Permaculture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Permaculture is an approach to land management and philosophy that adopts arrangements observed in flourishing natural ecosystems. It includes a set of design principles derived using whole systems thinking. It uses these principles in fields such as regenerative agriculture, rewilding, and community resilience. Permaculture originally came from "permanent agriculture",[1] but was later adjusted to mean "permanent culture", incorporating social aspects as inspired by Masanobu Fukuoka's natural farming. The term was coined by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1978, who formulated the concept in opposition to Western industrialized methods and in congruence with Indigenous or traditional knowledge.[2][3][4]

Permaculture has many branches including ecological design, ecological engineering, regenerative design, environmental design, and construction. It also includes integrated water resources management that develops sustainable architecture, and regenerative and self-maintained habitat and agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.[5][6] Permaculture has been implemented and gained widespread visibility throughout the world as an agricultural and architectural design system and as a guiding life principle or philosophy. Much of its success has been attributed to the role of Indigenous knowledge and traditions, in which the practice itself is rooted.[2][7][8] In turn, the rise of permaculture has revalidated Indigenous knowledge in circles where it was previously devalued.[9]

History[edit]

In 1929, Joseph Russell Smith added an antecedent term as the subtitle for Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture, which sums up his experience experimenting with fruits and nuts as human food and animal food crops.[10] Smith saw the world as an inter-related whole and suggested mixed systems of trees with other crops underneath. This book inspired individuals such as Toyohiko Kagawa who pioneered forest farming in Japan in the 1930s.[11]

In his 1964 book Water for Every Farm, Australian P. A. Yeomans advanced a definition of permanent agriculture as one that can be sustained indefinitely. Yeomans introduced both an observation-based approach to land use in Australia in the 1940s and the Keyline Design as a way of managing the supply and distribution of water in the 1950s. Other early influences include Stewart Brand's works, Ruth Stout and Esther Deans, who pioneered no-dig gardening, and Masanobu Fukuoka who, in the late 1930s in Japan, began advocating no-till orchards and gardens and natural farming.[12][13]

Bill Mollison, who has been described as the "father of permaculture," cites Indigenous belief systems as an inspiration of the practice.[2]

In the late 1960s, Bill Mollison, senior lecturer in Environmental Psychology at University of Tasmania, and David Holmgren, graduate student at the then Tasmanian College of Advanced Education started developing ideas about stable agricultural systems on the southern Australian island of Tasmania. Their recognition of the unsustainable nature of Western industrialized methods and their appreciation of Indigenous worldviews were critical to their formulation of permaculture.[2][3][4][14] In their view, industrialized methods were highly dependent on non-renewable resources, and were additionally poisoning land and water, reducing biodiversity, and removing billions of tons of topsoil from previously fertile landscapes. They responded with permaculture. This term was first made public with their publication of their 1978 book Permaculture One.[14][15]

Permaculture is a philosophy of working with, rather than against nature; of protracted and thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless labor; and of looking at plants and animals in all their functions, rather than treating any area as a single product system.[16]

— Bill Mollison

Students of Mollison's Permaculture Design Course (PDC) included Lawton and Hemenway. Simon J. Fjell met Mollison and became a teacher of the first Permaculture Design Course in 1976. By the early 1980s, the concept had broadened from agricultural systems towards sustainable human habitats. After Permaculture One, Mollison further refined and developed the ideas while designing hundreds of permaculture sites and writing more detailed books, such as Permaculture: A Designers Manual. Mollison lectured in over 80 countries and taught his two-week PDC to hundreds of students.[citation needed] Mollison encouraged graduates to become teachers and set up their own institutes and demonstration sites.[17] Critics suggest that this success weakened permaculture's social aspirations of moving away from industrial social forms. They argue that the self-help model (akin to franchising) has had the effect of creating market-focused social relationships that the originators initially opposed.[18]

The permaculture movement spread throughout Asia and Central America. In Hong Kong the Asian Institute of Sustainable Architecture (AISA) was established.[19] The Mesoamerican Permaculture Institute (IMAP)[20] flourished in Guatemala. The Permaculture Institute of El Salvador is another example.[21]

Foundational ethics[edit]

The ethics on which permaculture builds are:[22][23]

  • Earth care: Provision for all life systems to continue and multiply.
  • People care: Provision for people to access those resources necessary for their existence.
  • Fair share: Setting limits to population and consumption so that people do not take more than what is needed. By governing our own needs, we can set resources aside to further the above principles.[22] This principle is also described as share the surplus.[24]

Permaculture emphasizes patterns of landscape, function, and species assemblies. It determines where these elements should be placed so they can provide maximum benefit to the local environment. Permaculture maximizes useful connections between components and synergy of the final design. The focus of permaculture, therefore, is not on individual elements, but rather on the relationships among them. Properly done, the whole becomes greater than the sum of its parts. Permaculture seeks to minimize waste, human labor, and energy input and maximize benefits through synergy.[25]

Permaculture design is founded in replicating or imitating natural patterns found in ecosystems because these solutions have emerged through evolution over thousands of years and have proven to be effective. As a result, the implementation of permaculture design will vary widely depending on the region of the Earth it is located in. Design principles derive from the science of systems ecology and the study of pre-industrial examples of sustainable land use.[26] Permaculture draws from disciplines including organic farming, agroforestry, integrated farming, sustainable development, physics, meteorology, sociology, anthropology, biochemistry, engineering, and applied ecology.[27]

Theory[edit]

Design principles[edit]

The viewpoint of a chicken through the eyes of Permaculture design.

