|Description||Elimination of the use of animal products, particularly in diet|
|Earliest proponents||Roger Crab (1621–1680)
Johann Conrad Beissel (1691–1768)
James Pierrepont Greaves (1777–1842)
Sylvester Graham (1794–1851)
Amos Bronson Alcott (1799–1888)
Sarah Bernhardt (1844–1923)
Donald Watson (1910–2005)
|Term coined by||Donald Watson, November 1944|
|List of vegans|
Veganism is both the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. A follower of veganism is known as a vegan.
Distinctions are sometimes made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans (or strict vegetarians) refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but also eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances; this is known as a vegan or entirely plant-based diet. The term ethical vegan is often applied to those who not only follow a vegan diet but extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives, and oppose the use of animals for any purpose.[n 1] Another term is environmental veganism, which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the harvesting or industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.
The term vegan was coined in 1944 by Donald Watson when he co-founded the Vegan Society in England, at first to mean "non-dairy vegetarian" and later "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals." Interest in veganism increased in the 2010s. Vegan options became increasingly available in many countries, including in supermarkets and chain restaurants.
Vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fibre, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron and phytochemicals, and lower in calories, saturated fat, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc and vitamin B12.[n 2] Well-planned vegan diets can reduce the risk of some types of chronic disease, including heart disease, and are regarded as appropriate for all stages of the life-cycle by the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, and Dietitians of Canada. Because uncontaminated plant foods do not provide vitamin B12 (which is produced by microorganisms such as bacteria), researchers agree that vegans should eat B12-fortified foods or take a supplement.[n 3]
- 1 History
- 2 Becoming mainstream (2010s)
- 3 Animal products
- 4 Vegan diet
- 5 Personal items
- 6 Philosophy
- 7 See also
- 8 Bibliography
The origin of the English term vegetarian is unknown. The earliest known use is attributed to the actress Fanny Kemble, writing around 1839 in Georgia in the United States.[n 4] The practice can be traced to Pythagoras in 6th-century-BCE Greece. Greek philosophers Empedocles and Theophrastus were vegetarians, as were Seneca the Younger, Ovid, Plutarch, Plotinus and Porphyry. Their arguments were based on health, the transmigration of souls, animal welfare and the view, espoused by Porphyry in De Abstinentia ab Esu Animalium ("On Abstinence from Animal Food"), that if humans deserve justice so do nonhumans.
Vegetarianism established itself as a significant movement in 19th-century England and the United States. There were vegetarians who ate fish, eggs and dairy (now known as pescetarians), and dietary vegans, then often called strict vegetarians, who ate no animal products. In 1815 William Lambe, a London physician, published Water and Vegetable Diet, proposing a vegan diet as a cure for cancer and asthma. In the 1830s the Graham diet from Sylvester Graham – mostly fruit, vegetables, bread made with stoneground flour, and water – became a popular health remedy in the United States. Several vegan communities were established. Amos Bronson Alcott, father of novelist Louisa May Alcott, opened two in Massachusetts in 1834 and 1844: the Temple School and Fruitlands, the latter opposing the use of animals for any reason. In 1838 William Alcott, Amos's cousin, published Vegetable Diet: As Sanctioned by Medical Men and By Experience in All Ages (1838).
In England in 1838 James Pierrepont Greaves founded the Concordium, a vegan school and cooperative community at Alcott House on Ham Common, advocating cold baths and a diet of fruit, porridge, bread and water. In 1843 members of Alcott House created what may have been the first vegan advocacy group: the British and Foreign Society for the Promotion of Humanity and Abstinence from Animal Food. Little is known about it, except that its president was Sophia Chichester, a significant benefactor of Alcott House. Alcott House was also involved in establishing the British Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent. An 1851 article in the society's magazine discussing alternatives to shoe leather suggests that there were vegans within the membership who rejected animal use entirely, not only from diet. The first known vegan cookbook, Rupert H. Wheldon's No Animal Food: Two Essays and 100 Recipes, was published in London in 1910, proposing a diet of pulses, cereals, nuts, fruits, green vegetables and roots on health and moral grounds.
Coining the term vegan (1944)
Mahatma Gandhi joined the Vegetarian Society's executive committee when he lived in London from 1888 to 1891. In 1931, during a visit to London for the second Round Table conference on the future of India, he gave a speech to the society arguing that it ought to promote a meat-free diet as a matter of ethics, not health. The consumption of eggs and dairy had become something of an issue within the society; there were regular discussions in its newsletter, the Vegetarian Messenger, about the treatment of cows and hens. It appears from the correspondence that many opponents of veganism came from within the vegetarian community.
In August 1944 several members asked that a section be devoted to non-dairy vegetarianism. When the request was turned down, Donald Watson, secretary of the Leicester Vegetarian Society, set up his own quarterly newsletter, Vegan News. He chose the word vegan himself.[n 6] The first edition appeared in November 1944, priced tuppence, and attracted over 100 letters in response, including from George Bernard Shaw, who suggested that he was willing to give up eggs and dairy. World Vegan Day is held every 1 November to mark the newsletter's creation.
The new Vegan Society, then with six members, held its first meeting in early November 1944 at the Attic Club, 144 High Holborn, London.[n 7] The newsletter changed its name to The Vegan in November 1945, by which time it had 500 subscribers. It published recipes, health news, and a list of suitable products (the "vegan trade list"), such as Colgate toothpaste, Kiwi shoe polish, Dawson & Owen stationery and Gloy glue. Vegan books began appearing, including Vegan Recipes by Fay K. Henderson, and Aids to a Vegan Diet for Children by Kathleen V. Mayo.
The society made clear after a few years that it rejected the use of animals for any purpose, not only as food. Watson told a conference in 1947 that "the vegan renounces it as superstitious that human life depends upon the exploitation of these creatures whose feelings are much the same as our own ..." In 1951 the society defined veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals." Leslie Cross, the society's vice-president, founded the Plantmilk Society in 1956 to explore commercial soy milk production. As Plantmilk Ltd (later Plamil Foods) it began production in 1965 of one of the first widely distributed soy milks in the Western world. Consumers in the UK bought 92 million litres of plant milk in 2013.
The first vegan society in the United States was founded in 1948 by Catherine Nimmo and Rubin Abramowitz in California, who distributed Watson's newsletter, and in 1960 H. Jay Dinshah founded the American Vegan Society (AVS). Dinshah linked veganism to the concept of ahimsa, "non-harming" in Sanskrit. According to Joanne Stepaniak, the word vegan was first published independently in 1962 by the Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, defined as "a vegetarian who eats no butter, eggs, cheese or milk."
Becoming mainstream (2010s)
From the late 1970s a group of scientists in the United States, including physicians Dean Ornish, Caldwell Esselstyn, Neal D. Barnard, John A. McDougall, Michael Greger and biochemist T. Colin Campbell, argued that diets based on animal fat and animal protein, such as the Western pattern diet, were detrimental to health. They proposed that a low-fat, plant-based diet would prevent, and might reverse, coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers.
Concerns about diet and the environment coincided. A series of books opposed the consumption of animal products: Frances Moore Lappé's Diet for a Small Planet (1971), McDougall's The McDougall Plan (1983), John Robbins's Diet for a New America (1987), (1990), and Ornish's Dr. Dean Ornish's Program for Reversing Heart Disease (1990). From the early 2000s there was increased interest from scientists about diets that were low in or free of animal products, and in 2003 two major North American dietitians' associations approved the vegan diet as safe for all life stages. Other influential books and films included Campbell's The China Study (2005), Esselstyn's Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease (2007), Jonathan Safran's Eating Animals (2009), and the film Forks over Knives (2011).
The vegan diet became more mainstream in the 2010s. Chain restaurants marked vegan items on their menus, and supermarkets stocked more vegan processed food. The mock-meats market increased by 18 percent between 2005 and 2010, and in the UK the plant milk market increased by 155 percent in two years, from 36 million litres in 2011 to 92 million in 2013. The interest was reflected in increased page views on Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia article on veganism was viewed 73,000 times in August 2009 but 145,000 times in August 2013. Articles on veganism were viewed more during this period than articles on vegetarianism in the English, French, German, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish Wikipedias.
Celebrities, athletes and politicians adopted vegan diets, some seriously, some part-time. The idea of the "flexi-vegan" gained currency; in his book VB6 (2013), New York Times food columnist Mark Bittman recommended sticking to a vegan diet before 6 pm. In 2010 the European Parliament defined vegan for food labels, in force as of 2015. De Vegetarische Slager, the first known vegetarian "butcher" shop, selling mock meats, opened in the Netherlands in 2010. In 2011 Europe's first vegan supermarkets appeared in Germany: Vegilicious in Dortmund, and Veganz in Berlin and elsewhere. In 2013 the Oktoberfest in Munich, traditionally a meat-heavy affair, offered vegan dishes for the first time in its 200-year history.
