George Church (geneticist)

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George Church
George Church.jpg
George Church in 2012
George McDonald Church

(1954-08-28) August 28, 1954 (age 65)[1]
NationalityUnited States
CitizenshipUnited States
Alma mater
Known forFather of synthetic biology
Spouse(s)Ting Wu
Scientific career
ThesisGenetic Elements within Yeast Mitochondrial and Mouse Immunoglobulin Introns (1984)
Doctoral advisorWalter Gilbert[4]
Doctoral students

George McDonald Church (born August 28, 1954) is an American geneticist, molecular engineer, and chemist. As of 2015, he is also known as Robert Winthrop Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and Professor of Health Sciences and Technology at Harvard and MIT, and was a founding member of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard.[3][2][6] As of March 2017, Church serves as a member of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists' Board of Sponsors.[7]

Education and early life[edit]

George McDonald Church was born on August 28, 1954 on MacDill Air Force Base near Tampa, Florida, and grew up in nearby Clearwater;[2][8][9][10] he attended high school at the preparatory boarding school Phillips Academy, in Andover, Massachusetts, from 1968 to 1972.[11] He then studied at Duke University, completing a bachelor's degree in zoology and chemistry in two years.[2]

In the fall of 1973, Church began research work at Duke University with assistant professor of biochemistry Sung-Hou Kim, work that continued a year later with Church in a graduate biochemistry program at Duke on an NSF fellowship.[9][12] As Peter Miller reported for the National Geographic series, "The Innovators":

"As a graduate student at Duke… he used x-ray crystallography to study the three-dimensional structure of "transfer" RNA, which decodes DNA and carries instructions to other parts of the cell. It was groundbreaking research, but Church spent so much time in the lab—up to a hundred hours a week—that he neglected his other classes [in the fall of 1975]".[12]

As a result, Church was not compliant with Duke graduate academic policies, and was withdrawn from the degree program in January 1976. He was told that "[We] hope that whatever problems… contributed to your lack of success… at Duke will not keep you from a successful pursuit of a productive career."[12][13] The work gave rise to publications that include a Proceedings report with Church as lead author on an early model for molecular interactions between the minor groove of double-stranded DNA and β-ribbons of proteins.[14][15]

Church returned to graduate work at Harvard University in 1977 under Walter Gilbert,[16] and completed a Ph.D. in biochemistry and molecular biology working on mobile genetic elements within introns of yeast mitochondrial and mouse Immunoglobulin genes (1984).[4]


After completing his doctoral work, Church spent 6 months of 1984 at Biogen, the industrial laboratory site where Prof. Gilbert had relocated a sizable part of his former Harvard group;[2] this was followed soon after by a Life Sciences Research Foundation postdoctoral fellowship at the University of California, San Francisco with Gail R. Martin,[17][18] a member of the National Academy of Sciences and joint-discoverer of a technique to extract mouse embryonic stem cells.[19][20]

Church joined the Harvard Medical School faculty as an assistant professor in 1986.[2] In his subsequent research career, Church is now the Robert Winthrop Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School,[21] and a Member of the Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology faculty, described as a "unique collaboration... integrat[ing] science, medicine and engineering to solve problems in human health" at the Institute for Medical Engineering and Science (IMES) at MIT.[22] As well, he was a founding member of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University.[2] In these positions Church, as of May 2014, is reported to have co-authored more than 330 publications, 60 patents, and a popular science book.[23][better source needed]

Church has also served as director of the Center on Bioenergy Technology at Harvard, funded by a multiyear award from the U.S. Department of Energy.[when?][citation needed] and of the Center of Excellence in Genomic Science (CEGS) at Harvard, funded by a P50-type award from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), a part of the National Institutes of Health.[24]

George, along with a group of visionaries and scientists, including leaders from Harvard Medical School's Personal Genome Project, co-founded Veritas Genetics and its European and Latinoamerican subsidiary, Veritas Intercontinental, with the idea of bringing the benefits of genomic data to millions of people globally.