Holmgren articulated twelve permaculture design principles in his Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability:[28]

  • Observe and interact: Take time to engage with nature to design solutions that suit a particular situation.
  • Catch and store energy: Develop systems that collect resources at peak abundance for use in times of need.
  • Obtain a yield: Emphasize projects that generate meaningful rewards.
  • Apply self-regulation and accept feedback: Discourage inappropriate activity to ensure that systems function well.
  • Use and value renewable resources and services: Make the best use of nature's abundance: reduce consumption and dependence on non-renewable resources.
  • Produce no waste: Value and employ all available resources: waste nothing.
  • Design from patterns to details: Observe patterns in nature and society and use them to inform designs, later adding details.
  • Integrate rather than segregate: Proper designs allow relationships to develop between design elements, allowing them to work together to support each other.
  • Use small and slow solutions: Small and slow systems are easier to maintain, make better use of local resources and produce more sustainable outcomes.
  • Use and value diversity: Diversity reduces system-level vulnerability to threats and fully exploits its environment.
  • Use edges and value the marginal: The border between things is where the most interesting events take place. These are often the system's most valuable, diverse and productive elements.
  • Creatively use and respond to change: A positive impact on inevitable change comes from careful observation, followed by well-timed intervention.

Layers[edit]

Suburban permaculture garden in Sheffield, UK with different layers of vegetation

Layers are a tool used to design sustainable ecosystems that directly benefit humans. A mature ecosystem has many relationships between its constituent parts such as trees, understory, ground cover, soil, fungi, insects, and animals. Because plants grow to different heights, a diverse community of organisms can occupy a relatively small space, each at a different layer. Forests offer seven basic layers, although there can be many more, such as fungi.[29]

Guilds[edit]

Mycorrhizal fungi usually function in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with plants.
Ladybugs are seen as beneficial insects in permaculture because of their help with aphid control

A guild is a mutually beneficial group of species that form a part of the larger ecosystem. Within a guild each species provides a unique set of diverse services that work in harmony. Guilds include compatible animals, insects, and plants that form symbiotic relationships which produce healthier plants and ecosystems as well as useful resources for humans. Plants may be grown for food production, drawing nutrients from deep in the soil through tap roots, balancing nitrogen levels in the soil (legumes), for attracting beneficial insects to the garden, and repelling undesirable insects or pests.[31][32][33] There are several types of guilds, such as community function guilds, mutual support guilds, and resource partitioning guilds.[34]

  • Community function guilds group species based on a specific function or niche that they fill in the garden. Examples of this type of guild include plants that attract a particular beneficial insect or plants that restore nitrogen to the soil. These types of guilds are aimed at solving specific problems which may arise in a garden, such as infestations of harmful insects and poor nutrition in the soil.[34]
  • Mutual support guilds group species together that are complementary by working together and supporting each other. This guild may include a plant that fixes nitrogen, a plant that hosts insects that are predators to pests, and another plant that attract pollinators.[34] An example of a mutual support guild is mycorrhizal fungi's symbiotic relationship with plants by providing minerals and nitrogen to plant roots and receiving sugars in return has been cited as an example of mutualistic guild. Permaculturalists take advantage of this beneficial relationship when designing their garden layouts.[35]
  • Resource partitioning guilds group species based on their abilities to share essential resources with one another through a process of niche differentiation. A potential example of this type of guild includes placing a fibrous- or shallow-rooted plant next to a tap-rooted plant so that they draw from different levels of soil nutrients.[34]
  • Establishment guilds are commonly used when working to establish target species (the primary vegetables, fruits, herbs, etc. you want established in your garden) with the support of pioneer species (plants that will help the target species succeed). For example, in temperate climates, plants such as comfrey (as a weed barrier and dynamic accumulator), lupine (as a nitrogen fixer), and daffodil (as a gopher deterrent) can together form a guild for a fruit tree. As the tree matures, the support plants will likely eventually be shaded out and can be used as compost.[34]
  • Mature guilds form once your target species are established. For example, if the tree layer of your landscape closes its canopy, sun-loving support plants will be shaded out and die. Shade loving medicinal herbs such as ginseng, black cohosh, and goldenseal can be planted as an understory.[34]

Edge effect[edit]

