German Papiermark

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from German papiermark)
Jump to: navigation, search
German Papiermark
Mark (German)
Central bank Reichsbank
User(s)  German Empire
Germany Weimar Republic
Flag of the Free City of Danzig.svg Free City of Danzig
Subunit
 1/100 Pfennig
Symbol
Pfennig
Plural Mark
Pfennig Pfennig
Coins 1, 2, 5, 10, 50 Pfennig
1, 3, 200, 500 Mark
Banknotes 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 Mark
1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 thousand Mark
1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 million Mark
1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 billion Mark
1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 trillion Mark
This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.

The name About this sound Papiermark  (English: paper mark, officially just Mark, sign: ) is applied to the German currency from 4 August 1914[1] when the link between the Goldmark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of World War I. In particular, the name is used for the banknotes issued during the hyperinflation in Germany of 1922 and especially 1923, which was a result of the German government's decision to pay its war debt by printing banknotes.[disputed ]

History[edit]

From 1914, the value of the Mark fell. The rate of inflation rose following the end of World War I and reached its highest point in October 1923. The currency was stabilized in November 1923 after the announcement of the creation of the Rentenmark, although the Rentenmark did not come into circulation until 1924. When it did, it replaced the Papiermark at the rate of 1 trillion Papiermark = 1 Rentenmark. Later in 1924, the Rentenmark was replaced by the Reichsmark.

In addition to the issues of the government, emergency issues of both tokens and paper money, known as Kriegsgeld (war money) and Notgeld (emergency money), were produced by local authorities.
The Papiermark was also used in the Free City of Danzig until replaced by the Danzig Gulden in late 1923. Several coins and emergency issues in papiermark were issued by the free city.

Coins[edit]

5 Million Mark coin would have been worth $714.29 in Jan 1923, about 1 thousandth of one cent by Oct 1923.

During the war, cheaper metals were introduced for coins, including aluminium, zinc and iron, although silver ½ Mark pieces continued in production until 1919. Aluminium 1 Pfennig were produced until 1918 and the 2 Pfennig until 1916. Whilst iron 5 Pfennig, both iron and zinc 10 Pfennig and aluminium 50 Pfennig coins were issued until 1922. Aluminium 3 Mark were issued in 1922 and 1923, and aluminium 200 and 500 Mark were issued in 1923. The quality of many of these coins varied from decent to poor.

During this period, many provinces and cities also had their own corresponding coin and note issues, referred to as Notgeld currency. This came about often due to a shortage of exchangeable tender in one region or another during the war and hyperinflation periods. Some of the most memorable of these to be issued during this period came from Westfalen and featured the highest face value denominations on a coin ever, eventually reaching 50,000,000 Mark.

Banknotes[edit]

First World War issues[edit]

In 1914, the State Loan Office began issuing paper money known as Darlehnskassenscheine (loan fund notes). These circulated alongside the issues of the Reichsbank. Most were 1- and 2-Mark notes but there were also 5-, 20-, 50- and 100-Mark notes.

Post War issues[edit]

The victor nations in World War I decided to assess Germany for their costs of conducting the war against Germany. With no means of paying in gold or currency backed by reserves, Germany ran the presses, causing the value of the Mark to collapse.[disputed ] Many Germans literally carted wheelbarrows of cash to pay for groceries.[citation needed]

During the hyperinflation, ever higher denominations of banknotes were issued by the Reichsbank and other institutions (notably the Reichsbahn railway company). The Papiermark was produced and circulated in enormously large quantities. Before the war, the highest denomination was 1000-Mark, equivalent to approximately 50 British pounds or 238 US dollars. In early 1922, 10,000-Mark notes were introduced, followed by 100,000- and 1 million-Mark notes in February 1923. July 1923 saw notes up to 50 million-Mark, with 10 milliard (1010)-Mark notes introduced in September. The hyperinflation peaked in October 1923 and banknote denominations rose to 100 trillion (1014)-Mark. At the end of the hyperinflation, these notes were worth approximately 5 pounds or 24 dollars.