Church is known for his professional contributions in the sequencing of genomes and interpreting such data, in synthetic biology and genome engineering, and in an emerging area of neuroscience that proposes to map brain activity and establish a "functional connectome." Among these, Church is known for pioneering the specialized fields of personal genomics and synthetic biology. He has co-founded commercial concerns spanning these areas, and others from green and natural products chemistry to infectious agent testing and fuel production, including Knome, LS9, and Joule Unlimited (respectively, human genomics, green chemistry, and solar fuel companies). As of 2015, according to Google Scholar,[3] his most cited research has been published in peer reviewed scientific journals including PNAS,[25][26][27][28] Nature Genetics,[29][30][31] nature reviews genetics [32] the Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference,[33] Nature Biotechnology,[34][35][36][37] Science,[38][39][40][41][42][43] the Journal of Molecular Biology,[44][45][46] the Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing (PSB) conference,[47] the Journal of Bacteriology,[48]Nature,[49] Nature Methods,[50] Genome Biology,[51] Bioinformatics,[52][53] PLOS Genetics,[54] and Nucleic Acids Research.[55]

Genome sequencing and interpretation technologies[edit]

With Walter Gilbert, Church published the first direct genomic sequencing method in 1984.[56][57] Described in that publication were the cyclic application of fluids to a solid phase alternating with imaging, plus avoidance of bacterial cloning, strategies that are still used in current dominant Next-Generation Sequencing technologies. These technologies began to affect genome-scale sequencing in 2005.[58] Church also helped initiate the Human Genome Project in 1984.[59] He invented the broadly applied concepts of molecular multiplexing and barcode tags.[60] Technology transfer from his Harvard laboratory of automated sequencing and software to Genome Therapeutics Corp. resulted in the first bacterial genome sequence and first commercial genome (the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori) in 1994.[61] Church was also co-inventor of nanopore sequencing in 1995,[citation needed] which are now commercially available (e.g. Oxford Nanopore Technologies),[citation needed] but not in the form embodied in Church's contribution to the original patents.[62]

To aid in the interpretation and sharing of genomes, Church, in 2005, initiated the Personal Genome Project (PGP),[63] which provides the world’s only open-access human genome and trait data sets.[64][65][66] Eight trios (mother, father, and child) from the Personal Genome Project are in the process of being chosen to act as the primary genome standards (Reference Materials) for the NIST+FDA program.[67]

To further advance interpretation and sharing of data, in 2018 Church co-founded Nebula Genomics, a company intended to place human genome data on a blockchain in such a way that the data can be made available to medical researchers, while maintaining privacy.[68][69][70][71]

Synthetic biology and genome engineering[edit]

He has co-developed "genome engineering" technologies since 1997 via either general homologous recombination (recA and lambda-red) [72] or via sequence-specific nucleases.[73] Since 2004, his team has developed use of DNA array (aka DNA chip) synthesizers for combinatorial libraries and assembling large genome segments.[74] He co-developed Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering (MAGE) and optimized CRISPR/Cas9 discovered by Jennifer Doudna and Emanuelle Charpentier for engineering a variety of genomes ranging from yeast to human.[73] His laboratory's use of CRISPR in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS) is the latest contender for precise gene therapy.[75]

His team is the first to tackle a genome-scale change in the genetic code.[76] This was done in a 4.7 million basepair genome of an industrially useful microbe (E. coli) with the goal of making a safer and more productive strain; this strain uses non-proteinogenic amino acids in proteins and is metabolically and genetically isolated from other species.

He has co-invented several uses for DNA, including detectors for dark matter -- Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs),[77] anti-cancer "nano-robots",[78] and strategies for digital data storage that are over a million times denser than conventional disk drives.[79] Together with polymerase, DNA can be used to sense and store variation in photons, nucleotides, or ions.[80]

The BRAIN initiative[edit]

He was part of a team of six[80] who, in a 2012 scientific commentary, proposed a Brain Activity Map, later named BRAIN Initiative (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies).[81] They outlined specific experimental techniques that might be used to achieve what they termed a "functional connectome", as well as new technologies that will have to be developed in the course of the project,[80] including wireless, minimally invasive methods to detect and manipulate neuronal activity, either utilizing microelectronics or synthetic biology. In one such proposed method, enzymatically produced DNA would serve as a "ticker tape record" of neuronal activity.[80][82]