The edge effect in ecology is the effect of juxtaposing contrasting environments in an ecosystem. Permaculturists argue that where differing systems meet can become highly productive and offer useful connections. An example of this is a coast. Where land and sea meet is a rich area that meets a disproportionate percentage of human and animal needs. This idea is reflected in permacultural designs by using spirals in herb gardens, or creating ponds that have wavy undulating shorelines rather than a simple circle or oval (thereby increasing the amount of edge for a given area).[36]

Zones[edit]

Permaculture zones 0-5

Zones intelligently organize design elements in a human environment based on the frequency of human use and plant or animal needs. Frequently manipulated or harvested elements of the design are located close to the house in zones 1 and 2. Manipulated elements located further away are used less frequently. Zones are numbered from 0 to 5 based on positioning.[37]

Zone 0
The house, or home center. Here permaculture principles aim to reduce energy and water needs, harnessing natural resources such as sunlight, to create a harmonious, sustainable environment in which to live and work. Zone 0 is an informal designation, which is not specifically defined in Mollison's book.
Zone 1
The zone nearest to the house, the location for those elements in the system that require frequent attention, or that need to be visited often, such as salad crops, herb plants, soft fruit like strawberries or raspberries, greenhouse and cold frames, propagation area, worm compost bin for kitchen waste, etc. Raised beds are often used in Zone 1 in urban areas.
Zone 2
This area is used for siting perennial plants that require less frequent maintenance, such as occasional weed control or pruning, including currant bushes and orchards, pumpkins, sweet potato, etc. Also a good place for beehives, larger scale composting bins, etc.
Zone 3
The area where main-crops are grown, both for domestic use and for trade purposes. After establishment, care and maintenance required are fairly minimal (provided mulches and similar things are used), such as watering or weed control maybe once a week.
Zone 4
A semi-wild area, mainly used for forage and collecting wild plants as well as production of timber for construction or firewood.
Zone 5
A wilderness area. Humans do not intervene in zone 5 apart from observing natural ecosystems and cycles. This zone hosts a natural reserve of bacteria, moulds and insects that can aid the zones above it.[38]

People care[edit]

Photos of the Village Building Convergence event (2020)

Permaculture emphasizes a "sharing and caring" approach built on respect and reciprocity in human relationships rather than a competitive approach.[39] The people care ethic needs attention firstly because of the importance of interpersonal dynamics in permaculture and secondly because the principles of permaculture can be used to effectively create vibrant, healthy, and productive communities through reconnecting humans to nature in regenerative ways.[24] Bill Mollison describes how reconnecting with the Earth is necessary for many people because of ancestral separation:

Tribal peoples are very much aware of, and tied to, their soil and landscapes, so that their mental and physical health depend on these ties being maintained. The rest of us have suffered forcible, historic dislocations from home sites, and many no longer know where their home is, although there are new and conscious moves to reinhabit the earth and to identify with a bioregion as "home."[40]

Implementing permaculture principles may create possibilities for self-healing as well as family and community healing.[41] Permaculture teaches practitioners the lessons of interconnectedness and sustainability. Learning these lessons may increase one's mindfulness; a realization that nothing exists or functions in isolation.[42] Permaculture has been described as a peacebuilding tool for communities that are steeped in conflict.[43]

Discussions of Indigenous ethics in regard to permaculture have concluded that the people care ethic of permaculture is "often missing in Eurocolonialist capitalist societies." A permaculture program in Pembroke, Illinois devised an Indigenous permaculture curriculum to address people care, integrating the Mayan concept of in lak'ech ("I am because you are"), the Lakota concept of mitakuye oyasin ("all my relations"), and the Nguni Bantu concept of ubuntu ("I am because we all are") in their classes.[39]

Cultural change[edit]

Permaculture Action Day in Denver (2016)

More than an approach to land management, permaculture is also a worldview or philosophy that emphasizes holistic approaches to life and works to create a wider culture based on these values. The ethics of earth care, people care, and fair share are applied to all facets of life, including areas such as education and administration.[44] David Holmgren writes that permaculture is inherently based in the acknowledgement that an environmental crisis threatening humanity and life as we know it is on the horizon and that, as a result, a cultural change is needed to address this crisis: "the process of providing for people’s needs within ecological limits requires a cultural revolution." Permaculture aims to make people and local communities self-reliant from the industrialized political economy that is responsible for much of the ecological damage on Earth. Holmgren writes:[26]

The fact is that our own comfort is based on the rape of planetary wealth, depriving other people (and future generations) of their own local resources. Our own ‘‘hard work’’ and the so-called ‘‘creativity’’ of our economy and ‘‘fairness’’ of our system of government are all secondary factors in creating our privilege. Once we understand the massive structural inequities between rich and poor nations, urban and rural communities and human resources and natural resources, the emphasis on providing for one’s own needs is seen in a different light. As we reduce our dependence on the global economy and replace it with household and local economies, we reduce the demand that drives current inequities. Thus ‘‘look after yourself first’’ is not an invitation to greed but a challenge to grow up through self-reliance and personal responsibility.[26]