German Papiermark of the Weimar Republic[edit]

Republic Treasury Notes, Weimar Republic Reichsbanknote
Year Issue Value[nb 1] Date[nb 2] Image Comments
1920
01-20First[2] 000000000000010-1920-02-0610 1920-02-066 Feb 1920
GER-67-Reichsbanknote-10 Mark (1920).jpg
126 mm × 84 mm (5.0 in × 3.3 in)
000000000000050-1920-07-2350 1920-07-2323 Jul 1920
GER-68-Reichsbanknote-50 Mark (1920).jpg
150 mm × 100 mm (5.9 in × 3.9 in)
000000000000100-1920-11-01100 1920-11-011 Nov 1920
GER-69b-Reichsbanknote-100 Mark (1920).jpg
Portraits based on the Bamberg riders at Bamberg Cathedral
162 mm × 108 mm (6.4 in × 4.3 in)
1922
01-22 First[3] 000000000010000-1922-01-1910,000 1922-01-1919 Jan 1922
GER-71-Reichsbanknote-10000 Mark (1922).jpg
Bildnis Eines Jungen Mannes by Albrecht Dürer
210 mm × 124 mm (8.3 in × 4.9 in)
02-22 Second[4] 000000000000500-1922-03-27500 1922-03-2727 Mar 1922
GER-73-Reichsbanknote-500 Mark (1922).jpg
Jakob Meyer of the Meyer zum Pfeil family.
175 mm × 112 mm (6.9 in × 4.4 in)
000000000000500-1922-07-07500 1922-07-077 Jul 1922
GER-74c-Reichsbanknote-500 Mark (1922).jpg
173 mm × 90 mm (6.8 in × 3.5 in)
03-22 Third[4] 000000000000100-1922-08-04100 1922-08-044 Aug 1922
GER-75-Reichsbanknote-100 Mark (1922).jpg
162 mm × 90 mm (6.4 in × 3.5 in)
000000000001000-1922-09-151,000 1922-09-1515 Sep 1922
GER-76-Reichsbanknote-1000 Mark (1922).jpg
160 mm × 85 mm (6.3 in × 3.3 in)
000000000005000-1922-09-165,000 1922-09-1616 Sep 1922
GER-77-Reichsbanknote-5000 Mark (1922).jpg
Section of Portrait of a Man with a Coin by Hans Memling
130 mm × 90 mm (5.1 in × 3.5 in)
000000000005000-1922-11-195,000 1922-11-1919 Nov 1922
GER-78-Reichsbanknote-5000 Mark (1922).jpg
Portrait of Hans Urmiller based on Hans Urmiller und Sohn by Barthel Beham
198 mm × 107 mm (7.8 in × 4.2 in)
000000000050000-1922-11-1950,000 1922-11-1919 Nov 1922
GER-80-Reichsbanknote-50000 Mark (1922).jpg
Bürgermeister Arnold von Brauweiler based on Burgomaster Arnold von Brauweiler by Barthel Bruyn the Elder
190 mm × 110 mm (7.5 in × 4.3 in)
04-22Fourth[4] 000000000005000-1922-12-025,000 1922-12-022 Dec 1922
GER-81-Reichsbanknote-5000 Mark (1922).jpg
Merchant Imhof based on Bildnis eines unbekannten Mannes by Albrecht Dürer
130 mm × 90 mm (5.1 in × 3.5 in)
05-22 Fifth[5] 000000000001000-1922-12-151,000 1922-12-1515 Dec 1922
GER-82a-Reichsbanknote-1000 Mark (1922).jpg
Portrait of Jörg Herz based on Jörg Herz Nürnberger Münzmeister by Georg Pencz
140 mm × 90 mm (5.5 in × 3.5 in)
1923
01-23First[5] 000000000100000-1923-02-01100,000 1923-02-011 Feb 1923
GER-83-Reichsbanknote-100000 Mark (1923).jpg
Merchant Georg Giese based on Der Kaufmann Georg Gisze by Hans Holbein the Younger
190 mm × 115 mm (7.5 in × 4.5 in)
02-23 Second[5] 000000000010000-1923-02-0310,000 1923-02-033 Feb 1923 Not issued
000000000020000-1923-02-2020,000 1923-02-2020 Feb 1923
GER-85-Reichsbanknote-20000 Mark (1923).jpg
160 mm × 95 mm (6.3 in × 3.7 in)
000000001000000-1923-02-201 million 1923-02-2020 Feb 1923
GER-86-Reichsbanknote-1 Million Mark (1923).jpg
160 mm × 110 mm (6.3 in × 4.3 in)
03-23 Third[6] 000000000005000-1923-03-155,000 1923-03-1515 Mar 1923
GER-87-Reichsbanknote-5000 Mark (1923).jpg
Portrait of Hans Urmiller based on Hans Urmiller und Sohn by Barthel Beham
148 mm × 90 mm (5.8 in × 3.5 in)
000000000500000-1923-05-01500,000 1923-05-011 May 1923
GER-88-Reichsbanknote-500000 Mark (1923).jpg
170 mm × 95 mm (6.7 in × 3.7 in)
000000002000000-1923-07-232 million 1923-07-2323 Jul 1923
GER-89-Reichsbanknote-2 Million Mark (1923).jpg
Merchant Georg Giese based on Der Kaufmann Georg Gisze by Hans Holbein the Younger
162 mm × 87 mm (6.4 in × 3.4 in)
000000005000000-1923-06-015 million 1923-06-011 Jun 1923
GER-90-Reichsbanknote-5 Million Mark (1923).jpg
