Special Operations Command; SOCOM), the General Operations Force Command established new versatile units with Special Operations capability to operate in all GOF Brigades. These elite platoons were formed for special assignments, covert and overt operations and Search And Rescue (SAR), and are known generally as the Tiger Platoons.

Tiger Platoons from GOF Sabah and Sarawak Brigades actively operates as the region main special operations forces[4] as both states are far from Pasukan Gerakan Khas Headquarters.

GOF roles[edit]

GOF officer worn their old Jungle Squad era uniform with Sterling L2A3 (Mk.4) submachine gun during 50th Independence Day Parade

The General Operations Force are deployed, equipped and trained for specified roles in times of peace and during emergencies. The various roles include neutralising armed criminals, border patrols, counter terrorism, anti piracy and maritime security. The GOF also assists in general duties such as public security, close quarters combat in urban settings and anti smuggling patrols. In times of conflict or emergency, GOF brigades are used primarily for assigned duties in counter-terrorism and anti - guerrilla warfare. A brigade is essentially trained, equipped and organised for paramilitary roles in the field and also for insertion in major urban conurbations. All personnel are drawn from mainline Police Training Schools and inducted to GOF Training Centres, with the view of completing the study of anti guerrilla warfare and military training courses before graduating to GOF Battalions. Where borders are perilously dangerous, GOF units are deployed in localised security sweeps and defence operations. The GOF also employs units in riots and disturbances where necessary.

Training[edit]

The first Training Centre was based at Sik, Kedah in 1949. Successful candidates trained there were sent on to the Police Field Force. Another School for the Police Field Force was opened in Sungai Buloh, Selangor with the aim of conducting basic training and refresher courses. In 1953, one new training centre was established in Dusun Tua, Hulu Langat, Selangor renamed the Jungle Squad Training Centre (Malay: Sekolah Latihan Pasukan Polis Hutan; SLPPH). In year 1964, the SLPPH was transferred to Kroh, Perak following the closure of the first two centres. The training centre itself was transferred again to Kentonmen, Ulu Kinta, Perak. In 1997, the training centre is renamed to Sekolah Latihan Pasukan Gerakan Am, SLPGA (English: General Operations Forces Training School) in line with the change of name of the Police Field Force to current Pasukan Gerakan Am (English: General Operations Force). In 22 September 2006, the training centre one again change its name to Pusat Latihan PGA (PLPGA) (English: GOF Training Centre).

It is a must for GOF police officers to enter the GOF Basic Course (Malay: Kursus Asas PGA). The course last for 14 weeks and they together with Senoi Praaq trainees need to attend Public Order Reserve Unit (PORU) (Malay: Latihan Polis Anti Rusuhan) before they can graduate.

The modules of the GOF Basic Course are:

  • Physical Training
  • Weapon Training
  • Field Skills Module
  • Combat Skills Module
  • Operation Techniques Module
  • Intelligence Module
  • Counter-insurgency Module
  • Conventional Warfare Module
  • Public Order Module
  • Public Policy Module

To enter the elite Senoi Praaq Battalions, Malaysian aboriginal needs to enter Orang Asli Constable Basic Course (Malay: Kursus Asas Konstabel Orang Asli) which last for six months.[5] This course is a collaboration between the Royal Malaysian Police and Department of Orang Asli Development.

Headquarters[edit]

List of GOF Battalions and theirs Headquarters
Battalion Speciality Headquarters

GOF 1st Battalion
Ulu Kinta, Perak

GOF 2nd Battalion
Kulim, Kedah

GOF 3rd Battalion (Senoi Praaq)
Special Tracker Bidor, Perak

GOF 4th Battalion
Semenyih, Selangor

GOF 5th Battalion
Simpang Renggam, Johor

GOF 6th Battalion
Bakri, Muar, Johor

GOF 7th Battalion
Kuantan, Pahang

GOF 8th Battalion
Pengkalan Chepa, Kelantan

GOF 9th Battalion
Kubang Badak, Terengganu

GOF 10th Battalion
Sibu, Sarawak

GOF 11th Battalion
Kuching, Sarawak

GOF 12th Battalion
Miri, Sarawak

GOF 14th Battalion
Tawau, Sabah

GOF 15th Battalion
Sandakan, Sabah

GOF 16th Battalion
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

GOF 17th Battalion
Lahad Datu, Sabah

GOF 18th Battalion (Senoi Praaq)
Trackers Pengkalan Hulu, Perak

GOF 19th Battalion
Area Security of VVIP Cheras, Kuala Lumpur

GOF KLIA Special Battalion
Special Airport Security Cheras, Kuala Lumpur

GOF 20th Battalion
ESSZONE Security Beluran, Sabah

Tiger Platoon
Special Operations Capable Every GOF Brigades Headquarter

The GOF battalions will be assisted by armoured car from:

  1. 1st Armored Squadron Kulim, Kedah
  2. 3rd Armored Squadron Ulu Kinta, Perak
  3. 5th Armored Squadron Cheras, Kuala Lumpur
  4. 7th Armored Squadron Bakri, Muar, Johor
  5. 9th Armored Squadron Kuantan, Pahang
  6. 11th Armored Squadron Kuching, Sarawak

Current Task[edit]

The Police GOF was successful in dealing with the armed rebellion led by the communist terrorists in Malaysia. Today the roles of the General Operations Force includes border and maritime security, anti piracy patrols, counter-terrorism, public security, search and rescue (SAR) and organised crime.

On 20 October 1997, the Police Field Force letterhead was changed to the new title; the General Operations Force or Pasukan Gerakan Am composed of 17 battalions organised in five brigades, deployed in both Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia.

In June 2004, one specialised battalion was tasked for VVIP security. It is the GOF 19th Battalion, based in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur.

In 2008, the GOF 20th Battalion was established and tasked specifically for airport special security in KLIA. The battalion then renamed to GOF KLIA Special Battalion.

In February 2014, after the Lahad Datu standoff, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak agrees to establish a new GOF brigade task to control Eastern Sabah Security Zone (ESSZONE).[6] The new brigade is named GOF 20th Battalion.

Future Plans[edit]

Royal Malaysian Police wishes to add another GOF Battalion based in Kunak, Sabah to provide security to ESSZONE and will be known as 21st Battalion.[7] With this addition, the Sabah Brigade will be split into two different brigades which is Northern Sabah Brigade and Eastern Sabah Brigade.[8]

Killed in the line of duty[edit]

Rank/No. Name Year of Death Notes
PC Faridon Abd. Ghani 1971 Killed during Operation Selamat Sawadi Salam in Thailand
Cpl Bujang Sintal 1973 Killed during Operation Paradom in Sibu, Sarawak
Cpl Lee Han Cheong 1973 Killed during Operation Nuasa in Sungai Siput, Perak
Cpl Wong Poi Hoi 1973 Killed during an operation in Sarawak
PC Suparman Nasron 1975 Killed by communist ambush during Operation Ukur in Sadau, Thailand. A platoon of Jungle Squad from Police Field Force together with their Thailand counterpart escorting a topography team from the National Mapping Agency to measure Malaysia-Thailand border. The ambush killed 15 people, including eight from the Jungle Squad, three from National Mapping Agency and four from Royal Thai Police.[9]
PC Mohd. Zahid Jumangat
PC Maduain Wahab
PC Abu Nordin Ibrahim
PC Mohd. Nor Tumin
PC Alizar Serunan
PC Maan Ahmad Siraj
PC Saian Sauman
PC 49614 Abd. Hamid Mohamad 1975 Killed during morning physical training (PT) when subversive elements throws two grenades inside Police Field Force Central Brigade Camp in Kuala Lumpur. The grenades killed two Jungle Squad policemen and injured another 48.
PC 46955 Mohd. Yusof Abd. Rahman
PC 59367 Ahmad Yassin 1979 Killed during Operation Ulu Rening in Kuala Kubu Bharu, Selangor

Keramat Pulai incidents[edit]

On 3 June 1976, 35 recruits from Police Field Force members has been ambushed by the communist bandits at Bukit Keramat Pulai, Perak during their final phase of Basic Jungle Squad Training. During the incident at 12:45pm, Cpl 31507 Ridzuan who was a platoon leader as well as drill instructor was fatally shot in his side of eye. Three trainees TPC 63897 Zainal, TPC 63899 Yusof and TPC 64010 Md. Saad were also killed about 15 metres from the communist control post. However, TPC 60899 Mohamad Salim and his teammates returned enemy fire. Shortly, this platoon successfully captured the communist stronghold which was modified to look like a house after the communist retreated after receiving violent opposition from the trainees. On extraordinary courage, TPC 60899 Mohamad Salim and TPC Mohammad Noh Hashim was awarded Panglima Gagah Berani one year later.[10][11]

Operations[edit]