Permaculture involves taking action locally while being conscious of larger global issues. As described by Craig Gibsone and Jan Martin Bang, "we may rail at distant miscarriages of justice, but if we can't do very much about them, we may well be better off doing something about our local situation. That old worn-out phrase, 'think globally, act locally' sits very well with permaculture."[45] Research has found that subsistence farmers practicing permaculture methods are more autonomous than those who rely on the global economy for their essential needs and are therefore less apt to view economic collapse as 'the end of the world'. June Brawner writes, "those who practice subsistence—though often associated with rurality, poverty, and backwardness—are more immune to these threats." The self-reliance of subsistence farmers in the face of economic downturn illustrates that what is commonly interpreted as 'wealthy' is socially constructed. While money is often interpreted as wealth in 'modern' society, this can shift suddenly in times of economic collapse.[46]

Individuals who attempt to adhere to permaculture philosophy may confront obstacles because of modern structural barriers, such as landlessness and private property, as well as ideological barriers, such as the prevalence of opposing worldviews that directly conflict with permaculture principles. For example, permaculture research in San Lucas Tolimán, Guatemala suggested that the land deprivation of local Kaqchikel residents coupled with the indoctrination of evangelicalism obstructed the embrace of permaculture philosophy.[44] In Indigenous or traditional communities, what is referred to as permaculture may already be culturally familiar. For example, a researcher found that in the Bulgarian town of Shipka, permaculture principles were widely viewed as "nothing new." This was because "their ancestors had practiced similar agricultural methods long before the term ‘permaculture’ was invented."[44] Protecting Indigenous traditions from marginalization and destruction is important to permaculture.[7]

Common practices[edit]

Agroforestry[edit]

Agroforestry in Burkina Faso, with maize under trees

Agroforestry uses the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops or livestock. It combines agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems.[47] Trees or shrubs are intentionally used within agricultural systems, or non-timber forest products are cultured in forest settings.[48]

Forest gardening/food forests involve systems designed to mimic natural forests. Forest gardens, like other permaculture designs, incorporate processes and relationships that the designers understand to be valuable in natural ecosystems. The Charter of the Forest makes extended use of permaculture ideals and techniques such as forest gardening as they are related to the philosophy of anarchism.[49][50][51] It also employs permaculture issues as metaphorical commentary on real-life events, such as referencing the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic timeline in the scene "Pale Rust and An Albino Hawk".[51]

Proponents of forest gardens include Graham Bell, Patrick Whitefield, Dave Jacke, Eric Toensmeier and Geoff Lawton. Bell started building his forest garden in 1991 and wrote The Permaculture Garden in 1995, Whitefield wrote the book How to Make a Forest Garden in 2002, Jacke and Toensmeier co-authored the two volume book set Edible Forest Gardening in 2005, and Lawton presented the film Establishing a Food Forest in 2008.[25][52][53]

Tree Gardens, such as Kandyan tree gardens, in South and Southeast Asia, are often hundreds of years old. It is not evident whether they came from agroforestry, or permaculture. Many studies of these systems, especially those that predate the term permaculture, consider these systems to be forms of agroforestry.

Suburban and urban permaculture[edit]

South Central Farm was one of the largest urban gardens in the United States before its demolition in 2006.

The fundamental element of suburban and urban permaculture is the efficient utilization of space. Maximizing the space for food production and minimizing wasted space is important. Wildfire journal suggests using methods such as the keyhole garden to address this issue of space.[54] Neighbors can also collaborate with each other to increase the scale of transformation. Sites such as recreation centers, neighborhood associations, city program, faith groups, and schools can become part of a larger social and economic movement. Columbia, an ecovillage in Portland, Oregon consisting of 37 apartment condominiums, influenced surrounding neighbors to implement similar green-minded principals or permaculture, including front-yard gardens.[55] Suburban permaculture sites such as one in Eugene, Oregon include rainwater catchment, edible landscaping, removing paved driveways, turning a garage into living space, changing a south side patio into passive solar, aesthetic features, detached structures.[56]

Transforming vacant lots in suburban and urban settings is a common practice of creating community-managed agriculture or farm sites. However, some of these farm sites are perceived by those in power as temporary or informal solutions to the vacant lot rather than as permanent fixtures of the city. This threatens the fundamental principal of permaculture: permanence.[57] For example, Los Angeles' South Central Farm (1994-2006), which was one of the largest urban gardens in the United States, was bulldozed with approval from property owner Ralph Horowitz, despite large-scale protest from the majority Latino community who had developed deep bonds with the site. Over 40 farmers were arrested and evicted. The land sat empty for over a decade until, in 2019, the city council approved the lot for offices and warehouses.[58][59][60]

The possibilities and challenges for developing suburban or urban permaculture differ greatly as a result of how the built environment is designed and property is treated in particular areas of the world. For example, a study comparing the built environment in Jaisalmer, India and Los Angeles, United States concluded that the American planned city is ecologically disastrous:[57]

the application of universal rules regarding set-backs from roads and property lines systematically creates unused and purposeless space as an integral part of the built landscape, well beyond the classic image of the vacant lot. [...] Because these spaces are created in accordance with a general pattern, rather than responding to any local need or desire, many if not most are underutilized, unproductive, and generally maintained as ecologically disastrous lawns by unenthusiastic owners. In this broadest understanding of wasted land, the concept is opened to reveal how our system of urban design gives rise to a ubiquitous pattern of land that, while not usually conceived as vacant, is in fact largely without ecological or social value.[57]

Hügelkultur[edit]

Sketch of a Hügelkultur bed.