Woolly mammoth cloning[edit]

In March 2015, Church and his genetics research team at Harvard successfully copied some woolly mammoth genes into the genome of an Asian elephant. Using the CRISPR DNA editing technique, his group spliced genetic segments from frozen mammoth specimens, including genes from the ears, subcutaneous fat, and hair attributes, into the DNA of skin cells from a modern elephant. This marked the first time that woolly mammoth genes had been functionally active since the species became extinct.[83] Their work has not been subject to peer review, however. Church stated that "Just making a DNA change isn't that meaningful. We want to read out the phenotypes." To do that, the team plans to perform further tests to get the hybrid cells into becoming specialized tissues, and from there attempting to turn the hybrid elephant/mammoth skin cells into hybrid embryos that can be grown in artificial wombs.

Technology transfer and translational impact[edit]

Church has co-founded 22[84] companies, including Veritas Genetics (human genomics, 2014, with Mirza Cifric, Preston Estep, Yining Zhao, Joe Thakuria), Warp Drive Bio (natural products, 2011, with Greg Verdine and James Wells), Alacris (cancer systems therapeutics, 2010, with Hans Lehrach, Bernhard Herrmann, and Shahid Imran), Knome (human genomics, 2007, with Jorge Conde and Sundar Subramaniam),[85] Pathogenica (microbe and viral NGS diagnostics, 2009, with Yemi Adesokan),[86] AbVitro (immunomes, 2010, with Francois Vigneault),[87] Gen9 Bio (synthetic biology, 2009, with Joseph Jacobson and Drew Endy), EnEvolv (Genome Engineering), Joule Unlimited (SolarFuels, 2007, with Noubar Afeyan and David Berry), and LS9 (green chemistry, 2005, with Chris Somerville, Jay Keasling, Vinod Khosla, Noubar Afeyan, and David Berry)[88][89][90]

He has participated in technology development, licensing patents and advising most of the Next-Generation Sequencing companies, including Complete Genomics, Life Technologies, Illumina, Danaher Corporation, Roche Diagnostics, Pacific Biosciences, Genia, and Nabsys.[90]

He was on the Scientific Advisory Board of Cambrian Genomics[91]

Support of open consent[edit]

Church spearheaded the concept and implementation of open access sequencing hardware[92] and shareable human medical data.[66] He has noted the potential for re-identification of human research participants and the tendency for consent forms to be opaque – proposing an alternative "open consent" mechanism.[64][65] He has participated in the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues,[93] cautioning about the risk of synthetic DNA and proposing risk-reduction via licensing and surveillance.[94][95] His laboratory has a major bio-safety engineering focus.[76]

Church at TED 2010, picture by Steve Jurvetson.
George Church on Harvard Panel, in May of 2017

Support of open education[edit]

He has been an early advocate of online, open education since 2002.[citation needed] He is advisor to the Personal Genetics Education Project[96] and has spent a day teaching at The Jemicy School.[97] He has championed citizen science, especially in the fields of synthetic biology and personal genomics.[65] Since 2008, his team has been hosting an annual Genomes, Environments and Traits (GET) Conference with free online videos.[98]


Harvard and MIT geneticist George Church lists the nonprofit Jeffrey Epstein VI Foundation, a private foundation established by convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein, as a source of funding. According to George Church's Harvard website, this funding started in 2005 and continues to the present. Church's Jeffrey Epstein VI Foundation affiliation is listed as for cutting edge science & education.[99] (website listed as last updated March 2019).

