Ecuadorian Army

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Ecuadorian Army
Coat of arms of the Ecuadorian Army.gif

Seal of the Ecuadorian Army
Active 1830
Country  Ecuador
Branch Army
Size 24,135 active[1]
~130 Tanks
~200 IFV's
~60 aircraft
Part of Military of Ecuador
Engagements

Independence War 1820
Battle of Pichincha 1822
Gran Colombia–Peru War 1829

Ecuadorian-Peruvian war 1858
Battle of Guayaquil 1860
Ecuadorian-Colombian War 1863
Chincha Islands War 1864
Ecuadorian-Peruvian War 1941
Paquisha War 1981
Cenepa War 1995
Commanders
Current
commander

Patricio Cardenas GRAD.

COMANDANTE GENERAL DEL EJÉRCITO ECUATORIANO
Insignia
Identification
symbol
Ecuadorian Air Force roundel.svg

The Ecuadorian Army (Ejército Ecuatoriano) is the land component of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces. Its 24,135[1] soldiers are deployed in relation to its military doctrine. The contemporary Ecuadorian Army incorporates many jungle and special forces infantry units into its structure.

Main objectives[edit]

  • To defend the national territory as part of a Joint Task Force.
  • To represent a strong military image as part of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces, national as well as international.
  • Take part in activities and support the development and co-operation in times of crisis.
  • Take part in Peacekeeping and international security operations.
  • To reach and maintain a high operational level within the Ground Forces.
  • To represent, implement an integrated institution, within the operational system.
  • To guarantee the disposition of prepared military personnel in order to accomplish all missions and assignments.
  • To dispose of an investigations and development element, with focus on national defense.
  • To correctly execute administration procedures involving all institutional issues.

Mission[edit]

To develop territorial-power, in order to accomplish institutional objectives, which guarantee the integrity and sovereignty of the national territory and contribute to the security and development of the nation, as well as to accomplish all objectives indicated by the military strategic planning. ART 26 LEY ORGÁNICA DE LA DEFENSA NACIONAL

Vision[edit]

To be an institution of the highest level and credibility, systematically integrated, with professional military personnel, orientated on ethics and moral. Capable of adapting itself to new requirements which guarantee peace, security and the nations development.

History[edit]

The Ecuadorian Armed Forces history could start as early as 1531, when civil war ravaged through the inca empire. In a key battle near Riobamba, where Huascars troops were met and defeated by Atahualpas troops. Atahualpas final victory over Huascar in the days just before the Spanish conquerors arrived, are seen until today, as a source of national pride. This did not safe Atahualpa and his army from total defeat, only a year later at the Battle of Cajamarca against the Spanish conquerors. It would take almost 300 years when Ecuadors struggle for emancipation from the Spanish colonial rule would reach its peak at the Battle of Pichincha. Following a victory, Ecuadorian troops would become part of the Gran-Colombian coalition. These were years in which warfare dominated. First, the country found itself on the front lines of Gran Colombias efforts to liberate Peru from Spanish rule between 1822 and 1825; afterward, in 1828 and 1829, Ecuadorian troops would find themselves in the middle of an armed struggle between Peru and Gran Colombia over the location of their common border. After a long campaign the forces of Gran Colombia, under the leadership of Sucre and Venezuelan General Juan José Flores, proved victorious. The Treaty of 1829 fixed the border on the line that had divided the Quito audiencia and the Viceroyalty of Peru before independence. By 1859 the nation was on the brink of anarchy. This led to a civil war and the first Ecuadorian-Peruvian conflict. Backed by Guillermo Franco, an Ecuadorian General, the Peruvian army led by General Ramón Castilla arrived in Guayaquil. Accusing Guillermo Franco of treason for signing a treaty with the Peruvians, Gabriel García Moreno, allied with former enemy General Juan José Flores, attacked Franco's forces. After several battles, García Moreno's forces were able to force Franco's troops to retreat back to Guayaquil, the site of the final battle. Ecuadors victory at the Battle of Guayaquil deterred the Peruvians and re-unified the country. Ecuadorian troops would face their greatest challenge and defeat, when in 1941, under controversial circumstances, another Ecuadorian–Peruvian War erupted. A much larger and better equipped Peruvian force, quickly overwhelmed the Ecuadorian forces, driving them back from Zarumilla and invading the Ecuadorian province of El Oro. The government of Ecuador, saw itself forced to accept Perus territorial claims. Subsequently Peruvian troops withdrew from the invaded El Oro province. However, occasional clashes kept occurring and flared into another outbreak of serious fighting in January 1981 called the Paquisha War, for the control of three watchposts set up by Ecuadorian troops inside a disputed border area. The conflict ceased with the Peruvian Army gaining control of the disputed area. In 1995, Ecuadorian troops would become part of the longest-running source of armed international conflict in the Western Hemisphere [2] when both sides encountered again in the Cordillera del Cóndor. Focus of all fighting would become a small outpost called Tiwintza by the Ecuadorians (and Tiwinza or Tihuintsa by the Peruvians) until the signing of a ceasefire.