  • 1948 – 1960 - During the Malayan Emergency, the Police Field Force were involved in security and offensive operations against communist insurgents.
  • 1963 – 1966 - The service together with military forces to fight against the Indonesian soldiers during the Confrontation.[12]
  • 1968 – 1989 - The Police Field Force deployed to track down the Communist Terrorists before the CPM accepted unconditional surrender in 1989.
  • 1969 – The Police Field Force involved in security roles during the 13 May 1969 riots in Kuala Lumpur.
  • 2001 – The General Operations Force supported the Pasukan Gerakan Khas anti-terror police to track downed Mat Komando, the crime leader of Gang 13 before he killed in shoot-out in the hut at Kampung Hujung Keton, Pendang, Kedah.
  • 2007 – The Royal Malaysia Police deployed a force of 136 men from the Sarawak General Operations Force to Timor Leste. The force will join the United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor Leste, employed in the peace-keeping role.[13]
  • 2013 – Involved in 2013 Lahad Datu standoff. Deployed alongside Pasukan Gerakan Khas, Grup Gerak Khas, 10 Paratrooper Brigade, PASKAL, PASKAU, Unit Gempur Marin and Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency.

Weaponry[edit]

The firearms used by GOF during the year 1948 - 1980s.

Firearms Data
Pistols/Revolvers Shotguns Submachineguns Rifles Machineguns Grenades Mortars
Browning HP Winchester M1897 Sten Mk.II Heckler & Koch HK33 Bren LMG Mills bomb British 2-inch mortar
Colt M1911A1 Sten Mk.V Lee–Enfield Rifle No. 4 Mk.I ML 3-inch Mortar
Webley Revolver Sterling L2A3 Lee–Enfield Rifle No. 4 Mk.II
S&W M&P Lee–Enfield Rifle No. 4 Mk.III
Lee–Enfield No.5 Mk.I
FN FAL L1A1 SLR
M1 carbine
M1A1 Carbine
M2 Carbine

The firearms used by GOF during the year 1980 - presents.

Firearms Data
Pistols/Revolvers Shotguns Submachineguns Assault Rifles Sniper Rifles Machineguns Grenades
Beretta M92F Remington M870 HK MP5A2 Colt M16A1 HK G3/SG-1 FN MAG HK 69
Browning HP Mk.III Remington M1100 HK MP5A3 Colt M16A2 HK 11 LMG M79 Grenade Launcher
Glock 19 M203
HK P9S M67 grenade
S&W .38 2-inch Rev. High Explosive Grenade
S&W .38 3-inch Rev. Tear Gas Grenade
S&W .38 4-inch Rev.
SIG Sauer P226
SIG Sauer P228
Steyr M-9
Vektor SP1
Walther P99
Yavuz 16 Compact

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "PASUKAN GERAKAN AM (PGA) PDRM". galeripdrm.blogspot.my. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  2. ^ French 2011, p. 17.
  3. ^ MOHAMAD, SAIFULIZAM. "Unit Pencegah Penyeludupan kini dikenali Agensi Keselamatan Sempadan". Utusan Online. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  4. ^ hermes (2016-12-11). "Abu Sayyaf kidnap king killed by Malaysian elite police". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2017-05-04. 
  5. ^ "Majlis Tamat Latihan Kursus Asas 129 Anggota Konstabel Orang Asli Polis DiRaja Malaysia". www.jakoa.gov.my (in Malay). Retrieved 2017-05-04. 
  6. ^ VANAR, MUGUTAN. "Pasukan Keselamatan Malaysia Di Pantai Timur Sabah Dalam Keadaan Terkawal - KPN - Berita Semasa | mStar". www.mstar.com.my. Retrieved 2017-05-04. 
  7. ^ "Kem baharu PGA dijangka dibina di Kunak tahun depan". New Sabah Times. Retrieved 2017-05-04. 
  8. ^ "PDRM TUBUH BRIGED SABAH TIMUR MANTAPKAN ESSZONE". www.rmp.gov.my. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  9. ^ "Pesara polis masih dendami komunis". BorneoPost Online | Borneo , Malaysia, Sarawak Daily News. 2011-09-12. Retrieved 2017-05-04. 
  10. ^ "Ambushed by communist - Four teammates down". Utusan Malaysia. 31 March 2005. Retrieved 25 March 2009. 
  11. ^ "Musa Hussain - Bitter event almost took the life". Utusan Malaysia. 1 May 2003. Retrieved 25 March 2009. 
  12. ^ NZ Malaya Veterans Archived 14 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ "Majlis Meraikan Kepulangan MAL-FPU Briged Tengah PGA". www.rmp.gov.my. Retrieved 2017-05-04. 

External links[edit]