In Sweden four percent said they were vegan in a 2014 poll, as did five percent in Israel, according to one group; 2.6 percent in Israel were vegan or vegetarian in 2010, according to the government. There were an estimated 800,000 vegans in Germany as of 2013. Two percent in the US identified as vegan in a 2012 Gallup poll, as did 0.5 percent in a 2014 Faunalytics poll; the latter found that 70 percent of those who adopted a vegan diet abandoned it. In the UK, where the tofu and mock-meats market was worth £786.5 million in 2012, two percent said they were vegan in a 2007 government survey. In the Netherlands there were an estimated 16,000 vegans as of 2007.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Animal products.|
Vegans do not eat beef, pork, poultry, fowl, game or seafood, eggs, dairy or any other animal products. Dietary vegans might use animal products in clothing (as leather, wool and silk), toiletries and similar. Ethical vegans reject the commodification of animals and will not use them for food, clothing, entertainment or any other purpose. The British Vegan Society will certify a product only if it is free of animal involvement as far as possible and practical, including animal testing.
Philosopher Gary Steiner argues that it is not possible to be entirely vegan, because animal use and products are "deeply and imperceptibly woven into the fabric of human society." Animal products in common use include albumen, allantoin, beeswax, blood, bone char, bone china, carmine, casein, cochineal, elastin, emu oil, gelatin, isinglass, keratin, lactic acid, lanolin, lard, rennet, retinol, shellac, squalene, tallow/sodium tallowate, whey and yellow grease. They are not always included in the list of ingredients.
Ethical vegans will not buy woollen jumpers, silk scarves, leather shoes, bedding that contains goose down or duck feathers, or ordinary soap (usually made of animal fat). They avoid certain vaccines; the flu vaccine, for example, is usually grown in hens' eggs. Non-vegan items acquired before they became vegan might be donated to charity or used until worn out. Some vegan clothes, in particular leather alternatives, are made of petroleum-based products, which has triggered criticism because of the environmental damage involved in their production.
Eggs, dairy, honey, silk
The main difference between a vegan and vegetarian diet is that vegans exclude eggs and dairy products. Ethical vegans avoid them on the premise that their production causes animal suffering and premature death. In egg production, most male chicks are culled because they do not lay eggs. To obtain milk from dairy cattle, cows are made pregnant to induce lactation; they are kept pregnant and lactating for three to seven years, then slaughtered. Female calves are separated from their mothers within 24 hours of birth, and fed milk replacer to retain the cow's milk for human consumption. Male calves are slaughtered at birth, sent for veal production, or reared for beef.
Vegan groups disagree about insect products. Neither the Vegan Society nor the American Vegan Society considers honey, silk and other insect products as suitable for vegans, while Vegan Action and Vegan Outreach view it as a matter of personal choice. Agave nectar is a popular vegan alternative to honey.
- Vegan cuisine at Wikibook Cookbooks
Vegan diets are based on grains and other seeds, legumes (particularly beans), fruits, vegetables, edible mushrooms, and nuts. Meat analogues (mock meats) based on soybeans (tofu), or wheat-based seitan/gluten, are a common source of plant protein, usually in the form of vegetarian sausage, mince and veggie burgers.
Dishes based on soybeans are a staple of vegan diets because soybeans are a complete protein; this means they contain all the essential amino acids for humans and can be relied upon entirely for protein intake.[n 8] They are consumed most often in the form of soy milk and tofu (bean curd), which is soy milk mixed with a coagulant. Tofu comes in a variety of textures, depending on water content, from firm, medium firm and extra firm for stews and stir-fries, to soft or silken for salad dressings, desserts and shakes. Soy is also eaten in the form of tempeh, seitan and texturized vegetable protein (TVP); also known as textured soy protein (TSP), the latter is often used in pasta sauces.
Plant milk, cheese, mayo
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Plant milk.|
|Nutritional content of cows', soy and almond milk|
(whole, vitamin D added)
calcium, vitamins A and D added)
|Calories (cup, 243 g)||149||80||40|
|Saturated fat (g)||4.55||0.5||0|
|Vitamin B12 (µg)||1.10||2.70||n/a|
|Vitamin A (IU)||395||503||n/a|
|Vitamin D (IU)||124||119||n/a|
Plant milks—such as soy milk, almond milk, grain milks (oat milk and rice milk), hemp milk, and coconut milk—are used in place of cows' or goats' milk.[n 9] Soy milk provides around 7 g of protein per cup (240 ml or 8 fluid ounces), compared with 8 g of protein per cup of cow's milk. Almond milk is lower in calories, carbohydrates and protein. Soy milk should not be used as a replacement for breast milk for babies. Babies who are not breastfed need commercial infant formula, normally based on cows' milk or soy. The latter is known as soy-based infant formula or SBIF.
Butter can be replaced with a vegan alternative such as Earth Balance's. Vegan (egg-free) mayonnaise brands include Vegenaise, Nayonaise, Miso Mayo, Just Mayo, Mindful Mayo, and Plamil's Egg-Free Mayo.
Vegan cheeses such as Chreese, Daiya, Sheese, Teese and Tofutti, are made from soy, nuts and tapioca, and can replace the meltability of dairy cheese. Nutritional yeast is a common substitute for the taste of cheese in vegan recipes. Several recipe books describe how to make cheese substitutes at home; one recipe for vegan brie combines cashew nuts, soy yogurt and coconut oil. In 2014 Oakland's Counter Culture Labs and Sunnyvale's BioCurious produced vegan cheese from casein extracted from genetically modified yeast.
Commercial egg substitutes, such as Bob's Red Mill egg replacer and Ener-G egg replacer, are available for cooking and baking. The protein in eggs thickens when heated and binds other ingredients together. Flaxseeds will do the same: replace each egg with one tablespoon of flaxseed meal mixed with three tablespoons of water. For pancakes a tablespoon of baking powder can be used instead of eggs. Other ingredients include (to replace one egg): one tablespoon of soy flour and one tablespoon of water; a quarter cup of mashed bananas, mashed prunes or apple sauce; or in batter two tablespoons of white flour, half a tablespoon of vegetable oil, two tablespoons of water and half a tablespoon of baking powder. Silken (soft) tofu and mashed potato can also be used.
Vegan food groups
Since 1991 the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) has recommended a no-cholesterol, low-fat vegan diet based on what they call the New Four Food Groups: fruit, legumes, grains and vegetables. Legumes include peas, beans, lentils and peanuts.
PCRM recommends three or more servings a day of fruit (at least one of which is high in vitamin C, such as citrus fruit, melon or strawberries); two or more of protein-rich legumes (such as soybeans, which can be consumed as soy milk, tofu or tempeh); five or more of whole grains (such as corn, barley, rice and wheat, in products such as bread and tortillas); and four or more of vegetables (dark-green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, and dark-yellow and orange such as carrots or sweet potatoes).
The vegan food group was created as an alternative to the Four Food Groups – meat, milk, vegetables and fruit, and cereal and breads – recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) from 1956 until 1992. In 1992 the USDA replaced this with the food guide pyramid and in 2011 with MyPlate, which is consistent with a vegan diet. MyPlate is divided into five groups: grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy (or calcium-fortified soymilk), and protein. The protein includes meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts and seeds.[n 10] In the UK the National Health Service recommends the Eatwell Plate, also with five groups and consistent with a vegan diet: fruit and vegetables; potatoes, bread and other starchy foods; dairy or non-dairy alternatives; meat, fish, eggs or beans for protein; and fat and sugar.
Proteins are composed of amino acids. Vegans obtain all their protein from plants, omnivores usually a third and ovo-lacto vegetarians half. Sources of plant protein include legumes such as soy beans (consumed as tofu, tempeh, texturized vegetable protein, soy milk and edamame), peas, peanuts, black beans and chickpeas (the latter often eaten as hummus); grains such as quinoa (pronounced keenwa), brown rice, corn, barley, bulgur and wheat (the latter eaten as bread and seitan); and nuts and seeds. Combinations that contain high amounts of all the essential amino acids include rice and beans, corn and beans, and hummus and whole-wheat pita.
Soy beans and quinoa are known as complete proteins because they each contain all the essential amino acids in amounts that meet or exceed human requirements. Mangels et al. write that consuming the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of protein (0.8 g/kg body weight) in the form of soy will meet the biologic requirement for amino acids. In 2012 the United States Department of Agriculture ruled that soy protein (tofu) may replace meat protein in the National School Lunch Program.