Structure[edit]

Already back in 1989 the Army was with around 40.000 troops nearly four times the combined strength of the Navy and air force.[3] In 2003, it was structured into four independent Army Divisions operating around 25 Infantry Battalions. These battalions were implemented in Brigades which were not numbered consecutively but carried odd numbers in the series 1 to 27. All Brigades had also a Special Forces and engineer, or at least a communications and Logistic Support Company.[4] As of 2008, along with the Air Force and Navy, the Army (also referred to as Land Forces) is undergoing a reform in order to maximize is joint capability. This process involves the creation of U.S. like Operational Commands. There are 4 Operational Joint Commands to be geographically distributed.

Leadership[edit]

The General of the Army is the highest rank of the Ecuadorian Army. Usually the Chief of Staff of the Army is also the General of the Army, and it is common for this general to hold the Chief of the Joint Staff position as well.

"PATRIA I"[edit]

Since 2009 a restructurization within the Ecuadorian Armed Forces has been launched under the name of "PATRIA I". It shall be completed by 2011 and improve military structure, equipment and operations within the Ecuadorian territory. The Ecuadorian territory has been also newly divided into five "Joint Task Force Zones" or Fuerzas de Tarea Conjunta, four on mainland Ecuador, the fifth being the maritime territory (including the Galapagos Islands). Changes concerning structure and troop-deployment as of 2010 are not available due to the fact that the Ecuadorian Armed Forces keep such information restricted.[5][6][7][8]

  • 1st "North" or Fuerza de Tarea Conjunta No. 1 "Norte", (HQ Ibarra).
  • 2nd "West" or Fuerza de Tarea Conjunta No. 2 "Guayas", (HQ Guayaquil).
  • 3rd "South" or Fuerza de Tarea Conjunta No. 3 "Cuenca", (HQ Cuenca).
  • 4th "Central" or Fuerza de Tarea Conjunta No. 4 "Central", (HQ Quito).
  • 5th "Maritime" or Fuerza de Tarea Conjunta No. 5 "Mar y Galapagos", (HQ ?).

Specialties[edit]

Special Forces[edit]

Army Aviation[edit]

The aviation element of the Army (Ejército) was formed in 1954 originally named Servicio Aéreo del Ejército (SAE). It was renamed Aviación del Ejército Equatorina (AEE) in 1978. From 1981 onward the flying elements were concentrated into an aviation-brigade, effectively transforming the army-aviation into an operational brigade within the army-structure. Honouring the army-aviation's role in the Paquisha conflict in 1981, the unit was renamed Brigada de Aviación del Ejército No.15 "Paquisha" (BAE) on July 1, 1987. Finally, in 1996 the BAE gained the status of a full arm within the army recognising its vital role in the Cenepa conflict of 1995. At present the BAE No.15 consists of:

  • Grupo Aero del Ejercito No. 43 “PORTOVIEJO”
  • Grupo Aero del Ejercito No. 44 “PASTAZA”
  • Gupo Aero del Ejercito No. 45 “PICHINCHA”
  • Escuela de Aviacion del Ejercito “CAPT. FERNANDO VASCONEZ”

Organization[edit]

As of November 2004, the Ecuadorian Land Forces Order of Battle was as followed: (under construction)

