Guerrilla gardening

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Guerrilla gardening on a Los Angeles street.

Guerrilla gardening is the act of gardening on land that the gardeners do not have the legal rights to utilize, such as an abandoned site, an area that is not being cared for, or private property. It encompasses a diverse range of people and motivations, ranging from gardeners who spill over their legal boundaries to gardeners with political influences who seek to provoke change by using guerrilla gardening as a form of protest or direct action. This practice has implications for land rights and land reform; aiming to promote re-consideration of land ownership in order to assign a new purpose or reclaim land that is perceived to be in neglect or misused.

The land that is guerrilla gardened is usually abandoned or perceived to be neglected by its legal owner. That land is used by guerrilla gardeners to raise plants, frequently focusing on food crops or plants intended for aesthetic purposes.

Some guerrilla gardeners carry out their actions at night, in relative secrecy, to sow and tend a new vegetable patch or flower garden in an effort to make the area of use and/or more attractive. Some garden at more visible hours for the purpose of publicity, which can be seen as a form of activism.

Etymology[edit]

Guerrilla gardeners planting vegetables on previously empty space in downtown Calgary, Canada.

The earliest recorded use of the term guerrilla gardening was by Liz Christy and her Green Guerrilla group in 1973 in the Bowery Houston area of New York. They transformed a derelict private lot into a garden.[1] The space is still cared for by volunteers but now enjoys the protection of the city's parks department. Two celebrated guerrilla gardeners, active prior to the coining of the term, were Gerrard Winstanley, of the Diggers in Surrey, England (1649), and John "Appleseed" Chapman in Ohio, USA (1801).

Guerrilla gardening takes place in many parts of the world - more than thirty countries are documented[2] and evidence can be found online in numerous guerrilla gardening social networking groups and in the Community pages of GuerrillaGardening.org.[3] The term bewildering has been used as a synonym for guerrilla gardening by Australian gardener Bob Crombie.[4]

Examples[edit]

International Sunflower Guerrilla Gardening Day[edit]

The International Sunflower Guerrilla Gardening Day, scheduled on the 1st of May of every year, is an annual international event when guerrilla gardeners plant sunflowers in their neighborhoods, typically in public places perceived to be neglected, such as tree pits, flower beds and roadside verges.[5] It has taken place since 2007, and was conceived by guerrilla gardeners in Brussels,[6] (who go by the name of The Brussels Farmers). They declared it Journée Internationale de la Guérilla Tournesol. It has been championed by guerrilla gardeners around the world, notably by GuerrillaGardening.org [7] and participation has grown each year since then. In 2010, more than 5000 people signed up for the event from North America, Europe and Asia.[8] Although sunflower sowing at this time of the year is limited to relatively temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere, this day is also marked in other parts of the world by planting plants appropriate to the season.

North America[edit]

Adam Purple's Garden of Eden[edit]

Adam Purple's urban garden on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in 1984.
Main article: Adam Purple

From the mid-1970s, Adam Purple created and tended a circular garden (shaped like a yin-yang) in the Lower East Side of Manhattan, in an abandoned lot. In 1986, when it was bulldozed by the City of New York, the garden had overtaken many lots and reached a size of 15,000 square feet.[9][10][11] The short film "Adam Purple and the Garden of Eden" tells its history.[12]

People's Park (Berkeley, California)[edit]

People's Park in Berkeley, California is now a de facto public park which was formed directly out of a community guerrilla gardening movement during the late 1960s which took place on land owned by the University of California. The university acquired the land through eminent domain, and the houses on the land were demolished, but the university did not allocate funds to develop the land, and the land was left in a decrepit state.

Eventually, people began to convert the unused land into a park. This led to an embattled history involving community members, the university, university police, Governor Reagan, and the national guard, where protest and bloody reprisal left one person dead, and hundreds seriously wounded. Parts of the park were destroyed and rebuilt over time, and it has established itself into a permanent part of the city.