Church met with Epstein many times after Epstein's 2008 conviction. In his 2019 apology for "poor awareness" of Epstein's sex offender status, Church said he had "nerd tunnel vision" and articles on Epstein's crimes were unclear, placing responsibility on vetting donors on the development office. [100]

Controversy found Church in early 2013, in response to his spoken speculations as to what was required to engineer the birth of a Neanderthal. In response to a question from Der Spiegel, Church speculated that it could be technically possible to make a Neanderthal by reconstructing the DNA of a Neanderthal and modifying living human cells accordingly.[101] Church pointed out that he was not working on such a project.[102][103]

Popular science[edit]

In his science and popular efforts, Church has also promoted open access genome sequencing and shareable human medical data, as well as online, open education and citizen science.

Church authored the 2012 NewScientist "top science book," Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves with Ed Regis.[104][105] He has participated in news interviews and videos including at TED, TEDx,[106][107][108] and TEDMED venues, at PBS's Charlie Rose,[109] Faces of America, and NOVA, as well as at PopSci, EG, and The Colbert Report.[110][111] He is a regular contributor to publications and videos[112] and is a member of the Xconomists, an ad hoc team of editorial advisors for the tech news and media company, Xconomy.[113]

Awards and honors[edit]

Church has received accolades including election to the National Academy of Sciences (in 2011),[2][114] and the National Academy of Engineering (in 2012).[115] He received the American Society for Microbiology Promega Biotechnology Research Award and the heptannual Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science of the Franklin Institute.[116] He authored the NewScientist "top science book," Regenesis (on synthetic biology) with Ed Regis. Church is a regular contributor to and has appeared widely in the media, including TED venues, NOVA, Faces of America, Charlie Rose on PBS, The Colbert Report, and Xconomy.

Other honors include the Triennial International Steven Hoogendijk Award in 2010 and the Scientific American Top 50 twice (for “Designing artificial life” in 2005 and "The $1000 genome" in 2006).[117][118] Newsweek picked Church for their 2008 “Power of Ideas” recognition in the category of Medicine (for the Personal Genome Project).[119] In September 2010, Dr Church was honored for his work in genetics with the Mass High Tech All-Star Award.[120]

He is a member of the Research Advisory Board of SENS Research Foundation.[121]

Personal life[edit]

Church is married to fellow Harvard Medical School faculty member in genetics Ting Wu.[122]

Church has been outspoken in his support of following a vegan lifestyle, for reasons concerned with health, and with environmental and moral issues. When asked about his dietary choice, Church replied, "I've been vegan off-and-on since 1974 when I was inspired by participating in an MIT nutritional study, and quite strictly since 2004." He goes on to elaborate 4 reasons:

"medical (cholesterol in fish & dairy), energy conservation (up to 20-fold impact), cruelty ("organic" animals are deprived of medicines that humans use), and risks of spreading pathogens (not just the flu)… [noting that] veganism is an issue for which personal and global love of life, health and wealth align. It's a pity to lose parts of our humanity and planet just due to a lack of recipes."[123]

In the context of the Personal Genome Project, journalists at Forbes and Wired have noted Church's openness about his health issues, including dyslexia, narcolepsy, and high cholesterol (one of the motivations for his vegan diet).[124][125]

Further reading[edit]

  • Center for Oral History. "George M. Church". Science History Institute.
  • Brock, David C. (3 March 2008). George M. Church, Transcript of Interviews Conducted by David C. Brock in New Orleans, Louisiana on 3 March 2008 (PDF). Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation.
  • Alex Salton, 2009, "Geneticist George Church ’72 Sought Independence at PA," The Phillipian, April 17, 2009, see [17], accessed 2 March 2015.
  • David Ewing Duncan, 2010, "On a Mission to Sequence the Genomes of 100,000 People: The geneticist George Church advises or licenses technology to most companies involved in sequencing, The New York Times, June 7, 2010, see [18], accessed 26 February 2015.
  • Jeffrey M. Perkel, 2011, "Charting the Course: Three gene jockeys share their thoughts on past and future tools of the trade," in The Scientist (online), October 1, 2011. see [19], accessed 26 February 2015.
  • Heidi Legg, 2014, "Harvard Professor George Church and the future of genomics," at BetaBoston, a Boston Globe site (online), December 25, 2014, see [20], accessed 2 March 2015.
  • Peter Miller, 2015, "News, The Innovators Project: George Church, The Future Without Limits," National Geographic (online), see [21], accessed 26 February 2015.
  • Matthew Allen, 2015, "Artificial Natures (interview with George Church)," Harvard Design Magazine (online), see [22], accessed 10 February 2016.