The American Dietetic Association said in 2009 that a variety of plant foods consumed over the course of a day can provide all the essential amino acids for healthy adults, which means that protein combining in the same meal may not be necessary. Mangels et al. write that there is little reason to advise vegans to increase their protein intake, but erring on the side of caution, they recommend a 25 percent increase over the RDA for adults, to 1.0 gram of protein per kilogram of body weight.
Vitamin B12 is a bacterial product needed for cell division, the formation and maturation of red blood cells, the synthesis of DNA, and normal nerve function. A deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia and nerve damage. Vegans are unable in most cases to obtain B12 from their diet; vegetarians are also at risk (as are older people and those with certain medical conditions). A 2013 study found that "vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet."[n 3]
Increased hygiene in the food supply is probably the cause of B12 depletion from plant-based diets.[n 11] Neither plants nor animals make B12; it is produced by microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and algae. Plants not washed properly may contain B12 from bacteria in the soil, often from faeces, and drinking water may be similarly contaminated, particularly in the developing world. Animals obtain it by eating contaminated plants, other animals, or their own faeces, and become sources of B12 if eaten themselves.[n 12] Intensively farmed animals are often given B12 supplements or injections, particularly pigs and poultry, because when raised indoors they have no access to plants and less access to their own faeces. Bacteria in the human digestive tract produce B12, but most is expelled in the faeces. The mouth is another source, but in small amounts and possibly analogue (not biologically active).[n 13]
Japanese researchers say that around 4 g of dried purple nori, an edible seaweed, supplies the adult RDA of 2.4 mcg (µg) of B12. Tempeh, a fermented soybean food, is cited as another source, perhaps because of contamination during production.[n 14] There is no gold standard for assessing B12 status and few studies exist of long-term vegans who have not used supplements or fortified foods. Studies of vegans not taking supplements or eating fortified food have found low B12 levels and clinical signs of deficiency; low B12 levels without signs of a deficiency; and neither. Nevertheless, the consensus among researchers is that vegans and vegetarians should use supplements, or eat B12-fortified foods such as soy milk or cereal. Mangels et al. say: "It is likely that all Western vegans consuming unsupplemented diets will eventually develop vitamin B12 deficiency, although it may take decades for this to occur. No animal products are involved in the production of B12 supplements. One tablespoon of Red Star Vegetarian Support Formula nutritional yeast delivers the adult RDA of B12.[n 15]
Calcium is needed to maintain bone health and for several metabolic functions, including muscle function, vascular contraction and vasodilation, nerve transmission, intracellular signalling and hormonal secretion. Ninety-nine percent of the body's calcium is stored in the bones and teeth.:35–74
Vegans are advised to eat three servings a day of a high-calcium food, such as fortified soy milk, fortified tofu, almonds or hazelnuts, and to take a supplement as necessary. Plant sources include broccoli, turnip, bok choy and kale; the bioavailability of calcium in spinach is poor. Vegans should make sure they consume enough vitamin D, which is needed for calcium absorption.
A 2007 report based on the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which began in 1993, suggested that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over meat eaters and vegetarians, likely because of lower dietary calcium intake. The study found that vegans consuming at least 525 mg of calcium daily have a risk of fractures similar to that of other groups.[n 16] A 2009 study found the bone mineral density (BMD) of vegans was 94 percent that of omnivores, but deemed the difference clinically insignificant.[n 17]
Vitamin D (calciferol) is needed for several functions, including calcium absorption, enabling mineralization of bone, and bone growth. Without it bones can become thin and brittle; together with calcium it offers protection against osteoporosis. Vitamin D is produced in the body when ultraviolet rays from the sun hit the skin; outdoor exposure is needed because UVB radiation does not penetrate glass. It is present in salmon, tuna, mackerel and cod liver oil, with small amounts in cheese, egg yolks and beef liver, and in some mushrooms.
Most vegan diets contain little or no vitamin D without fortified food. People with little sun exposure may need supplements. The extent to which sun exposure is sufficient depends on the season, time of day, cloud and smog cover, skin melanin content, and whether sunscreen is worn. According to the National Institutes of Health, most people can obtain and store sufficient vitamin D from sunlight in the spring, summer and fall, even in the far north. They report that some researchers recommend 5–30 minutes of sun exposure without sunscreen between 10 am and 3 pm, at least twice a week. Tanning beds emitting 2–6 per cent UVB radiation have a similar effect, though tanning is inadvisable.
Vitamin D comes in two forms. Cholecalciferol (D3) is synthesized in the skin after exposure to the sun, or consumed in the form of animal products; when produced industrially it is taken from lanolin in sheep's wool. Ergocalciferol (D2) is derived from ergosterol from UV-exposed mushrooms or yeast and is suitable for vegans. Conflicting studies have suggested that the two forms may or may not be bioequivalent. According to researchers from the Institute of Medicine, the differences between D2 and D3 do not affect metabolism, both function as prohormones, and when activated exhibit identical responses in the body.
Vegetarian and vegan diets usually contain as much iron as animal-based diets, or more. Vegan diets generally contain more iron than vegetarian diets because dairy products contain very little. There are concerns about the bioavailability of iron from plant foods, assumed by some researchers to be around 5–15 percent compared to 18 percent from a nonvegetarian diet. Iron deficiency anaemia is found as often in nonvegetarians as in vegetarians, though studies have shown vegetarians' iron stores to be lower.
Mangels et al. write that because of the lower bioavailability of iron from plant sources, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences established a separate RDA for vegetarians and vegans of 14 mg for vegetarian men and postmenopausal women, and 33 mg for premenopausal women not using oral contraceptives. Supplements should be used with caution after consulting a physician, because iron can accumulate in the body and cause damage to organs. This is particularly true of anyone with hemochromatosis, a relatively common condition that can remain undiagnosed.
High-iron vegan foods include soy beans, black-strap molasses, black beans, lentils, chickpeas, spinach, tempeh, tofu and lima beans. Iron absorption can be enhanced by eating a source of vitamin C at the same time, such as half a cup of cauliflower or five fluid ounces of orange juice. Coffee and some herbal teas can inhibit iron absorption, as can spices that contain tannins (turmeric, coriander, chillies and tamarind).
Omega-3 fatty acids, iodine
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, is found in leafy green vegetables and nuts, and in vegetable oils such as canola and flaxseed oil. Vegan Outreach suggests vegans take 1/4 teaspoon of flaxseed oil (also known as linseed oil) daily, and use oils containing low amounts of omega-6 fatty acids, such as olive, canola, avocado or peanut oil. Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized, where it is iodized at low levels, or where, as in Britain and Ireland, dairy products are relied upon for iodine delivery because of low levels in the soil. Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or regular consumption of seaweeds, such as kelp.
Veganism appears to provide health benefits, including a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease and certain forms of cancer. A 2015 meta-analysis suggested that vegetarian, and particularly vegan, diets aided weight loss more effectively than non-vegetarian ones (the conclusion applied to diets of relatively short duration rather than long-term weight control). Studies of Adventists have suggested that, compared to non-vegetarians, vegans may have a reduced risk of most cancers, although a greater risk of urinary tract cancer. Both vegetarian and vegan diets are considered to be cancer-protective, although relatively few studies have been conducted.[n 18]
According to nutritionist Winston Craig, writing in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2009, vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fibre, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron and phytochemicals, and lower in calories, saturated fat, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc and vitamin B12.[n 2] Craig wrote that vegans tend to be thinner, with lower serum cholesterol and lower blood pressure. Factors associated with a vegan diet being considered cancer-protective include an increased intake of fruits and vegetables; absence of meat; sources of vegan protein, including soy protein; and typically lower body mass index (BMI).
Eliminating all animal products increases the risk of deficiencies of vitamins B12 and D, calcium and omega-3 fatty acids. Craig advised vegans to eat fortified foods or take supplements, and warned that iron and zinc may be problematic because of limited bioavailability. Vegans might be at risk of low bone mineral density without supplements.
The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada state that properly planned vegan diets are appropriate for all life stages, including pregnancy and lactation. They indicate that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders, but that its adoption may serve to camouflage a disorder rather than cause one. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council similarly recognizes a well-planned vegan diet as viable for any age. As of 2011 the German Society for Nutrition did not recommend a vegan diet and cautioned against it for babies and children, the pregnant and the elderly. The British National Health Service's Eatwell Plate allows for an entirely plant-based diet, as does the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) MyPlate.[n 10] Since 2012 the USDA has allowed tofu to replace meat in the National School Lunch Program.
Pregnancy, infants and children
The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada consider well-planned vegetarian and vegan diets "appropriate for individuals during all stages of the lifecycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes." The German Society for Nutrition cautioned against a vegan diet for pregnant women, babies and children as of 2011. The Canadian Pediatric Society regards well-planned vegan diets as appropriate "at all stages of fetal, infant, child and adolescent growth"; attention should be given to nutrient intake, particularly protein, vitamins B12 and D, essential fatty acids, iron, zinc and calcium.