170 mm × 95 mm (6.7 in × 3.7 in)
04-23Fourth[7] 000000000100000-1923-07-25100,000 1923-07-2525 Jul 1923
GER-91-Reichsbanknote-100000 Mark (1923).jpg
110 mm × 80 mm (4.3 in × 3.1 in)
000000000500000-1923-07-25500,000 1923-07-2525 Jul 1923
GER-92-Reichsbanknote-500000 Mark (1923).jpg
175 mm × 80 mm (6.9 in × 3.1 in)
000000001000000-1923-07-251 million 1923-07-2525 Jul 1923
GER-93-Reichsbanknote-1 Million Mark (1923).jpg
160 mm × 95 mm (6.3 in × 3.7 in)
000000001000000-1923-07-251 million 1923-07-2525 Jul 1923
GER-94-Reichsbanknote-1 Million Mark (1923).jpg
185 mm × 80 mm (7.3 in × 3.1 in)
000000005000000-1923-07-255 million 1923-07-2525 Jul 1923
GER-95-Reichsbanknote-5 Million Mark (1923).jpg
190 mm × 80 mm (7.5 in × 3.1 in)
000000010000000-1923-07-2510 million 1923-07-2525 Jul 1923
GER-96-Reichsbanknote-10 Million Mark (1923).jpg
195 mm × 80 mm (7.7 in × 3.1 in)
000000020000000-1923-07-2520 million 1923-07-2525 Jul 1923
GER-97b-Reichsbanknote-20 Million Mark (1923).jpg
195 mm × 83 mm (7.7 in × 3.3 in)
000000050000000-1923-07-2550 million 1923-07-2525 Jul 1923
GER-98a-Reichsbanknote-50 Million Mark (1923).jpg
195 mm × 86 mm (7.7 in × 3.4 in)
05-23 Fifth[8] 000000000050000-1923-08-0950,000 1923-08-099 Aug 1923
GER-99-Reichsbanknote-50000 Mark (1923).jpg
105 mm × 70 mm (4.1 in × 2.8 in)
000000000200000-1923-08-09200,000 1923-08-099 Aug 1923
GER-100-Reichsbanknote-200000 Mark (1923).jpg
115 mm × 70 mm (4.5 in × 2.8 in)
000000001000000-1923-08-091 million 1923-08-099 Aug 1923
GER-101-Reichsbanknote-1 Million Mark (1923).jpg
120 mm × 80 mm (4.7 in × 3.1 in)
000000002000000-1923-08-092 million 1923-08-099 Aug 1923
GER-103-Reichsbanknote-2 Million Mark (1923).jpg
125 mm × 80 mm (4.9 in × 3.1 in)
000000005000000-1923-08-205 million 1923-08-2020 Aug 1923
GER-105-Reichsbanknote-5 Million Mark (1923).jpg
128 mm × 80 mm (5.0 in × 3.1 in)
000000010000000-1923-08-2210 million 1923-08-2222 Aug 1923
GER-106-Reichsbanknote-10 Million Mark (1923).jpg
125 mm × 80 mm (4.9 in × 3.1 in)
000000100000000-1923-08-22100 million 1923-08-2222 Aug 1923
GER-107-Reichsbanknote-100 Million Mark (1923).jpg
150 mm × 85 mm (5.9 in × 3.3 in)
06-23Sixth[9] 000000020000000-1923-09-0120 million 1923-09-011 Sep 1923
GER-108-Reichsbanknote-20 Million Mark (1923).jpg
125 mm × 82 mm (4.9 in × 3.2 in)
000000050000000-1923-09-0150 million 1923-09-011 Sep 1923
GER-109-Reichsbanknote-50 Million Mark (1923).jpg
124 mm × 84 mm (4.9 in × 3.3 in)
000000500000000-1923-09-01500 million 1923-09-011 Sep 1923
GER-110-Reichsbanknote-500 Million Mark (1923).jpg
155 mm × 85 mm (6.1 in × 3.3 in)
000500000000000-1923-09-01500 billion 1923-09-011 Sep 1923 Specimen only
001000000000000-1923-09-011 trillion 1923-09-011 Sep 1923 Specimen only
07-23 Seventh[9] 000001000000000-1923-09-001 billion 1923-09-Sep 1923
GER-113-Reichsbanknote-1 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
Overprinted on 15 Dec 1922 note
140 mm × 90 mm (5.5 in × 3.5 in)
000001000000000-1923-09-051 billion 1923-09-055 Sep 1923
GER-114-Reichsbanknote-1 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
160 mm × 86 mm (6.3 in × 3.4 in)
000005000000000-1923-09-105 billion 1923-09-1010 Sep 1923
GER-115-Reichsbanknote-5 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
165 mm × 85 mm (6.5 in × 3.3 in)
000010000000000-1923-09-1510 billion 1923-09-1515 Sep 1923
GER-116-Reichsbanknote-10 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
000010000000000-1923-10-0110 billion 1923-10-011 Oct 1923
GER-117-Reichsbanknote-10 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
160 mm × 105 mm (6.3 in × 4.1 in)
000020000000000-1923-10-0120 billion 1923-10-011 Oct 1923
GER-118-Reichsbanknote-20 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