Greenaid (Los Angeles)[edit]

Greenaid is a Los Angeles based organization founded in 2010 by Daniel Phillips and Kim Karlsrud of Common Studio. The organization converts vintage gumball machines to dispense seed balls, a combination of clay, compost and region-specific seeds. Once dispensed, seed balls are tossed or planted in any area that may benefit from wildflowers (Seed bombing). Greenaid partners with business owners, educators and citizens to distribute seedbomb vending machines in various communities worldwide. With region-specific seedbomb mixes, Greenaid aims to integrate and beautify rather than disrupt traditionally bland urban areas such as sidewalks and highway medians.[13] In July 2010, Greenaid received $10,398 in funding from the Kickstarter community. This funding will be used to spread the initiative to new locations and support current operations.[14][15]

L.A. Green Grounds[edit]

Designer Ron Finley pioneered the growing produce on a strip of parkway lawn but came into conflict with the city council. He was successful in maintaining this urban market garden and has promoted the idea with a TED talk and appearances at international conferences such as the Stockholm Food Forum and MAD in Copenhagen.[16][17]


SoCal Guerrilla Gardening Club

Developing the Clean, Green, and Glean method of Guerrilla Gardening Scott Bunnell has been refining guerrilla gardening methods for over 30 years. In 2008 he started the SoCal Guerrilla Gardening Club adding more drought tolerant gardens. Having dozens of guerrilla gardens in Los Angeles County. Several gardens in each of the cities of Hollywood, Eagle Rock, Pico Rivera, Whittier, Long Beach, Norwalk, Artesia, Venice, the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. In 2015 SoCal also planted a guerrilla "satellite" garden in Morro Bay, Ca. with our sister club the Morro Bay Guerrilla Gardening Club. [18][19]

Utah[edit]

In Northern Utah, apple trees commonly grow along the banks of canals. Asparagus grows along the smaller ditch banks. Many of these plants were seeded 150 years ago by the workers who dug the canals, by burying their lunch apple core in the freshly dug soil or by surreptitiously spreading seeds along a new ditchbank.[citation needed]

Guerrilla gardening continues today, as individuals secretly plant fruit trees, edible perennials, and flowers in parks, along bike trails, etc. Some guerrilla gardeners do so for the purpose of providing food. For example, the Tacamiche banana plantation workers in Honduras illegally grew vegetables on the abandoned plantation land, rather than leave with the plantation's closure in 1995.[citation needed]

Seattle, Washington[edit]

In 2009, as a collaboration between World Naked Bike Ride Seattle, Body Freedom Collaborative, and World Naked Gardening Day, permaculturists Kelda Lorax and Jacob Gabriel launched Gardens Everywhere Bike Parade, a permaculture-themed clothing-optional bike ride that spontaneously showed up at neighborhood gardening locations.

Europe[edit]

"Garden in a night" (Denmark)[edit]

In 1996, Have på en nat ("Garden in a night") was made by the Danish Økologiske Igangsættere ("Organic starters"). An empty piece of land in the middle of the city at Guldbergsgade in Nørrebro, Copenhagen, Denmark, was transformed into a garden in a single night. About 1,000 people took part in the project.[20]

GuerrillaGardening.org (UK)[edit]

GuerrillaGardening.org[21] was created in October 2004 by Richard Reynolds as a blog of his solo guerrilla gardening outside Perronet House, a council block in London's Elephant and Castle district. At the time, his motivations were simply those of a frustrated gardener looking to beautify the neighborhood, but his website attracted the interest of fellow guerrilla gardeners in London and beyond, as well as the world's media. Reynolds's guerrilla gardening has now reached many pockets of South London, and news of his activity has inspired people around the world to get involved. He also works alongside other troops, some local and some who travel to participate. He has also guerrilla-gardened in Libya, Berlin and Montreal.