According to a 2015 systematic review, there is little evidence available about vegetarian and vegan diets during pregnancy, and a lack of randomized studies meant that the effects of diet could not be distinguished from confounding factors. It concluded: "Within these limits, vegan-vegetarian diets may be considered safe in pregnancy, provided that attention is paid to vitamin and trace element requirements." A daily source of vitamin B12 is important for pregnant and lactating vegans, as is vitamin D if there are concerns about low sun exposure.[n 19] Researchers have reported cases of vitamin B12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers that were linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children. A doctor or registered dietitian should be consulted about taking supplements during pregnancy.
Ethical vegans will not use toiletries or household cleaners that contain animal products. Animal ingredients are ubiquitous because they are cheap. After animals are slaughtered for meat, the leftovers are put through the rendering process, and some of that material, particularly the fat, ends up in toiletries. Common ingredients include tallow in soap, and glycerine (derived from collagen), used as a lubricant and humectant in haircare products, moisturizers, shaving foam, soap and toothpaste; there is a plant-based form but it is usually animal-based.
Lanolin from sheep's wool is found in lip balm and moisturizers. Stearic acid is a common ingredient in face creams, shaving foam and shampoos; as with glycerine, it can be plant-based but is usually animal-derived. Lactic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid derived from animal milk, is used in moisturizers, as is allantoin, from the comfrey plant or cows' urine, in shampoos, moisturizers and toothpaste. Carmine from scale insects, such as the female cochineal, is used in food and cosmetics to produce red and pink shades.
The British Vegan Society's sunflower logo and PETA's bunny logo mean the product is certified vegan, which includes no animal testing. The leaping-bunny logo signals no animal testing, but it might not be vegan. The Vegan Society criteria for vegan certification are that the product contain no animal products, and that neither the finished item nor its ingredients have been tested on animals by, or on behalf of, the manufacturer or by anyone over whom the manufacturer has control. Its website contains a list of certified products, as does Australia's Choose Cruelty Free website. Animal Ingredients A to Z (2004) and Veganissimo A to Z (2013) list which ingredients might be animal-derived.
Beauty Without Cruelty, founded as a charity in 1959, was one of the earliest manufacturers and certifiers of vegan toiletries. Several international companies stock large vegan ranges, including Kiss My Face, MuLondon and Lush.
Ethical vegans avoid clothing that incorporates silk, wool (including lambswool, shearling, cashmere and angora), fur, feathers, or leather, snakeskin, or any other kind of skin or product. Most leather clothing is made from cows' and calves' skins, but sheep, goats, horses and pigs are also used. Less common skins include those from kangaroos, elephants, zebras, seals, crocodile and deer. Vegans regard the purchase of leather, particularly from cows, as financial support for the meat industry. They wear shoes, belts, jackets and carry handbags made of hemp, linen, cotton, canvas, polyester, synthetic leather (known as pleather), rubber or vinyl. Manufacture of the petroleum-based materials is harmful to the environment.
Ethical veganism is based on opposition to speciesism, the assignment of value to individuals on the basis of species membership alone. Divisions within animal rights theory include rights-based (deontological) and utilitarian (consequentialist) approaches, as well as protectionism, which pursues improved conditions for animals, and abolitionism, which seeks to end human ownership of non-humans. Abolitionists argue that protectionism serves only to make the public feel that animal use can be morally unproblematic (the "happy meat" position). Rights-theorists tend to be abolitionist and utilitarians protectionist.
Law professor Gary Francione, a rights theorist and prominent abolitionist, argues that all sentient beings should have the right not to be treated as property, and that adopting veganism must be the baseline for anyone who believes that non-humans have intrinsic moral value.[n 20] Pursuing improved welfare conditions is like campaigning for "conscientious rapists" who will rape without beating, he argues. Philosopher Tom Regan, also a rights theorist, argues that animals possess value as "subjects-of-a-life," because they have beliefs, desires, memory and the ability to initiate action in pursuit of goals. The right of subjects-of-a-life not to be harmed can be overridden by other moral principles, but pleasure, convenience and the economic interests of farmers are not weighty enough.
Philosopher Peter Singer, a prominent protectionist and utilitarian, argues that there is no moral or logical justification for failing to count animal suffering as a consequence when making decisions, and that killing animals should be rejected unless necessary for survival. Despite this, he writes that "[e]thical thinking can be sensitive to circumstances," and that he is "not too concerned about trival infractions."
An argument proposed by Bruce Friedrich, also a protectionist, holds that strict adherence to veganism harms animals, because it focuses on personal purity, rather than encouraging people to give up whatever animal products they can. For Francione, this is similar to arguing that, because human-rights abuses can never be eliminated, we should not defend human rights in situations we control. By failing to ask a server whether something contains animal products, we reinforce that the moral rights of animals are a matter of convenience, he argues. He concludes from this that the protectionist position fails on its own consequentialist terms.
Another view is that ethical veganism remains "subtly human-centred." Philosopher Val Plumwood saw ethical veganism, which she called "Ontological Veganism," as an example of human/nature dualism in that it views humanity as separate from the rest of nature; ethical vegans want to admit non-humans into the category that deserves special protection, rather than recognize the "ecological embeddedness" of all. Plumwood maintained that animal food may be an "unnecessary evil" from the perspective of the consumer who "draws on the whole planet for nutritional needs," and she strongly opposed factory farming, but for anyone relying on a much smaller ecosystem, it is very difficult or impossible to be vegan, she argued.
Environmental vegans focus on conservation, rejecting the use of animal products on the premise that fishing, hunting, trapping and farming, particularly factory farming, are environmentally unsustainable. Around 30 percent of the planet's surface is devoted to the livestock sector. In the United States ten billion land animals are killed every year for human consumption, and in 2005 48 billion birds were killed globally. A 2006 UN report, Livestock's Long Shadow, concluded that livestock farming (mostly of cows, chickens and pigs) has an impact on the air, land, soil, water, biodiversity and climate change.
Paul Watson of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society called pigs and chicken "major aquatic predators," and said that all Sea Shepherd ships are vegan for environmental reasons. In 1999 222 million tonnes of meat were produced globally. Livestock consumed 1,174 million tonnes of food in 2002, including 7.6 million tonnes of fishmeal and 670 million tonnes of cereals, one-third of the global cereal harvest. In 2001 they consumed 45 million tonnes of roots and vegetables and 17 million tonnes of pulses. As of 2006 the livestock industry accounted for 9 percent of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, 37 percent of methane, 65 percent of nitrous oxide, and 68 percent of ammonia; livestock waste emitted 30 million tonnes of ammonia a year, which is involved in the production of acid rain. Greenhouse gas emissions are not limited to animal husbandry. Plant agriculture such as rice cultivation can also cause environmental problems.
A 2007 Cornell University study concluded that vegetarian diets use the least land per capita, but require higher quality land than is needed to feed animals. A 2010 UN report, Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production, argued that animal products "in general require more resources and cause higher emissions than plant-based alternatives.":80 It argued that a move away from animal products is needed to reduce environmental damage.[n 21]
Steven Davis, a professor of animal science, argued in 2003 that, applying the least-harm principle, human beings should convert to a ruminant-based rather than plant-based diet, because of the animals killed by crop production. Based on a finding that wood-mouse populations fell from 25 to five per hectare after harvest, Davis estimated that 10 animals per hectare are killed from crop farming every year. If all 120,000,000 acres (490,000 km2) of cropland in the continental United States were used for a vegan diet, 500 million animals would die, but if half the land were used for ruminant pasture the number would be 900,000. This assumes that people switch to beef, lamb and dairy products from the eight billion poultry killed each year.
Philosopher Andy Lamey argued that, to include nonhuman deaths in the moral cost of veganism, Davis must also include human deaths caused by his proposed diet. Economist Gaverick Matheny wrote that Davis had miscalculated the animal deaths, basing his figures on land area rather than per consumer. In addition, by focusing on numbers rather than welfare, and by excluding factory-farmed animals, Davis had equated lives with lives worth living. His argument ignored the harm done to farmed animals: pain from branding, dehorning and castration, confinement, transport without food or water to a slaughterhouse, and a frightening death. Matheny argued that (strict) vegetarianism probably allows for a greater number of animals with lives worth living.
- Gary Francione, Robert Garner, 2010: "Although veganism may represent a matter of diet or lifestyle for some, ethical veganism is a profound moral and political commitment to abolition on the individual level and extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or using of animal products. Ethical veganism is the personal rejection of the commodity status of nonhuman animals ..."