140 mm × 90 mm (5.5 in × 3.5 in)
000050000000000-1923-10-1050 billion 1923-10-1010 Oct 1923
GER-119c-Reichsbanknote-50 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
176 mm × 86 mm (6.9 in × 3.4 in)
000200000000000-1923-10-15200 billion 1923-10-1515 Oct 1923
GER-121-Reichsbanknote-200 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
140 mm × 80 mm (5.5 in × 3.1 in)
08-23Eighth[10] 000001000000000-1923-10-201 billion 1923-10-2020 Oct 1923
GER-122-Reichsbanknote-1 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
127 mm × 61 mm (5.0 in × 2.4 in)
000005000000000-1923-10-205 billion 1923-10-2020 Oct 1923
GER-123a-Reichsbanknote-5 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
130 mm × 64 mm (5.1 in × 2.5 in)
000500000000000-1923-10-00500 billion 1923-10- Oct 1923
GER-124a-Reichsbanknote-500 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
Overprinted on 15 Mar 1923 note
Portrait of Hans Urmiller based on Hans Urmiller und Sohn by Barthel Beham
145 mm × 90 mm (5.7 in × 3.5 in)
09-23Ninth[10] 000050000000000-1923-10-2650 billion 1923-10-2626 Oct 1923
GER-125-Reichsbanknote-50 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
135 mm × 65 mm (5.3 in × 2.6 in)
000100000000000-1923-10-26100 billion 1923-10-2626 Oct 1923
GER-126-Reichsbanknote-100 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
135 mm × 65 mm (5.3 in × 2.6 in)
000500000000000-1923-10-26500 billion 1923-10-2626 Oct 1923
GER-127a-Reichsbanknote-500 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
137 mm × 65 mm (5.4 in × 2.6 in)
100000000000000-1923-10-26100 trillion 1923-10-2626 Oct 1923 174 mm × 86 mm (6.9 in × 3.4 in)
10-23 Tenth[11] 001000000000000-1923-11-011 trillion 1923-11-011 Nov 1923
GER-129-Reichsbanknote-1 Trillion Mark (1923).jpg
137 mm × 65 mm (5.4 in × 2.6 in)
005000000000000-1923-11-015 trillion 1923-11-011 Nov 1923
GER-130-Reichsbanknote-5 Trillion Mark (1923).jpg
168 mm × 86 mm (6.6 in × 3.4 in)
010000000000000-1923-11-0110 trillion 1923-11-011 Nov 1923
GER-131-Reichsbanknote-10 Trillion Mark (1923).jpg
171 mm × 86 mm (6.7 in × 3.4 in)
010000000000000-1923-11-0110 trillion 1923-11-011 Nov 1923
GER-132-Reichsbanknote-10 Trillion Mark (1923).jpg
120 mm × 82 mm (4.7 in × 3.2 in)
11-23Eleventh[12] 000100000000000-11-23100 billion XXXXXX
GER-133-Reichsbanknote-100 Billion Mark (1923).jpg
135 mm × 65 mm (5.3 in × 2.6 in)
001000000000000-1923-11-051 trillion 1923-11-055 Nov 1923
GER-134-Reichsbanknote-1 Trillion Mark (1923).jpg
143 mm × 86 mm (5.6 in × 3.4 in)
002000000000000-1923-11-052 trillion 1923-11-055 Nov 1923
GER-135-Reichsbanknote-2 Trillion Mark (1923).jpg
120 mm × 71 mm (4.7 in × 2.8 in)
005000000000000-1923-11-005 trillion 1923-11-7 Nov 1923
GER-136-Reichsbanknote-5 Trillion Mark (1923).jpg
165 mm × 86 mm (6.5 in × 3.4 in)
1924
01-24First[12] 010000000000000-1924-02-0110 trillion 1924-02-011 Feb 1924
GER-137-Reichsbanknote-10 Trillion Mark (1924).jpg
140 mm × 72 mm (5.5 in × 2.8 in)
020000000000000-1924-02-0520 trillion 1924-02-055 Feb 1924
GER-138-Reichsbanknote-20 Trillion Mark (1924).jpg
Portrait of a woman based on Bildnis einer jungen Venezianerin by Albrecht Dürer
160 mm × 95 mm (6.3 in × 3.7 in)
050000000000000-1924-02-1050 trillion 1924-02-1010 Feb 1924 Jakob Muffel based on Portrait of Jakob Muffel by Albrecht Dürer
175 mm × 95 mm (6.9 in × 3.7 in)
100000000000000-1924-02-15100 trillion 1924-02-1515 Feb 1924
GER-140-Reichsbanknote-100 Trillion Mark (1924).jpg
Portrait of Willibald Pirckheimer based on a painting by Albrecht Dürer
180 mm × 95 mm (7.1 in × 3.7 in)
02-24Second[13] 005000000000000-1924-03-155 trillion 1924-03-1515 Mar 1924
GER-141-Reichsbanknote-5 Trillion Mark (1924).jpg
120 mm × 72 mm (4.7 in × 2.8 in)

