Glasgow Outcome Scale

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Glasgow Outcome Scale
Purposegroups brain injuries by objective degree of recovery

The Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) is a scale of patients with brain injuries, such as cerebral traumas that groups victims by the objective degree of recovery. The first description was in 1975 by Jennett and Bond.[1]


The Glasgow Outcome Score applies to patients with brain damage allowing the objective assessment of their recovery in five categories. This allows a prediction of the long-term course of rehabilitation to return to work and everyday life.[citation needed]

1. Death Severe injury or death without recovery of consciousness
2. Persistent vegetative state Severe damage with prolonged state of unresponsiveness and a lack of higher mental functions
3. Severe disability Severe injury with permanent need for help with daily living
4. Moderate disability No need for assistance in everyday life, employment is possible but may require special equipment.
5. Low disability Light damage with minor neurological and psychological deficits.

Expanded scale[edit]

The Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) is an expanded version of the scale.[2][3] It subdivides the upper three categories:[3]

1. Death
2. Vegetative state
3. Lower severe disability
4. Upper severe disability
5. Lower moderate disability
6. Upper moderate disability – some disability but can potentially return to some form of employment
7. Lower good recovery – minor physical or mental defect
8. Upper good recovery – full recovery


  1. ^ Jennett, B; Bond, M (Mar 1, 1975). "Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage". Lancet. 1 (7905): 480–484. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(75)92830-5. PMID 46957. S2CID 54230482.
  2. ^ Jennett, B.; Snoek, J.; Bond, M. R.; Brooks, N. (April 1981). "Disability after severe head injury: observations on the use of the Glasgow Outcome Scale". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 44 (4): 285–293. doi:10.1136/jnnp.44.4.285. ISSN 0022-3050. PMC 490949. PMID 6453957.
  3. ^ a b Wilson, J.T. Lindsay; Pettigrew, Laura E.L.; Teasdale, Graham M. (August 1998). "Structured Interviews for the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale: Guidelines for Their Use". Journal of Neurotrauma. 15 (8): 573–585. doi:10.1089/neu.1998.15.573. ISSN 0897-7151. PMID 9726257.