- Winston J. Craig, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009: "Vegan diets are usually higher in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamins C and E, iron, and phytochemicals, and they tend to be lower in calories, saturated fat and cholesterol, long-chain n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B-12. ... A vegan diet appears to be useful for increasing the intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and for minimizing the intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases."
- Roman Pawlak, et al., Nutrition Reviews, 2013: "The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12."
Reed Mangels, 2006: "Vitamin B12 is needed for cell division and blood formation. Neither plants nor animals make vitamin B12. Bacteria are responsible for producing vitamin B12. Animals get their vitamin B12 from eating foods contaminated with vitamin B12 and then the animal becomes a source of vitamin B12. Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12 except when they are contaminated by microorganisms or have vitamin B12 added to them. Thus, vegans need to look to fortified foods or supplements to get vitamin B12 in their diet."
- Fanny Kemble, 1839: "The sight and smell of raw meat are especially odious to me, and I have often thought that if I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian, probably, indeed, return entirely to my green and salad days."
The next use was by the editor of The Healthian, a journal published by Alcott House, in April 1942: "To tell a man, who is in the stocks for a given fault, that he cannot be so confined for such an offence, is ridiculous enough; but not more so than to tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature, and contrary to reason ... At any rate there is generally with vegetarians, and especially fruit eaters, a calmness and even sweetness of temper ... We esteem this fact of the triple fermentation of vegetables of high importance, and one that ... is of great and irresistible weight in the vegetarian advocacy."
- Mahatma Gandhi, 20 November 1931: "I feel especially honoured to find on my right, Mr. Henry Salt. It was Mr. Salt's book 'A Plea for Vegetarianism’, which showed me why apart from a hereditary habit, and apart from my adherence to a vow administered to me by my mother, it was right to be a vegetarian. He showed me why it was a moral duty incumbent on vegetarians not to live upon fellow-animals. It is, therefore, a matter of additional pleasure to me that I find Mr. Salt in our midst."
- Watson called the first newsletter Vegan News, but asked his readers if they had other suggestions for "non-dairy vegetarian." Suggestions included allvega, neo-vegetarian, dairyban, vitan, benevore, sanivores and beaumangeur.
- In attendance were Donald Watson, Elsie B. Shrigley, Fay K. Henderson, A. Hy Haffenden, P. Spencer, B. Drake and Mme Pataleewa (the latter as an observer).
- Mangels, Messina and Messina, 2011: "Soy protein products typically have a protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) ... >0.9, which is similar to that of meat and milk protein. Consequently, consuming the recommended dietary allowance (RDA, 0.8 mg/kg body weight [bw]), for protein entirely in the form of soy will meet the biologic requirement for amino acids. ... Formal recognition of the high quality of soy protein came in the form of a ruling by the USDA [United States Department of Agriculture] allowing soy protein to replace 100 percent of meat protein in the Federal School Lunch Program."
- Popular plant-milk brands include Dean Foods' Silk soy milk and almond milk, Blue Diamond's Almond Breeze, Taste the Dream's Almond Dream and Rice Dream, and Plamil Foods' Organic Soya and Alpro's Soya. Vegan ice-creams include Tofutti, Turtle Mountain's So Delicious, and Luna & Larry's Coconut Bliss.
- United States Department of Agriculture: "All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group."
- Victor Herbert, 1988: "[S]trict vegetarians who do not practice thorough hand washing or vegetable cleaning may be untroubled by vitamin B-12 deficiency."
- Herbivorous animals obtain B12 from bacteria in their rumens, either by absorbing it or by eating their own faeces.
- Victor Herbert, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1988: In the 1950s, Sheila Callender, an English haematologist, made water extracts of faeces collected from vegans with anaemia caused by a lack of B12, and cured the deficiency by feeding them the extracts.:852
- Other sources of B12 cited are miso, and other edible seaweeds (arame, wakame and kombu), spirulina and rainwater. Barley malt syrup, shiitake mushrooms, parsley and sourdough bread have also been referenced, but may be sources of inactive B12.
- The RDA for B12 for adults (14+ years) is 2.4 mcg (µg) a day, rising to 2.4 and 2.6 mcg during pregnancy and lactation respectively. For infants and children, it is 0.4 mcg for 0–6 months, 0.5 mcg for 7–12 months, 0.9 mcg for 1–3 years, 1.2 mcg for 4–8 years, and 1.8 mcg for 9–13 years.
- Appleby, et al., European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007: "We observed similar fracture rates among meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. A 30% higher fracture rate among vegans compared with meat eaters was halved in magnitude by adjustment for energy and calcium intake and disappeared altogether when the analysis was restricted to subjects who consumed at least 525 mg/day calcium, a quantity equal to the UK EAR. ... In conclusion, fracture risk was similar for meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians in this study. The higher fracture risk among vegans appeared to be a consequence of their considerably lower mean calcium intake. Vegans, who do not consume dairy products, a major source of calcium in most diets, should ensure that they obtain adequate calcium from suitable sources such as almonds, sesame seeds, tahini (sesame paste), calcium-set tofu, calcium-fortified drinks and low-oxalate leafy green vegetables such as kale ..."
National Institutes of Health, 2013: "In the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, bone fracture risk was similar in meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, but higher in vegans, likely due to their lower mean calcium intake."
- Annabelle M. Smith, International Journal of Nursing Practice, 2006: "The findings gathered consistently support the hypothesis that vegans do have lower bone mineral density than their non-vegan counterparts. However, the evidence regarding calcium, Vitamin D and fracture incidence is inconclusive."
- Amy Joy Lanou, Barbara Svenson, 2010: "Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, surprisingly very few studies have directly addressed this question."
- Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2009: "Key nutrients in pregnancy include vitamin B-12, vitamin D, iron, and folate whereas key nutrients in lactation include vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, and zinc. Diets of pregnant and lactating vegetarians should contain reliable sources of vitamin B-12 daily. Based on recommendations for pregnancy and lactation, if there is concern about vitamin D synthesis because of limited sunlight exposure, skin tone, season, or sunscreen use, pregnant and lactating women should use vitamin D supplements or vitamin D–fortified foods. No studies included in the evidence-analysis examined vitamin D status during vegetarian pregnancy. Iron supplements may be needed to prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia, which is common in pregnancy. Women capable of becoming pregnant as well as women in the periconceptional period are advised to consume 400 μg folate daily from supplements, fortified foods, or both. Zinc and calcium needs can be met through food or supplement sources as identified in earlier sections on these nutrients."
- Gary Francione, 2009: "We all believe it's wrong to inflict unnecessary suffering and death on animals. ... So now the next question becomes "what do we mean by necessity?" Well, whatever it means, whatever abstract meaning it has, if it has any meaning whatsoever, its minimal meaning has to be that it's wrong to inflict suffering and death on animals for reasons of pleasure, amusement or convenience ... Okay. Problem is 99.9999999 percent of our animal use can only be justified by reasons of pleasure, amusement or convenience. It's gotta go."
- United Nations Environment Programme, 2010: "Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth, increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products.":82
- Records of Buckinghamshire, Volume 3, BPC Letterpress, 1870, p. 68.
- Karen Iacobbo, Michael Iacobbo, Vegetarian America: A History, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004, p. 3.
- J. E. M. Latham, Search for a New Eden, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1999, p. 168.
- Rynn Berry, "A History of the Raw-Food Movement in the United States" in Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina (eds.), Becoming Raw: The Essential Guide to Raw Vegan Diets, Book Publishing Company, 2010, p. 9ff.
- James D. Hart, "Alcott, Amos Bronson", in The Oxford Companion to American Literature, Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 14.
- Iacobbo and Iacobbo 2004, p. 132.
- George D. Rodger, "Interview with Donald Watson", Vegetarians in Paradise, 11 August 2004. George D. Rodger, "Interview with Donald Watson", recorded 15 December 2002 (abridged version later published in The Vegan).
- Donald Watson, Vegan News, first issue, November 1944.
- For commodification of animals in general, Kathryn Gillespie, Rosemary-Claire Collard, Critical Animal Geographies, Routledge, 2015, p. 2ff; for the idea of "sentient commodities," Rhoda Wilkie, Livestock/Deadstock: Working with Farm Animals from Birth to Slaughter, Temple University Press, 2010, chapter 6, pp. 115–128.
For veganism and commodification of animals, Helena Pedersen, Vasile Staescu, "Conclusion: Future Directions for Critical Animal Studies," in Nik Taylor, Richard Twine (eds.), The Rise of Critical Animal Studies: From the Margins to the Centre, Routledge, 2014 (pp. 262–276), pp. 267–268.