  1. ^ a b "Church, George". Biography Reference Bank. The H. W. Wilson Company. 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2011.[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Nair, P. (2012). "Profile of George M. Church". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (30): 11893–11895. Bibcode:2012PNAS..10911893N. doi:10.1073/pnas.1204148109. PMC 3409755. PMID 22474375.
  3. ^ a b c George Church publications indexed by Google Scholar
  4. ^ a b Church, George (1984). Genetic Elements within Yeast Mitochondrial and Mouse Immunoglobulin Introns (Sequence, Enhancer, Technique) (PhD thesis). Harvard University. OCLC 13285113. ProQuest 303300427.
  5. ^ "Multiplex genome sequencing and analysis". ProQuest 305001213. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  6. ^ George Church's publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database. (subscription required)
  7. ^ "Board of Sponsors". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 30 March 2017.
  8. ^ Center for Oral History. "George M. Church". Science History Institute.
  9. ^ a b Brock, David C. (3 March 2008). George M. Church, Transcript of Interviews Conducted by David C. Brock in New Orleans, Louisiana on 3 March 2008 (PDF). Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation.
  10. ^ David Ewing Duncan, 2010, "On a Mission to Sequence the Genomes of 100,000 People: The geneticist George Church advises or licenses technology to most companies involved in sequencing, The New York Times, June 7, 2010, see [1], accessed 26 February 2015.
  11. ^ Alex Salton, 2009, "Geneticist George Church ’72 Sought Independence at PA," The Phillipian, April 17, 2009, see "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 February 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), accessed 2 March 2015.
  12. ^ a b c Peter Miller, 2015, "News, The Innovators Project: George Church, The Future Without Limits," National Geographic (online), see [2], accessed 26 February 2015.
  13. ^ Duke University Graduate School, Office of the Dean, 1976, "Dear Mr. Church…", January 16, 1976, private letter from W.G. Katzenmeyer, Associate Dean, to George McDonald Church, in the archives of G.M. Church, see [3]. accessed 4 March 2015.
  14. ^ G. M. Church, J. L. Sussman & S.-H. Kim, 1977, "Secondary structural complementarity between DNA and proteins," Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74:1458−1462, see [4], accessed 4 March 2015.
  15. ^ Commenting on the new Wayne Anderson, Brian Matthews, et al. structure of a Cro repressor-DNA complex, and on the new David McKay and Thomas Steitz structure of a CAP-cAMP complex; David Davies, 1981, "Two DNA-binding proteins," Nature 290:736f, see [5], accessed 4 March 2015.
  16. ^ Jeffrey Perkel, 2013, "BioTechniques: Celebrating 30 Years of Methods Development," BioTechniques 55(5), November 2013, 227–230, see [6] Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 21 March 2014.
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  18. ^ LSRF, 2015, "Fellows:Alumni, George Church (1984)," see [8], accessed 26 February 2015.
  19. ^ Elie Dolgin, 2009, "Stem cell rat race," in The Scientist (magazine), April 1, 2009, see [9], accessed 26 February 2015.
  20. ^ Martin G (December 1981). "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 78 (12): 7634–8. Bibcode:1981PNAS...78.7634M. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.12.7634. PMC 349323. PMID 6950406.
  21. ^ Heidi Legg, 2014, "Harvard Professor George Church and the future of genomics," at BetaBoston, a Boston Globe site (online), December 25, 2014, see "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 March 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), accessed 2 March 2015.