Today, GuerrillaGardening.org is still his blog but also includes tips, links and thriving community[22] boards where guerrilla gardeners from around the world are finding supportive locals. His book, On Guerrilla Gardening,[23] which describes and discusses activity in 30 different countries, was published by Bloomsbury Publishing in the UK and USA in May 2008, in Germany in 2009, France in 2010 and South Korea in 2012. He regularly speaks on the subject to audiences and in 2010 launched a campaign focusing specifically on pavements as an opportunity, to 'plant life in your street'.[24]

Leaf Street Community Garden (Manchester)[edit]

Leaf Street is an acre of land in Hulme, Manchester, England, that was once an urban street until turfed over by Manchester City Council. Local people, facilitated by Manchester Permaculture Group, took direct action in turning the site into a thriving community garden.[25]

Kew Bridge Eco Village, London, England[edit]

In July 2009, land rights activists moved on to a derelict piece of land near Kew Gardens in West London. Kew Bridge Eco Village was a small community of squatters who grew vegetables and built basic wooden dwellings on the land.

Australia[edit]

Guerrilla gardening is prominent in Melbourne where most of the inner northern suburbs have community vegetable gardens; land adjoining rail lines has undergone regeneration of the native vegetation, including nature strips. There are a few minor disputes between guerrilla gardeners in Melbourne, with most falling into one of two groups: those concerned most with native planting and those concerned most with communal food growing. However, people with differing opinions still work together without dispute.[26]

There are small community groups around Australia called "Permablitz" who gather regularly to design and construct suburban vegetable gardens for free, in an effort to educate residents on how to grow their own food and better prepare them if/when food prices become too expensive.

Australian Network 10's show Guerrilla Gardeners featured a team of gardeners who make over areas of council owned property without them knowing.

Kevin Hoffman Walk

Kevin Hoffman Walk is a passive, scenic linear trail with significant indigenous vegetation, lush ground covers, flowering native shrubs and trees, that overlook part of the tranquil Hovells Creek in Lara Victoria. Originally inspired and maintained by Kevin Hoffman and his family in the early 1970s and with the support of the then Shire of Corio they commenced working together.

New Zealand[edit]

Vacant Lot Of Cabbages (1978)[edit]

In 1978 in downtown Wellington New Zealand artist Barry Thomas, in collaboration with Chris Lipscombe, Hugh Walton and others, planted 180 cabbages "on the demolished Duke of Edinburgh/Roxy Theatre site in the centre of Wellington. This cabbage patch, planted in such a way as to spell the word CABBAGE immediately captured the imagination of both the media and the public and engendered a flurry of other activities on the site, culminating in a week-long festival... when the cabbages were ceremonially harvested." [27] While a work of conceptual sculpture, this intervention is also an early example of guerrilla gardening in New Zealand. Thomas' work remained for six months, "astonishingly unvandalised, as a living, breathing sculpture in the heart of the city." [28] Christina Barton writes that in the months that followed, "it captured the hearts and minds of Wellingtonians, who followed the growth of the cabbages, adding their own embellishments to the site, and contributed to the week of festivities (with poetry readings, performances, and the distribution of free coleslaw) that celebrated their harvest", describing the work as "a provocation to the local council and the city's developers".[29] Thomas' documentation of the project was recently purchased by New Zealand's national gallery Te Papa, who described the work as an "important moment in New Zealand’s art and social history" with links to the "Occupy movement, urban farming and guerrilla gardening".[30]

Asia[edit]

South Korea[edit]

Guerrilla gardening has lately been started in South Korea. An Acting of Korea's Guerrilla gardeners is carried out by individuals, volunteer groups and Internet communities. Richard Reynolds has visited South Korea in August 2012 and spoken to many Korean audience about Guerrilla gardening in TEDxItaewon.[31]

Africa[edit]

South Africa[edit]

The origins of The Dutch East India Company’s Garden in Cape Town are set against the dramatic background of ‘The Voyages of Discovery’ in the late 15th century. The sole purpose of these voyages of exploration was the search for a sea-route around Africa to access the fabulous wealth to be gained from the Spice Trade. Thus it was plants such as pepper, cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg that played a fundamental role in the connection of Western Europe, Asia and Africa, with all the subsequent far-reaching consequences for these continents.In 1811 the farm Elsje's River was granted to Christoffel Brand, its main product being vegetables. Another farm called Elsje's Baai was operated as a tannery. There is no mention at this time of the earlier farm Hartenbosch which was located in the area now known as Da Gama. Further up the valley was the farm Brooklands, which was where the water treatment facilities are now located. - Tredgold (1985)