- "It should be noted that the term plant-based is sometimes used interchangeably with vegetarian or vegan." See Philip J. Tuso, et al., "Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets", The Permanente Journal, 17(2), Spring 2013, pp. 61–66. doi:10.7812/TPP/12-085 PMID 23704846
- Francione and Garner, p. 62.
- Michael Shapiro, "Sea Shepherd's Paul Watson: 'You don't watch whales die and hold signs and do nothing'", The Guardian, 21 September 2010; Matthew Cole, "Veganism," in Margaret Puskar-Pasewicz (ed.), Cultural Encyclopedia of Vegetarianism, ABC-Clio, 2010 (pp. 239–241), p. 241.
- Donald Watson, Vegan News, No. 1, November 1944, p. 2; Leslie Cross, "Veganism Defined", The Vegetarian World Forum, 5(1), Spring 1951.
- Rynn Berry, "Veganism," The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink, Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 604–605.
"Vegan diets becoming more popular, more mainstream", Associated Press, 6 January 2011; Raman Nijjar, "From pro athletes to CEOs and doughnut cravers, the rise of the vegan diet", CBC News, 4 June 2011.
Antonia Molloy, "No meat, no dairy, no problem: is 2014 the year vegans become mainstream?", The Independent, 31 December 2013; Kat Tancock, "Vegan cuisine moves into the mainstream – and it's actually delicious", The Globe and Mail, 13 January 2015.
- Winston J. Craig, "Health effects of vegan diets", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), May 2009 (pp. 1627S–1633S), p. 1627S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736N PMID 19279075
- Note: several sources use the word vegetarian to refer to a vegan or entirely plant-based diet:
Marian Glick-Bauer, Ming-Chin Yeh, "The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection", Nutrients, 6(11), November 2014, pp. 4822–4838. doi:10.3390/nu6114822 PMID 25365383
"Halt heart disease with a plant-based, oil-free diet", Harvard Heart Letter, 25(2), 1 October 2014, p. 6. PMID 26027024
Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Metria Harris, "Key elements of plant-based diets associated with reduced risk of metabolic syndrome," Current Diabetes Reports, 14(9), August 2014, p. 524. doi:10.1007/s11892-014-0524-y PMID 25084991
Lap Tai Le, Joan Sabaté, "Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts", Nutrients, 6(6), June 2014, pp. 2131–2147: "In summary, vegetarians have consistently shown to have lower risks for cardiometabolic outcomes and some cancers across all three prospective cohorts of Adventists. Beyond meatless diets, further avoidance of eggs and dairy products may offer a mild additional benefit. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to provide some added protection against obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes; and cardiovascular mortality. In general, the protective effects of vegetarian diets are stronger in men than in women." doi:10.3390/nu6062131 PMID 24871675
Philip J. Tuso, et al., "Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets", The Permanente Journal, 17(2), Spring 2013, pp. 61–66: "The major benefits for patients who decide to start a plant-based diet [vegetarian or vegan] are the possibility of reducing the number of medications they take to treat a variety of chronic conditions, lower body weight, decreased risk of cancer, and a reduction in their risk of death from ischemic heart disease." doi:10.7812/TPP/12-085 PMID 23704846
Winston J. Craig, "Health effects of vegan diets", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), May 2009 (pp. 1627S–1633S), p. 1627S: "A vegan diet appears to be useful for increasing the intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and for minimizing the intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases." doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736N PMID 19279075
Timothy J. Key, Paul N. Appleby, Magdalena S. Rosell, "Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diet," Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65(1), February 2006, pp. 35–41. doi:10.1079/PNS2005481 PMID 16441942
Claus Leitzmann, "Vegetarian Diets: What Are the Advantages?," Forum of Nutrition, 57, 2005, pp. 147–156: "A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. ... In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis." doi:10.1159/000083787 PMID 15702597
- "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(7), July 2009, pp. 1266–1282: "It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes." doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027 PMID 19562864
"Dietary Guidelines for Australia", National Health and Medical Research Council, p. 13; "Government recognises vegan diet as viable option for all Australians", MND Australia, 12 July 2013.
"Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(6), June 2003 (pp. 748–765), p. 755. PMID 12826028
- Richard Francis, Fruitlands: The Alcott Family and their Search for Utopia, Yale University Press, 2010.
- Rod Preece, Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought, University of British Columbia Press, 2008, p. 12.
- Fanny Kemble, Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838–1839, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1863, pp. 197–198.
- The Healthian, 1(5), April 1842, pp. 34–35.
Also see John Davis, "The earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian'", and "Extracts from some journals 1842–48 – the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian'", International Vegetarian Union.
- Daniel A. Dombrowski, "Vegetarianism and the Argument from Marginal Cases in Porphyry", Journal of the History of Ideas, 45(1), January – March 1984, pp. 141–143. doi:10.2307/2709335
- James Gregory, Of Victorians and Vegetarians, I. B. Tauris, 2007.
- "Under Examination," The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger, Vol XI, 1884, p. 237: "There are two kinds of Vegetarians – an extreme sect, who eat no animal food whatever; and a less extreme sect, who do not object to eggs, milk, or fish ... The Vegetarian Society ... belongs to the more moderate division."
- William Lambe, Joel Shew, Water and Vegetable Diet, New York: Fowler's and Wells, 1854 (later edition).
- Andrew F. Smith, Eating History, Columbia University Press, 2013, pp. 29–33.
- Hart 1995, p. 14; Richard Francis, Fruitlands: The Alcott Family and their Search for Utopia, Yale University Press, 2010.
- William A. Alcott, Vegetable Diet: As Sanctioned by Medical Men and By Experience in All Ages, Boston: Marsh, Capen & Lyon, 1838; Vegetable Diet, New York: Fowlers and Wells, 1851. The word vegetarian appears in the second edition but not the first.
- Gregory 2007, p. 22.
- Jackie Latham, "The political and the personal: the radicalism of Sophia Chichester and Georgiana Fletcher Welch," Women's History Review, 8(3), 1999. doi:10.1080/09612029900200216
William E. A. Axon, "A Forerunner of the Vegetarian Society", Vegetarian Messenger, December 1893, pp. 453–455.
- David Grumett, Rachel Muers, Theology on the Menu: Asceticism, Meat and Christian Diet, Routledge, 2010, p. 64.
- "History of Vegetarianism: The Origin of Some Words", International Vegetarian Union, 6 April 2010.
- Leah Leneman, "No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909–1944",Society and Animals, 7(3), 1999 (pp. 219–228), p. 220; Rupert Wheldon, No Animal Food, New York and New Jersey: Health Culture Co., 1910.
- Mahatma Gandhi, "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism", Vegetarian Society, London, 20 November 1931, pp. 11–14.
- "11th IVU World Vegetarian Congress 1947", International Vegetarian Union.
- Stanley A. Wolpert, Gandhi's Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi, Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 21–22.
- Wolpert 2002, p. 161.
- Leneman 1999, pp. 222–223.
- Donald Watson, "The Early History of the Vegan Movement", The Vegan, Autumn 1965, pp. 5–7.
- Donald Watson, Vegan News, February 1945, pp. 2–3.
- "World Vegan Day", Vegan Society, accessed 13 August 2009.
- The Vegan, 10(3), Autumn 1994, p. iii.
- For the name change, The Vegan, 1(5), November 1945; for 500, The Vegan, 10(3), Autumn 1994, p. iv.
For an example of the vegan trade list, The Vegan, 2(2), Summer 1946, pp. 6–7.
- Joanne Stepaniak, The Vegan Sourcebook, McGraw Hill Professional, 2000, p. 5; The Vegan, Autumn 1949, p. 22.
- Matthew Cole, "'The greatest cause on earth': The historical formation of veganism as an ethical practice," in Nik Taylor, Richard Twine (eds.), The Rise of Critical Animal Studies: From the Margins to the Centre, Routledge, 2014 (pp. 203–224), p. 203.
- Leslie Cross, "Veganism Defined", The Vegetarian World Forum, 5(1), Spring 1951, pp. 6–7.
- Harry Maher, "The Milk of Human Kindness", interview with Arthur Ling, Vegan Views, 37, Autumn 1986; "C Arthur Ling, 1919–2005", Plamil Foods; "The Plantmilk Society", The Vegan, X(3), Winter 1956, pp. 14–16.
- Nadia Khomami, "From Beyoncé to the Baftas, vegan culture gets star status", The Guardian, 8 February 2015.
- Stepaniak 2000, pp. 6–7; Linda Austin and Norm Hammond, Oceano, Arcadia Publishing, 2010, p. 39; Freya Dinshah, "Vegan, More than a Dream", American Vegan, Summer 2010, p. 31.
- Stepaniak 2000, pp. 6–7; "American Vegan Society: History", American Vegan Society.