Hügelkultur is the practice of burying wood to increase soil water retention. The porous structure of wood acts as a sponge when decomposing underground. During the rainy season, sufficient buried wood can absorb enough water to sustain crops through the dry season.[61][62][63] This technique is a traditional practice that has been developed over centuries in Europe and has been recently adopted by permaculturalists.[64] The Hügelkultur technique can be implemented through building mounds on the ground as well as in raised garden beds. In raised beds, the practice "imitates natural nutrient cycling found in wood decomposition and the high water holding capacities of organic detritus, while also improving bed structure and drainage properties." This is done by placing wood material (e.g. logs and sticks) in the bottom of the bed before piling organic soil and compost on top. A study comparing the water retention capacities of Hügel raised beds to non-Hügel beds determined that Hügel beds are both lower maintenance and more efficient in the long term by requiring less irrigation.[65]

Vermicomposting[edit]

Healthy population of red wigglers in a vermicomposting bin.

Vermicomposting is a common practice in permaculture. The practice involves using earthworms, such as red wigglers, to break down green and brown waste. The worms produce worm castings, which can be used to organically fertilize the garden. Worm castings have been noted to increase plant growth and decrease heavy-metals in the soil. Worms are also introduced to garden beds, helping to aerate the soil and improve water retention. Worms may multiply quickly if provided conditions which are ideal.[66][67] For example, a permaculture farm in Cuba began with 9 tiger worms in 2001 and 15 years later had a population of over 500,000.[68] The worm castings are particularly useful as part of a seed starting mix and regular fertilizer. Worm castings are reportedly more successful than conventional compost for seed starting.[67]

Natural building[edit]

Small cob building with a living roof.

Natural building involves using a range of building systems and materials that apply permaculture principals. The focus is on durability and the use of minimally processed, plentiful or renewable resources, as well as those that, while recycled or salvaged, produce healthy living environments and maintain indoor air quality. For example, cement, a common building material, emits carbon dioxide and is harmful to the environment while natural building works with the environment, using materials that are biodegradable, such as cob, adobe, rammed earth (unburnt clay), and straw bale (which insulates as well as modern synthetic materials).[69]

Natural building attempts to lessen environmental impacts of buildings without sacrificing comfort, health, or aesthetics. Natural building employs abundantly available natural materials (e.g., clay, rock, sand, straw, wood, reeds), and draws heavily on traditional architectural strategies found in various climates. Building compactly and minimizing the ecological footprint is common, as are on-site handling of energy acquisition, on-site water capture, alternate sewage treatment, and water reuse.[citation needed] Most materials are sourced regionally, locally, or even on-site. Roofing coverings often include sod or 'living roofs', thatch, and wooden shakes or shingles. Rubble trench foundations are popular, as they do not require concrete. Likewise, dry-stacked or lime mortared stem walls are common. Natural builders also regularly combine wall systems in a single building, making best use of for example each material's thermal or water resistant properties.

Rainwater harvesting[edit]

Rainwater collection is a common practice of permaculture.

Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse before it runs off or reaches the aquifer.[70] It has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, and water for irrigation, as well as other typical uses. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses and local institutions can make an important contribution to the availability of drinking water. It can supplement the water table and increase urban greenery. Water collected from the ground, sometimes from areas which are especially prepared for this purpose, is called stormwater harvesting.[citation needed]

Greywater is wastewater generated from domestic activities such as laundry, dishwashing, and bathing, which can be recycled for uses such as landscape irrigation and constructed wetlands. Greywater is largely sterile, but not potable (drinkable). Greywater differs from water from sewage or blackwater that contains human or animal waste. A permaculture approach to blackwater is composting through a process known as humanure; a portmanteau of human and manure. The methane in humanure can be collected and used similar to natural gas as a fuel, such as for heating or cooking, and is commonly referred to as biogas. Biogas can be harvested from human waste and the remainder used as humanure. The simplest forms of humanure include a composting toilet or an outhouse or dry bog surrounded by trees that are heavy feeders that can be coppiced for wood fuel. This process eliminates the use of a plumbed toilet.

Domesticated animals[edit]

A backyard chicken coop.
Chicken roaming in an herb garden.