Welcome Farm incorporated the Welcome Glen suburb and Naval Sports Fields. At Welcome Farm there was a mill to which farmers brought their corn to be ground. The farms raised cattle and grew vegetables - Tredgold (1985)GEESE.Glencairn Glen Farm, dating from the 1800s stood where the warden's house now stands. The de Villiers family lived in Welcome Farm and Glencairn Cottage, the de Villiers cemetery lies behind Glencairn Cottage.

Original farms were: Glen Farm, Welcome Glen, Oaklands and Brooklands

"Welcome Cottage Farm" by Lt Cdr (Mrs) D Visser. (undated) Simonstown Museum Files

Old flour mill with fine stonework and bricks dating from Batavian times1803-1806

Dr John Clifford's study of the mill included in ‘Glencairn Gleanings’, published by the Simon’s Town Historical Society 2003, Ute Seeman’s report prepared for the Simon’s Town Historical Society in 1998, James Walton's book ‘Watermills, windmills and horse mills of South Africa' (1974), my own observations and measurements and various other snippets found in the Simon’s Town Museum files to draw a resolved set of plans of how the Glencairn mill could have been. Where information is completely lacking, I used my own experience as an architect to design it.http://www.theglenlodgeandpub.co.za/

Welcome Glen farm Deed of Grant completed in 1811, Welcome Cottage built between 1812 and 1815. it came into the possession of the de Villiers Family in 1871, remaining in the family for over a century. Over the years they produced vegetables, flowers, bark for tanning purposes and latterly, dairy produce. The land was sold to the Navy in 1970, except for 6 morgen on which the cottages stand. They were subsequently expropriated in 1974. Welcome Cottage no. 440 has been slightly altered by the addition of an enclosed stoep and a new roof, but otherwise remains un-altered with yellowwood beams, door and flooring, 5 traingular gables surmounted by pedimental caps

With the discovery of the ‘trade-winds’ that allowed ships to sail from ‘The Cape of Good Hope’ directly across the Indian Ocean to Asia came also the associated problem of provisioning ships for this arduous voyage. It was the ‘Company’s Garden’ at the half-way point on the sea route from Europe to the Spice Islands which sustained the spice trade with fresh water from Table Mountain and, through its production of fruit and vegetables, prevented the ravages of scurvy, thereby enabling sailing ships to embark on this voyage across the Indian Ocean.Cape Town's first garden Welcome to the Oranjezicht City Farm

The Oranjezicht City Farm (OZCF) is a non-profit project celebrating local food, culture and community through urban farming in Cape Town. It is located next to the corner of Sidmouth Avenue and Upper Orange Street, Oranjezicht, adjacent to Homestead Park. Learn all about the history of the site of the farm here. Oranjezicht City Farm

This form of activism is a growing trend in the developing world. More specifically stated South Africa. The two major contributing factors are: Large tracts of land owned by the ANC led government' . This arable land is often under utilized and overgrown by alien vegetation. More significantly a stagnant global economy and rising inflation has forced many households to become urban farmers. Furthermore, given South Africa's apartheid past 'Inclusive Guerrilla Gardening' is the process of including presently marginalized individuals. In the case of a small suburb in Cape Town called Map, near Simon town. Guerilla gardening has become a bridge building communal activity intended to unite diverse people. These types include : working class coloured people, older white middle-class people and their gardeners, skateboarders, pre preschoolers other local residents . We make a point of being intentionally inclusive. The eventual harvest is one which fills the hungry tummy and celebrates our rainbow people, cultures and collective commitment to racial harmony our blog Recent events both local and international have brought the plight of the poor into sharp focus. The verge according to the traditional perspective is that bit of the property that is left to the Municipality to maintain. Not so in Welcome Glen, South Africa. In our suburb many passerby gleans from what they see on the verge, we have invited these souls to glean some sustenance in the form of spinach, parsley, kale, sunflowers and rocket greens. Various households all over our small community have now taken back the verge. Many have planted ingenious plants, native the our biome. Other have elected to feed those who walk by hence the term : Vergatble Gardening.