- Stepaniak 2000, p. 3.
- Meat Atlas, Heinrich Böll Foundation, Friends of the Earth Europe, 2014, p. 57; Mona Chalabi, "Meat atlas shows Latin America has become a soybean empire", The Guardian, 9 January 2014.
- Donna Maurer, Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment?, Temple University Press, 2002, p. 23 (for last quarter of the 20th century), 99–101 (for Ornish and Barnard); Soren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick, "The Nobel Prize in Medicine should go to Dean Ornish", British Medical Journal, 29 December 2010. doi:10.1136/bmj.c5715
For Ornish, Campbell, Esselstyn, Barnard and Greger informally discussing veganism and health, Kathy Freston, Veganist, Weinstein Publishing, 2011: Dean Ornish, p. 21ff; T. Colin Campbell, p. 41ff; Caldwell Esselstyn, p. 57ff; Neal D. Barnard, p. 73ff; Michael Greger, p. 109ff.
- Sanjay Gupta, "Gupta: Becoming heart attack proof", CNN, 25 August 2011; David S. Martin, "The 'heart attack proof' diet?", CNN, 25 November 2011.
Pamela Popper, Glen Merzer, Food Over Medicine, BenBella Books, 2013; J. Morris Hicks, Healthy Eating, Healthy World, BenBella Books, 2013.
- Joan Sabaté, "The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift?", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(3), September 2003, pp. 502S–507S. PMID 12936940
"Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(6), June 2003, pp. 748–765. PMID 12826028
- Kate Burt, "Is this the end of meat?", The Independent, 19 May 2012.
- Amanda Holpuch, "Al Gore follows Bill Clinton's lead with apparent turn to veganism", The Guardian, 26 November 2013.
Joel Stein, "The Rise of the Power Vegans", Bloomberg Businessweek, 4 November 2010.
- Susie Mesure, "Veganism 2.0: Let them eat kale", The Independent, 8 December 2013.
- "European Parliament legislative resolution of 16 June 2010", European Parliament: "The term 'vegan' shall not be applied to foods that are, or are made from or with the aid of, animals or animal products, including products from living animals."
- Michael Valraven, "Vegetarian butchers make a killing", Radio Netherlands Worldwide, 14 September 2011; De Vegetarische Slager, accessed 16 July 2014.
- "Europe's first vegan supermarket opens in Dortmund", Deutsche Welle, 3 October 2011.
- Amy Guttman, "Meat-Drenched Oktoberfest Warms To Vegans", National Public Radio, 4 October 2013.
- Antonia Molloy, "One in ten Swedes is vegetarian or vegan, according to study", The Independent, 24 March 2014.
- Ben Sales (17 October 2014). "Israelis growing hungry for vegan diet". The Times of Israel.
- Frank Newport, "In U.S., 5% Consider Themselves Vegetarians", Gallup, 26 July 2012.
- "Study of Current and Former Vegetarians and Vegans", Faunalytics, December 2014, p. 4; "How Many Former Vegetarians and Vegans Are There?", Faunalytics, 2 December 2014.
- "Would you describe yourself as a vegetarian or vegan?", Survey of Public Attitudes and Behaviours toward the Environment, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2007, table 210, question F7, p. 481: 81 respondents out of 3,618 said they were vegans.
Anna-Louise Taylor, "Rise of the 'semi-vegetarians'", BBC News, 25 August 2012.
- "Vegetarian in Holland: Shopping and Cooking", The Hague Online, 19 February 2014.
- Francione and Garner 2010, p. 257.
- Francione and Garner 2010, p. 62.
- "Criteria for Vegan food", "Trademark Standards", Vegan Society; "What is Vegan?", American Vegan Society, accessed 17 December 2012.
- Gary Steiner, Animals and the Limits of Postmodernism, Columbia University Press, 2013, pp. 127–128.
- "Animal ingredients and products", Vegan Peace; David L. Meeker (ed.), Essential Rendering: All About The Animal By-Products Industry, National Renderers Association, 2006.
- Stepaniak 2000, pp. 20, 115–118, 154 (p. 116 for environmental damage and petroleum-based products).
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Russell J. Merritt, Belinda H. Jenks, "Safety of Soy-Based Infant Formulas Containing Isoflavones: The Clinical Evidence", The Journal of Nutrition, 134(5), 1 May 2004, pp. 1220–1224: "Modern soy formulas meet all nutritional requirements and safety standards of the Infant Formula Act of 1980." PMID 15113975
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Virginia Messina, Vegan for Her, Da Capo Press, 2013, p. 248.
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- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 445.
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- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, pp. 72, 78.
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- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 75ff.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 77.
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Fumio Watanabe, et al., "Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects," Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 61(280), 17 July 2013, pp. 6769–6775. doi:10.1021/jf401545z PMID 23782218
- Reed Mangels, Virginia Messina, and Mark Messina, "Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)", The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2011, pp. 181–192.
- Roman Pawlak, et al., "How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?", Nutrition Reviews, 71(2), February 2013, pp. 110–117. doi:10.1111/nure.12001 PMID 23356638
- Debra Wasserman, Reed Mangels, Simply Vegan, The Vegetarian Resource Group, 2006, p. 171; also at Reed Mangels, "Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet", The Vegetarian Resource Group, accessed 8 July 2015.
- Roman Pawlak, et al., "The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature," European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68(5), May 2014, pp. 541–548. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.46 PMID 24667752
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- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 192.
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- Lee Russell McDowell, Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition, John Wiley & Sons, 2008, p. 555–556.
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- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 187.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, pp. 182–183.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, pp. 183–185.
- Timothy J. Key, Paul N. Appleby, Magdalena S. Rosell, "Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diet," Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65(1), February 2006, pp. 35–41. doi:10.1079/PNS2005481 PMID 16441942
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 181.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, pp. 183.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, pp. 190, 297; Debra Wasserman, Reed Mangels, Simply Vegan, The Vegetarian Resource Group, 2006, p. 171; Mangels 2006.
Joanne Stepaniak, The Nutritional Yeast Cookbook, Book Publishing Company, 1997, p. 6.
- "Vitamin B12", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health.
- "Soymilk (all flavors), unsweetened, with added calcium, vitamins A and D", United States Department of Agriculture.
- "Calcium", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. The RDA for adults is 1,000 mg for 19–50 years, 1,000 mg for 51–70 years (men) and 1,200 mg (women), and 1,200 mg for 71+. The RDA for eighteen years and under is 200 mg for 0–6 months, 260 mg for 7–12 months, 700 mg for 1–3 years, 1,000 mg for 4–8 years, 1,300 mg for 9–18 years.
Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 109ff.
- Catherine A. Ross, et al. (eds.), "DRI Dietary Reference Intakes, Calcium, Vitamin D", Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium, Institute of Medicine, 2011.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 110.
- Paul N. Appleby et al., "Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford", European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(12), February 2007, pp. 1400–1406. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602659 PMID 17299475
- "Calcium: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet", National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements, 21 November 2013.
- A. Reed Mangels, "Bone nutrients for vegetarians", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, July 2014, Supplement 1, pp. 69S–765S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.071423 PMID 24898231
- L. T. Ho-Pham et al., "Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(4), October 2009, pp. 943–950. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27521 PMID 19571226
- Annabelle M. Smith, "Veganism and osteoporosis: a review of the current literature," International Journal of Nursing Practice, 12(5), October 2006, pp. 302–306. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2006.00580.x PMID 16942519
- "Vitamin D", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health; Mangels et al. 2011, pp. 204–209; Ross et al. (Institute of Medicine) 2011, pp. 75–124.
- Mangels et al. 2011, pp. 207–208; "Vitamin D: Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin D", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 209.
- Ross et al. (Institute of Medicine) 2011, p. 75.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 141.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, pp. 138ff, 143–144. For a detailed discussion, see "Iron", Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, 2001, pp. 290–393.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 146.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 143.
- "Iron: Health Risks from Excessive Iron", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health.
- Davida Gypsy Breier, Reed Mangels, Vegan & Vegetarian FAQ, The Vegetarian Resource Group, 2001, p. 27.
- Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 142; Reed Mangels, "Iron in the Vegan Diet", The Vegetarian Resources Group.
- Tom A. Sanders, "The nutritional adequacy of plant-based diets", The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 58(2), 1999, pp. 265–269.
- "Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. The Adequate Intake for ALA is 1.1–1.6 g/day.
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- Paul N. Appleby, et al., "The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(3), September 1999, pp. 525S–531S.
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- "Iodine", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. The RDA is 110 mcg (0–six months), 130 mcg (7–12 months), 90 mcg (1–8 years), 120 mcg (9–13 years), 150 mcg (14+). The RDA for pregnancy and lactation is 220 and 290 mcg respectively.