Domesticated animals are often incorporated into site design.[71] Animals are a critical component of any sustainable ecosystem. Research indicates that without animals' contribution, ecological integrity is diminished or lost.[72] Activities that contribute to the system include: foraging to cycle nutrients, clearing fallen fruit, weed maintenance, spreading seeds, and pest maintenance. Nutrients are cycled by animals, transformed from their less digestible form (such as grass or twigs) into more nutrient-dense manure.[72]

Multiple animals can contribute, including cows, goats, chickens, geese, turkey, rabbits, and worms. An example is chickens who can be used to scratch over the soil, thus breaking down the topsoil and using fecal matter as manure. Factors such as timing and habits are critical. For example, animals require much more daily attention than plants.[73]

Sheet mulching[edit]

Mulch is a protective cover placed over soil. Mulch material includes stones, leaves, cardboard, wood chips and gravel, although in permaculture mulches of organic material are preferred because they perform more functions. These include absorbing rainfall, reducing evaporation, providing nutrients, increasing soil organic matter, creating habitat for soil organisms, suppressing weed growth and seed germination, moderating diurnal temperature swings, protecting against frost, and reducing erosion. Sheet mulching is a gardening technique that attempts to mimic natural forest processes. Sheet mulching mimics the leaf cover that is found on forest floors. When deployed properly and in combination with other permaculture principles, it can generate healthy, productive and low maintenance ecosystems.[74][75][page needed]

Sheet mulch serves as a "nutrient bank," storing nutrients contained in organic matter and slowly making these nutrients available to plants as the organic matter slowly and naturally breaks down. It also improves the soil by attracting and feeding earthworms, slaters and many other soil micro-organisms, as well as adding humus. Earthworms "till" the soil, and their worm castings are among the best fertilizers and soil conditioners. Sheet mulching can be used to reduce or eliminate non-desired plants by starving them of light, and can surpass herbicide or other methods of control.[76]

Grazing[edit]

Grazing is blamed for much destruction. However, when grazing is modeled after nature, it can have the opposite effect.[77][78] Cell grazing is a system of grazing in which herds or flocks are regularly and systematically moved to fresh range with the intent to maximize forage quality and quantity. Sepp Holzer and Joel Salatin have shown how grazing can start ecological succession or prepare ground for planting. Allan Savory's holistic management technique has been likened to "a permaculture approach to rangeland management".[79][80] One variation is conservation grazing, were the primary purpose of the animals is to benefit the environment and the animals are not necessarily used for meat, milk or fiber.[81][82][83] Sheep can replace lawn mowers.[84][85] Goats and sheep can eat invasive plants.[86][87]

Keyline design[edit]

Keyline design is a technique for maximizing the beneficial use of water resources. It was developed in Australia by farmer and engineer P. A. Yeomans. Keyline refers to a contour line extending in both directions from a keypoint. Plowing above and below the keyline provides a watercourse that directs water away from a purely downhill course to reduce erosion and encourage infiltration.[88] It is used in designing drainage systems.[89]

Fruit tree management[edit]

Some proponents of permaculture advocate heavily restricted pruning. Holzer used the method in connection with Hügelkultur berms. He has grown fruiting trees at altitudes (approximately 9,000 feet (2,700 m)) far above their normal altitude, temperature, and snow load ranges. The Hügelkultur berms kept or generated enough heat to allow the roots to survive during alpine winter conditions. The point of having unpruned branches, he notes, was that the longer (more naturally formed) branches bend over under the snow load until they touched the ground, thus forming a natural arch against snow loads that would break a shorter, pruned, branch.[citation needed]

Masanobu Fukuoka, as part of early experiments on his family farm in Japan, experimented with no-pruning methods, noting that he ended up killing many fruit trees by simply letting them go, which made them become convoluted and tangled, and thus unhealthy.[90][91][page needed] He learned that this is the difference between natural-form trees and previously-pruned fruit trees.[90][92][page needed] He concluded that trees should be raised entirely without pruning, allowing them to form healthy and efficient natural branch patterns. This reflects the Tao-philosophy of Wú wéi translated in part as no-action (against nature). He interpreted this as no unnecessary pruning, nature farming or "do-nothing" farming, of fruit trees, distinct from non-intervention or literal no-pruning. He ultimately achieved yields comparable to or exceeding standard/intensive practices of using pruning and chemical fertilisation.[90][92][page needed][93]

Marine systems[edit]

Harvesting of seaweed in Jambiani, Tanzania.