German Papiermark of Danzig[edit]

Papiermark of Danzig
Issue Value Image
1914 Emergency
50 Pfennig
DAN-1-Danzig City Council-50 Pfennig (1914).jpg
1 Mark
DAN-2-Danzig City Council-1 Mark (1914).jpg
2 Mark
DAN-3-Danzig City Council-2 Mark (1914).jpg
3 Mark
DAN-4-Danzig City Council-3 Mark (1914).jpg
1916
10 Pfennig
DAN-5-Danzig City Council-10 Pfennig (1916).jpg
50 Pfennig
DAN-6-Danzig City Council-50 Pfennig (1916).jpg
1918 First
5 Mark
DAN-7-Danzig City Council-5 Mark (1918).jpg
20 Mark
DAN-8-Danzig City Council-20 Mark (1918).jpg
1918 Second
50 Pfennig
DAN-9-Danzig City Council-50 Pfennig (1918).jpg
20 Mark
1919
50 Pfennig
DAN-11-Danzig City Council-50 Pfennig (1919).jpg
1922
100
DAN-13-Danzig-100 Mark (1922).jpg
500
DAN-14-Danzig-500 Mark (1922).jpg
1,000
DAN-15-Danzig-1000 Mark (1922).jpg
1923 First
1,000
10,000
DAN-18-Danzig-10000 Mark (1923).jpg
50,000
DAN-19-Danzig-50000 Mark (1923).jpg
1923 Provisional
1 million
DAN-21-Danzig-1MIL Mark (1923).jpg
5 million
DAN-23-Danzig-5MIL Mark (1923).jpg
1923 Inflation
1 million
DAN-24-Danzig-1MIL Mark (1923).jpg
10 million
DAN-25-Danzig-10MIL Mark (1923).jpg
100 million
DAN-27-Danzig-100MIL Mark (1923).jpg
500 million
DAN-28a-Danzig-500MIL Mark (1923).jpg
5 billion
DAN-30-Danzig-5BIL Mark (1923).jpg
10 billion
DAN-31-Danzig-10BIL Mark (1923).jpg