  22. ^ HST, 2015, "People, HST Faculty: George M Church," Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology Program, see [10] and [11], accessed 6 March 2015.
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  24. ^ NHGRI, 2015, Active Centers of Excellence in Genomic Science Awards: Causal Transcriptional Consequences of Human Genetic Variation (P50 HG005550, George M. Church, Harvard University), see [12], accessed 26 February 2015.
  25. ^ Church, G.; Gilbert, W. (1984). "Genomic sequencing". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 81 (7): 1991–1995. Bibcode:1984PNAS...81.1991C. doi:10.1073/pnas.81.7.1991. PMC 345422. PMID 6326095.
  26. ^ Segrè, D.; Vitkup, D.; Church, G. M. (2002). "Analysis of optimality in natural and perturbed metabolic networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99 (23): 15112–15117. Bibcode:2002PNAS...9915112S. doi:10.1073/pnas.232349399. PMC 137552. PMID 12415116.
  27. ^ Chae, H. Z.; Robison, K; Poole, L. B.; Church, G; Storz, G; Rhee, S. G. (1994). "Cloning and sequencing of thiol-specific antioxidant from mammalian brain: Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and thiol-specific antioxidant define a large family of antioxidant enzymes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 91 (15): 7017–21. Bibcode:1994PNAS...91.7017C. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.15.7017. PMC 44329. PMID 8041738.
  28. ^ Kim, J.; Krichevsky, A.; Grad, Y.; Hayes, G.; Kosik, K.; Church, G.; Ruvkun, G. (2004). "Identification of many microRNAs that copurify with polyribosomes in mammalian neurons". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101 (1): 360–365. Bibcode:2003PNAS..101..360K. doi:10.1073/pnas.2333854100. PMC 314190. PMID 14691248.
  29. ^ Tavazoie, S; Hughes, J. D.; Campbell, M. J.; Cho, R. J.; Church, G. M. (1999). "Systematic determination of genetic network architecture". Nature Genetics. 22 (3): 281–5. doi:10.1038/10343. PMID 10391217.
  30. ^ Pilpel, Y; Sudarsanam, P; Church, G. M. (2001). "Identifying regulatory networks by combinatorial analysis of promoter elements". Nature Genetics. 29 (2): 153–9. doi:10.1038/ng724. PMID 11547334.
  31. ^ Ge, H; Liu, Z; Church, G. M.; Vidal, M (2001). "Correlation between transcriptome and interactome mapping data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Nature Genetics. 29 (4): 482–6. doi:10.1038/ng776. PMID 11694880.
  32. ^ Shendure, J; Mitra, R. D.; Varma, C; Church, G. M. (2004). "Advanced sequencing technologies: Methods and goals". Nature Reviews Genetics. 5 (5): 335–44. doi:10.1038/nrg1325. PMID 15143316.
  33. ^ Cheng, Y; Church, G. M. (2000). "Biclustering of expression data". Proceedings. International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology. 8: 93–103. PMID 10977070.
  34. ^ Tompa, M; Li, N; Bailey, T. L.; Church, G. M.; De Moor, B; Eskin, E; Favorov, A. V.; Frith, M. C.; Fu, Y; Kent, W. J.; Makeev, V. J.; Mironov, A. A.; Noble, W. S.; Pavesi, G; Pesole, G; Régnier, M; Simonis, N; Sinha, S; Thijs, G; Van Helden, J; Vandenbogaert, M; Weng, Z; Workman, C; Ye, C; Zhu, Z (2005). "Assessing computational tools for the discovery of transcription factor binding sites". Nature Biotechnology (Submitted manuscript). 23 (1): 137–44. doi:10.1038/nbt1053. PMID 15637633.
  35. ^ Roth, F. P.; Hughes, J. D.; Estep, P. W.; Church, G. M. (1998). "Finding DNA regulatory motifs within unaligned noncoding sequences clustered by whole-genome mRNA quantitation". Nature Biotechnology. 16 (10): 939–45. doi:10.1038/nbt1098-939. PMID 9788350.