  • I Army Division "Shyris" (HQ Quito)
    • 1st Armored Cavalry Brigade "Galápagos"
      • Grupo Escolta Presidencial
      • Grupo de Caballería Blindada No 4
      • Grupo de Caballería Mecanizada No 6
      • Grupo de Caballería Mecanizada No 12
      • Grupo de Caballería Mecanizada No 16
      • Grupo de Caballería Blindada No 18
      • Grupo de Caballería Mecanizada No 36
      • Escuela de Equitación
    • 13th Infantry Brigade "Pichincha"
    • 9th Special Forces Brigade "Patria"
      • 24th Special Forces Group "Rayo"
      • 25th Special Forces Group "Santo Domingo de los Colorados"
      • 26th Special Forces Group "Quevedo"
      • 27th Special Forces Group "Latacunga"
  • II Army Division "Libertad" (HQ Guayaquil)
    • 5th Infantry Brigade "Guayas"
  • III Army Division "Tarqui" (HQ Cuenca)
    • 1st Infantry Brigade "El Oro"
    • 7th Infantry Brigade "Loja"
    • 27th Artillery Brigade "Bolívar"
  • IV Army Division "Amazonas" (HQ El Coca)
    • 17th Jungle Infantry Brigade "Pastaza"
      • 17th Special Forces Company
      • 49th Jungle Infantry Battalion
      • 50th Jungle Infantry Battalion
      • 51st Jungle Infantry Battalion
    • 19th Jungle Infantry Brigade "Napo"
      • 19th Special Forces Company "Aguarico"
      • 55th Jungle Infantry Battalion "Putumayo"
      • 56th Jungle Infantry Battalion "Tungurahua"
      • 57th Jungle Infantry Battalion "Montecristi"
    • 21st Jungle Infantry Brigade "Cóndor" (HQ Patuca)
      • 60th Special Forces Battalion "Capitán Calles"
      • 61st Jungle Infantry Battalion "Santiago"
      • 62nd Jungle Infantry Battalion "Zamora"
      • 63rd Jungle Infantry Battalion "Gualaquiza"
  • Independent Units
    • 23rd Engineer Command "Cenepa" (HQ Quito)
    • 25th Logistics Support Brigade "Reino de Quito" (HQ Quito)

Equipment As of 2011[edit]

Historically, the Army depended on a wide variety of foreign suppliers for virtually all of its equipment needs. Only in the 1980s did it begin to develop a modest domestic arms industry as the Directorate of Army Industries manufactured rifle ammunition, uniforms, boots, and other consumable items. The Army's present day equipment is mostly of western origins.

Equipment Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.ccmr.org/public/library_file_proxy.cfm/lid/5603
  2. ^ "The History Guy: News:Ecuador-Peru". historyguy.com. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  3. ^ "Ecuador - Army". country-data.com. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  4. ^ "saorbats.com.ar – Fuerzas armadas iberoamericanas". saorbats.com.ar. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  5. ^ "Chile wants transparency in arms buying". spacewar.com. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  6. ^ "UNASUR pledges Latin arms trade transparency - UPI.com". upi.com. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  7. ^ "UNASUR Agrees to Boost Defense Expenditure Transparency — MercoPress". en.mercopress.com. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  8. ^ http://www.midena.gov.ec/
  9. ^ Janq Designs. "Special Operations.Com". web.archive.org. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  10. ^ a b c Janq Designs. "Special Operations.Com". web.archive.org. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  11. ^ Janq Designs. "Special Operations.Com". web.archive.org. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  12. ^ a b http://www.diariocorreo.com.ec/archivo/2006/10/22/25-aos-de-iwias
  13. ^ a b http://www.midena.gov.ec/content/view/2890/211/
  14. ^ a b "26 años de la Escuela de Soldados Iwias - NOV. 02, 2007 - El País - Historicos - EL UNIVERSO". eluniverso.com. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  15. ^ a b "Naturaleza sin fronteras: Iwias, los "demonios de la selva"". naturalezasinfronteras-belit.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  16. ^ http://dintel-gid.com.ar/news/?p=2246
  17. ^ "Welcome to www.mgp-club.com!". web.archive.org. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 

External links[edit]