See also[edit]

General:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lamborn, P., and Weinberg, B. (Eds.), (1999), Avant Gardening: Ecological Struggle in The City and The World. Autonomedia. ISBN 1-57027-092-9
  2. ^ Reynolds, R. (2008), On Guerrilla Gardening: A Handbook For Gardening Without Boundaries. Bloomsbury ISBN 978-0-7475-9297-6
  3. ^ "Index". guerrillagardening.org. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  4. ^ "''On the verge of a revolution'', Sydney Morning Herald, 20 February 2008". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  5. ^ "International Sunflower Guerrilla Gardening Day". Guerrillagardening.org. Retrieved 2011-01-31. [unreliable source?]
  6. ^ "Brussels Farmer: avril 2007". Brussels-farmer.blogspot.com. 2004-02-23. Retrieved 2011-01-31. [unreliable source?]
  7. ^ "GGTV International Sunflower Guerrilla Gardening Day Video Tutorial". YouTube. 2010-04-20. Retrieved 2011-01-31. [unreliable source?]
  8. ^ http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=301535539424[unreliable source?]
  9. ^ "A/N Blog . Video> Exhibition Recalls NY′s Lost Garden of Eden". Blog.archpaper.com. 2011-02-15. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  10. ^ Karin Westdyk. "The Garden of Eden: An Environmental "Radical Transformation"". Zentences.com. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  11. ^ McKinley, Jesse (22 February 1998). "Adam Purple's Last Stand". The New York Times. 
  12. ^ Moynihan, Colin. "Adam Purple, Eccentric Environmentalist and Gardener in New York, Dies at 84". New York Times. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  13. ^ "Greenaid". Commonstudio. Retrieved 2015-07-20. 
  14. ^ Template:Creator.name. "Greenaid". "Kickstarter. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  15. ^ Marty Kassowitz (2010-11-14). "GreenAid’s Guerrilla Gumball-Machine Gardening - Organic Connections". Organicconnectmag.com. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  16. ^ "The veggie king of South Central", Los Angeles Register, May 13, 2014 
  17. ^ "Food is MAD", Food Programme (BBC), 21 Sep 2014 
  18. ^ "Guerrilla gardener movement takes root in L.A. area", Los Angeles Times, May 29, 2008 
  19. ^ Guerrilla Gardeners, 2009 
  20. ^ "Nørrebro oase ofres". Information. 
  21. ^ "The Guerrilla Gardening Home Page". Guerrillagardening.org. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  22. ^ "Community". Guerrillagardening.org. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  23. ^ "On Guerrilla Gardening". On Guerrilla Gardening. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  24. ^ http://www.pimpyourpavement.com Pimp Your Pavement
  25. ^ [1] Archived February 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ The Age, Article "Gardening guerrilla's in our midst", 10/12/08.
  27. ^ "The Artists' Co-op: Barry Thomas; Eva Yuen; Ian Hunter; Ross Boyd; Terry Handscombe; Robin White". Art New Zealand (Winter, 1978). 
  28. ^ Neil Rowe. "The Artists' Co-op: Barry Thomas; Eva Yuen; Ian Hunter; Ross Boyd; Terry Handscombe; Robin White". Art New Zealand (Winter, 1978). 
  29. ^ Jenny Harper & Aaron Lister (eds.). Wellington: A City For Sculpture. Victoria University Press, 2007. 
  30. ^ Sarah Farrar. "‘Vacant lot of cabbages’ documentation enters Te Papa’s archives". Te Papa, Museum of New Zealand. 
  31. ^ TEDx Talks. "Guerrilla gardening -- why people garden without boundaries: Richard Reynolds at TEDxItaewon". Youtube. 

External links[edit]