  36. ^ Ball, M. P.; Li, J. B.; Gao, Y; Lee, J. H.; Leproust, E. M.; Park, I. H.; Xie, B; Daley, G. Q.; Church, G. M. (2009). "Targeted and genome-scale strategies reveal gene-body methylation signatures in human cells". Nature Biotechnology. 27 (4): 361–8. doi:10.1038/nbt.1533. PMC 3566772. PMID 19329998.
  37. ^ Selinger, D. W.; Cheung, K. J.; Mei, R; Johansson, E. M.; Richmond, C. S.; Blattner, F. R.; Lockhart, D. J.; Church, G. M. (2000). "RNA expression analysis using a 30 base pair resolution Escherichia coli genome array". Nature Biotechnology. 18 (12): 1262–8. doi:10.1038/82367. PMID 11101804.
  38. ^ Mali, P.; Yang, L.; Esvelt, K. M.; Aach, J.; Guell, M.; Dicarlo, J. E.; Norville, J. E.; Church, G. M. (2013). "RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering via Cas9". Science. 339 (6121): 823–826. Bibcode:2013Sci...339..823M. doi:10.1126/science.1232033. PMC 3712628. PMID 23287722.
  39. ^ Shendure, J.; Porreca, J.; Reppas, B.; Lin, X.; McCutcheon, P.; Rosenbaum, M.; Wang, D.; Zhang, K.; Mitra, D.; Church, G. M. (September 2005). "Accurate Multiplex Polony Sequencing of an Evolved Bacterial Genome". Science. 309 (5741): 1728–1732. Bibcode:2005Sci...309.1728S. doi:10.1126/science.1117389. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 16081699.
  40. ^ Ephrussi, A; Church, G. M.; Tonegawa, S; Gilbert, W (1985). "B lineage--specific interactions of an immunoglobulin enhancer with cellular factors in vivo". Science. 227 (4683): 134–40. Bibcode:1985Sci...227..134E. doi:10.1126/science.3917574. PMID 3917574.
  41. ^ Drmanac, R; Sparks, A. B.; Callow, M. J.; Halpern, A. L.; Burns, N. L.; Kermani, B. G.; Carnevali, P; Nazarenko, I; Nilsen, G. B.; Yeung, G; Dahl, F; Fernandez, A; Staker, B; Pant, K. P.; Baccash, J; Borcherding, A. P.; Brownley, A; Cedeno, R; Chen, L; Chernikoff, D; Cheung, A; Chirita, R; Curson, B; Ebert, J. C.; Hacker, C. R.; Hartlage, R; Hauser, B; Huang, S; Jiang, Y; et al. (2010). "Human genome sequencing using unchained base reads on self-assembling DNA nanoarrays". Science. 327 (5961): 78–81. Bibcode:2010Sci...327...78D. doi:10.1126/science.1181498. PMID 19892942.
  42. ^ Sommer, M. O. A.; Dantas, G.; Church, G. M. (2009). "Functional Characterization of the Antibiotic Resistance Reservoir in the Human Microflora". Science. 325 (5944): 1128–1131. Bibcode:2009Sci...325.1128S. doi:10.1126/science.1176950. PMC 4720503. PMID 19713526.
  43. ^ Friedland, A. E.; Lu, T. K.; Wang, X; Shi, D; Church, G; Collins, J. J. (2009). "Synthetic gene networks that count". Science. 324 (5931): 1199–202. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1199F. doi:10.1126/science.1172005. PMC 2690711. PMID 19478183.
  44. ^ Hughes, J. D.; Estep, P. W.; Tavazoie, S; Church, G. M. (2000). "Computational identification of cis-regulatory elements associated with groups of functionally related genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Journal of Molecular Biology. 296 (5): 1205–14. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2000.3519. PMID 10698627.
  45. ^ Sussman, J. L.; Holbrook, S. R.; Warrant, R. W.; Church, G. M.; Kim, S. H. (1978). "Crystal structure of yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA. I. Crystallographic refinement". Journal of Molecular Biology. 123 (4): 607–30. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(78)90209-7. PMID 357742.
  46. ^ Robison, K; McGuire, A. M.; Church, G. M. (1998). "A comprehensive library of DNA-binding site matrices for 55 proteins applied to the complete Escherichia coli K-12 genome". Journal of Molecular Biology. 284 (2): 241–54. CiteSeerX doi:10.1006/jmbi.1998.2160. PMID 9813115.
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