Permaculture derives its origin from agriculture, although the same principles, especially its foundational ethics, can also be applied to mariculture, particularly seaweed farming. An example is marine permaculture[94][95][96] wherein artificial upwelling of cold, deep ocean water is induced. When attachment substrate is provided in association with such an upwelling, and kelp sporophytes are present, a kelp forest ecosystem can be established (kelp needs the cool temperatures and abundant dissolved macronutrients present in such an environment).[97] Microalgae proliferate as well.[98][99] Marine forest habitat is beneficial for many fish species,[100] and the kelp is a renewable resource for food, animal feed,[101] medicines[102] and various other commercial products.[103][104] It is also a powerful tool for carbon fixation.[98][105][106]

The upwelling can be powered by renewable energy on location. Vertical mixing has been reduced due to ocean stratification effects associated with climate change.[107] The Permian Mass Extinction was thought to have been brought on by such ocean warming, stratification, deoxygenation, wikt:anoxia, and subsequent extinction of 96% of all marine species. Reduced vertical mixing and marine heatwaves have decimated seaweed ecosystems in many areas.[108][109][110] Marine permaculture mitigates this by restoring some vertical mixing and preserves these important ecosystems. By preserving and regenerating habitat offshore on a platform, marine permaculture employs natural processes to regenerate marine life.[96][111][112]

Intellectual property[edit]

Trademark and copyright disputes surround the word permaculture. Mollison's books claimed on the copyright page, "The contents of this book and the word PERMACULTURE are copyright." Eventually Mollison acknowledged that he was mistaken and that no copyright protection existed.[113]

In 2000, Mollison's U.S.-based Permaculture Institute sought a service mark (a form of trademark) for the word permaculture when used in educational services such as conducting classes, seminars, or workshops.[114] The service mark would have allowed Mollison and his two institutes to set enforceable guidelines regarding how permaculture could be taught and who could teach it, particularly with relation to the PDC, despite the fact that he had been certifying teachers since 1993. This attempt failed and was abandoned in 2001. Mollison's application for trademarks in Australia for the terms "Permaculture Design Course" and "Permaculture Design" were withdrawn in 2003. In 2009 he sought a trademark for "Permaculture: A Designers' Manual" and "Introduction to Permaculture", the names of two of his books. These applications were withdrawn in 2011. Australia has never authorized a trademark for the word permaculture.[115]

Criticism[edit]

Critics Peter Harper and Rob Scott pushed for less reliance on anecdote and extrapolation from ecological first principles, in favor of peer-reviewed research to substantiate productivity claims and to clarify methodology.[citation needed]

Defenders respond out that permaculture is not yet a mainstream scientific tradition and lacks the resources of traditional agriculture. Ferguson and Lovell point out that permaculturalists rarely engage with mainstream research in agroecology, agroforestry, or ecological engineering, and claim that mainstream science has an elitist or pro-corporate bias.[116][117][118]

While there are long-term benefits from permaculture, the short-term decline in agricultural output compared to conventional farming may need to be combined with family planning or a two-child policy in most countries, so that no new farmland is needed for any given population.

Aquaculture[edit]

In his books Sustainable Freshwater Aquaculture and Farming in Ponds and Dams, Nick Romanowski expresses the view that the presentation of aquaculture in Bill Mollison's books is unrealistic and misleading.[119]

Agroforestry[edit]