- Ru-Yi Huang, et al, "Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials", Journal of General Internal Medicine, 3390, 3 July 2015. doi:10.1007/s11606-015-3390-7 PMID 26138004
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Michael J. Orlich, Gary E. Fraser, "Vegetarian diets in the Adventist Health Study 2: a review of initial published findings", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(1), July 2014, pp. 353S–358S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.071233 PMID 24898223
- Amy Joy Lanou, Barbara Svenson (2010). "Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports". Journal of Cancer Management and Research 3: 1–8. doi:10.2147/CMR.S6910. PMID 21407994.
- "Vegane Ernährung: Nährstoffversorgung und Gesundheitsrisiken im Säuglings- und Kindesalter", Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, April 2011.
- "What Foods Are in the Protein Foods Group?", United States Department of Agriculture; "Vegetarian Choices in the Protein Foods Group"; "What Foods Are Included in the Dairy Group?", USDA.
- "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(7), July 2009, pp. 1266–1282. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027 PMID 19562864
- M. Amit, "Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents", Paediatric Child Health, 15(5), 2010, pp. 303–314 (Canadian Pediatric Society, 1 June 2010, reaffirmed 1 February 2014). PMID 21532796
- Piccoli G. B., et al., "Vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy: danger or panacea? A systematic narrative review," BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 122(5), April 2015, pp. 623–633. PMID 25600902 doi:10.1111/1471-0528.13280
- "Nutrition considerations", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(7), July 2009. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027 PMID 19562864
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- Ann Reed Mangels and V. Messina, "Considerations in planning vegan diets: Infants", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101(6), June 2001. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(01)00169-9 PMID 11424546
- Animal Ingredients A to Z, E. G. Smith Collective, 2004, 3rd edition; Lars Thomsen and Reuben Proctor, Veganissimo A to Z, The Experiment, 2013 (first published in Germany, 1996).
Also see "Animal ingredients list", PETA.
- Rosie Mestel, "Cochineal and Starbucks: Actually, this dye is everywhere", Los Angeles Times, 20 April 2012; Raymond Eller Kirk, Donald Frederick Othmer, Kirk-Othmer Chemical Technology of Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 535.
- Messina 2013, pp. 232–233; Aexis Croswell, "How to Read a Cruelty-Free Cosmetics Label", One Green Planet, 5 February 2014; "Certify", Vegan Action; FAQ, Coalition for Consumer Information on Cosmetics.
- "Trademark Standards" and Trademark search, British Vegan Society.
- "Accredited Cruelty-Free Vegan Companies", Choose Cruelty Free.
- Linzey, Andrew. "Dowding, Lady Muriel," Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 1998, p. 139; "History", Beauty Without Cruelty.
- Britanny Helmrich, "13 Cool Vegan-Friendly Businesses That Inspire", Business New Daily, 10 June 2015; "Why aren't all your products vegan?", FAQ, Lush.
Virginia Messina, Vegan for Her, Da Capo Press, 2013, p. 233.
- Stepaniak 2000, p. 115.
- Stepianak 2000, p. 16; Messina 2013, p. 231.
- Francione and Garner 2010, pp. 71–72.
- Gary Francione, Animals as Persons, Columbia University Press, 2013, p. 150; Erik Marcus "Erik Marcus Debates Professor Francione on Abolition vs. Animal Welfare", Erik's Diner, 25 February 2007.
- Francione and Garner 2010, p. 62ff.
- Eric Prescott, "I'm Vegan: Gary Francione, Vimeo, 2009, from 13:53 mins.
- Tom Regan, The Case for Animal Rights, University of California Press, 1983, pp. 243, 333–339.
- Peter Singer, Practical Ethics, Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 50; Singer 1999, pp. 60–61.
- Peter Singer and Jim Mason, The Way We Eat, Rodale, 2006, pp. 281–282.
- Bruce Friedrich, "Personal Purity vs. Effective Advocacy", PETA, 2006.
- Francione and Garner 2010, pp. 72–73.
- Val Plumwood, "Gender, Eco-Feminism and the Environment," in Robert White (ed.), Controversies in Environmental Sociology, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 52–53.
- Val Plumwood, The Eye of the Crocodile, edited by Lorraine Shannon, Canberra: Australian National University E Press, 2012, p. 87.
- Gaverick Matheny, "Least Harm: A Defense of Vegetarianism from Steven Davis's Omnivorous Proposal," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 16(5), 2003, pp. 505–511 (courtesy link). Matheny uses the terms vegetarianism, strictly vegetarian (vegan), and vegan-vegetarian to refer to dietary veganism.
- Henning Steinfeld, et al., Livestock's Long Shadow, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, 2006, p. 132.
- Steinfeld et al 2006, pp. 3, 74.
- Steinfeld et al 2006, p. xx.
- Steinfeld et al 2006, p. 12.
- Steinfeld et al 2006, p. 42. The roots, vegetables and pulses are mostly cassava, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cabbage, plantain, peas and beans.
- Steinfeld et al 2006, p. 272.
- "Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2009", United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2011.
- Heinz-Ulrich Neue, "Methane emission from rice fields", BioScience, 43(7), 1993, pp. 466–473; Tim Hirsch, "Plants revealed as methane source", BBC News, 11 January 2006.
- Lyle Munro, "Animals 'Nature' and Human Interests," in Robert White (ed.), Controversies in Environmental Sociology, Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 67; Jim Mason and Peter Singer, Animal Factories: What Agribusiness is Doing to the Family Farm, the Environment and Your Health, Harmony Books, 1990, p. 8.
- Christian J. Peters, Jennifer Wilkins, Gary W. Ficka, "Testing a complete-diet model for estimating the land resource requirements of food consumption and agricultural carrying capacity: The New York State example", Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 22(2), June 2007, pp. 145–153. doi:10.1017/S1742170507001767
Susan Lang, "Diet for small planet may be most efficient if it includes dairy and a little meat, Cornell researchers report", Cornell Chronicle, Cornell University, 4 October 2007.
- Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production, International Panel for Resource Management, United Nations Environment Programme, June 2010.
- Felicity Carus, "UN urges global move to meat and dairy-free diet", The Guardian, 2 June 2010; "Energy and Agriculture Top Resource Panel's Priority List for Sustainable 21st Century", United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Brussels, 2 June 2010.
For an opposing position, Simon Fairlie, Meat: A Benign Extravagance, Chelsea Green Publishing, 2010.
- S. L. Davis, "The Least Harm Principle May Require That Humans Consume a Diet Containing Large Herbivores, Not a Vegan Diet," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 16(4), 2003, pp. 387–394 (courtesy link); also see George Schedler, "Does Ethical Meat Eating Maximize Utility?" Social Theory and Practice, 31(4), 2005, pp. 499–511. doi:10.5840/soctheorpract200531422
S. L. Davis, "What is the Morally Relevant Difference between the Mouse and the Pig?", Proceedings of EurSafe 2000, 2nd Congress of the European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics, 2000, pp. 107–109.
- Andy Lamey, "Food Fight! Davis versus Regan on the Ethics of Eating Beef", Journal of Social Philosophy, 38(2), Summer 2007 (pp. 331–348), pp. 340–341 (courtesy link). doi:10.1111/j.1467-9833.2007.00382.x
- American Dietetic Association. "A new food guide for North American vegetarians", 2003.
- Jacobs, D. R., et al. "Food, plant food, and vegetarian diets in the US dietary guidelines: conclusions of an expert panel", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), May 2009, pp. 1549–1552.
- Mangels, Reed; Messina, Virginia; and Messina, Mark. The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2011.
- Mangels, Reed. The Everything Vegan Pregnancy Book, Adams Media, 2011.
- Mangels, Reed. "Pregnancy and the Vegan Diet", Vegetarian Resource Group, 2006.
- The Vegan, past issues.
- Earthlings, 2005.
- Food, Inc. 2008.
- Forks over Knives, 2011.
- Vegucated, 2011.
- Speciesism: The Movie, 2012.
- Peaceable Kingdom: The Journey Home, 2012
- Cowspiracy, 2014
- Early vegan/vegetarian texts (chronological)
- Riston, Joseph. An Essay on Abstinence from Animal Food, as a Moral Duty, Wilks and Taylor, 1802.
- Kingsford, Anna. The Perfect Way in Diet, Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., 1881.
- Shelley, Percy Bysshe. A Vindication of Natural Diet, F. Pitman, 1884.
- Salt, Henry Stephens. A Plea for Vegetarianism, Vegetarian Society, 1886.
- Williams, Howard. The Ethics of Diet, Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1896.
- Wheldon, Rupert H. No Animal Food, Health Culture Co., 1910 (first known vegan cookbook).