Note on numeration[edit]

In German, Milliarde is 1,000,000,000, or one thousand million, while Billion is 1,000,000,000,000, or one million million.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ All values are in Reichsbank Mark.
  2. ^ Series date printed on the banknote.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Knapp, George Friedrich (1924), The State Theory of Money, Macmillan and Company, pp. vxi 
  2. ^ Cuhaj 2010, pp. 555–56.
  3. ^ Cuhaj 2010, pp. 556.
  4. ^ a b c Cuhaj 2010, pp. 557.
  5. ^ a b c Cuhaj 2010, pp. 558.
  6. ^ Cuhaj 2010, pp. 558-59.
  7. ^ Cuhaj 2010, pp. 559.
  8. ^ Cuhaj 2010, pp. 560-61.
  9. ^ a b Cuhaj 2010, pp. 561-62.
  10. ^ a b Cuhaj 2010, pp. 562.
  11. ^ Cuhaj 2010, pp. 562-63.
  12. ^ a b Cuhaj 2010, pp. 563.
  13. ^ Cuhaj 2010, pp. 563-64.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by:
Goldmark
Currency of Germany
1914 – 1923
Succeeded by:
Rentenmark
Reason: inflation
Ratio: 1 Rentenmark = 1,000,000,000 Papiermark, and 4.2 Rentenmark = US$1