Greg Williams argues that forests cannot be more productive than farmland because the net productivity of forests declines as they mature due to ecological succession.[120] Permaculture proponents respond that this is true only when comparing data between woodland forest and climax vegetation, but not when comparing farmland vegetation against woodland forest. For example, ecological succession generally results in rising productivity until it reaches the woodland state (67% tree cover), before declining until full maturity.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ King 1911.
  2. ^ a b c d Birnbaum Fox, Juliana (9 June 2010). "Indigenous Science". Cultural Survival Quarterly. 33.1 – via Indiana University. Bill Mollison, often called the 'father of permaculture,' worked with indigenous people in his native Tasmania and worldwide, and credits them with inspiring his work. “I believe that unless we adopt sophisticated aboriginal belief systems and learn respect for all life, then we lose our own,” he wrote in the seminal Permaculture: A Designers’ Manual.
  3. ^ a b Holmgren, David (2007). "Essence of Permaculture" (PDF). Permaculture: Principles & Pathways Beyond Sustainability: 7. This focus in permaculture on learning from indigenous, tribal and cultures of place is based on the evidence that these cultures have existed in relative balance with their environment, and survived for longer than any of our more recent experiments in civilisation.
  4. ^ a b Schaeffer, John (2014). Real Goods Solar Living Sourcebook. New Society Publishers. p. 292. ISBN 9780865717848. Bill Mollison and a younger David Holmgren, who were studying the unstable and unsustainable characteristics of Western industrialized culture [...] They were drawn to indigenous worldviews...
  5. ^ Hemenway 2009, p. 5.
  6. ^ Mars, Ross (2005). The Basics of Permaculture Design. Chelsea Green. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-85623-023-0.
  7. ^ a b Millner, Naomi (2016). ""The right to food is nature too": food justiceand everyday environmental expertise in theSalvadoran permaculture movement". Local Environment. 22: 13 – via Taylor & Francis. Traditional and indigenous practices are highly valued in permaculture because they have been developed in perpetual dialogue with specific climactic and soil conditions, and evolving seed varieties.
  8. ^ Fadaee, Simin (2019). "The permaculture movement in India: a socialmovement with Southern characteristics". Social Movement Studies. 18: 724 – via Taylor & Francis. Therefore, permaculture is rooted in local cultures and to a large extent its practice is based on indigenous knowledge, customs and resources.
  9. ^ Conz, Brian W. (2018). "Permaculture demonstration sites in Central America: contributions to agroecological transition and implications for educators". Revista Geográfica de América Central. 2018: 119–120. She suggests that permaculture there has helped to revalorize indigenous knowledge by drawing on ‘a mixture of research and reimagining, resulting in a hybrid set of practices.... Permaculture design techniques are being reappropriated in alignment with indigenous histories and ontologies’ in ways that help reclaim ‘both biodiversity and the ontological diversity on which that biological is based'
  10. ^ Smith, Joseph Russell; Smith, John (1987). Tree Crops: A permanent agriculture. Island Press. ISBN 978-1-59726873-8.
  11. ^ Hart 1996, p. 41.
  12. ^ Holmgren, David (2006). "The Essence of Permaculture". Holmgren Design Services. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  13. ^ Mollison, Bill (15–21 September 1978). "The One-Straw Revolution by Masanobu Fukuoka". Nation Review. p. 18.
  14. ^ a b Introduction to Permaculture, 1991, Mollison, p.v
  15. ^ Holmgren and Mollison (1978). Permaculture One. Transworld Publishers. p. 128. ISBN 978-0552980753.
  16. ^ Mollison, B. C. (1991). Introduction to permaculture. Slay, Reny Mia., Jeeves, Andrew. Tyalgum, Australia: Tagari Publications. ISBN 0-908228-05-8. OCLC 24484204.
  17. ^ Lillington, Ian; Holmgren, David; Francis, Robyn; Rosenfeldt, Robyn. "The Permaculture Story: From 'Rugged Individuals' to a Million Member Movement" (PDF). Pip Magazine. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  18. ^ Massicotte, Marie-Josée; Kelly-Bisson, Christopher (1 September 2019). "What's wrong with permaculture design courses? Brazilian lessons for agroecological movement-building in Canada". Agriculture and Human Values. 36 (3): 581–594. doi:10.1007/s10460-018-9870-8. ISSN 1572-8366. S2CID 158253671.
  19. ^ "Asian Institute of Sustainable Architecture". 21 December 2015.
  20. ^ "Mesoamerican Permaculture Institute". Mesoamerican Permaculture Institute (IMAP).
  21. ^ "Permaculture Institute of El Salvador". Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  22. ^ a b Mollison 1988, p. 2.
  23. ^ Holmgren, David (2002). Permaculture: Principles & Pathways Beyond Sustainability. Holmgren Design Services. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-646-41844-5.
  24. ^ a b Rhodes, Christopher J. (2015). "Permaculture: regenerative - not merely sustainable". Science Progress. 98: 405 – via SAGE.
  25. ^ a b c "Edible Forest Gardening". Archived from the original on 1 November 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  26. ^ a b c Veteto, James R.; Lockyear, Joshua (2008). "Environmental Anthropology Engaging Permaculture: Moving Theory and Practice Toward Sustainability". Culture & Agriculture. 30: 50–53 – via AnthroSource.
  27. ^ Holmgren, David (1997). "Weeds or Wild Nature" (PDF). Permaculture International Journal. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  28. ^ "Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability". Holmgren Design. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  29. ^ a b Nine layers of the edible forest garden, TC permaculture, 27 May 2013.
  30. ^ "Seven layers of a forest", Food forests, CA: Permaculture school, archived from the original on 19 May 2015, retrieved 5 May 2014.
  31. ^ Simberloff, D; Dayan, T (1991). "The Guild Concept and the Structure of Ecological Communities". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 22: 115. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.22.110191.000555.
  32. ^ "Guilds". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  33. ^ Williams, SE; Hero, JM (1998). "Rainforest frogs of the Australian Wet Tropics: guild classification and the ecological similarity of declining species". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 265 (1396): 597–602. doi:10.1098/rspb.1998.0336. PMC 1689015. PMID 9881468.
  34. ^ a b c d e f Bloom, Jessi; Boehnlein, Dave (2015). Practical Permaculture: For Home Landscapes, Your Community, and the Whole Earth. Timber Press. pp. 223–24, 232–33. ISBN 9781604694437.
  35. ^ Randall, Bob (2013). "Culture, Permaculture, and Experimental Anthropology in the Houston Foodshed". Environmental Anthropology Engaging Ecotopia: Bioregionalism, Permaculture, and Ecovillages. Berghahn Books. p. 157. ISBN 9780857458803.
  36. ^ "10. Edge Effect". Deep Green Permaculture. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  37. ^ Burnett 2001, p. 26.
  38. ^ Permacultuur course, Netherlands: WUR.
  39. ^ a b McFarland, Pancho (2020). "Urban Alternative Masculinity: Men, Land, and Re-Indigenization in Black Chicago's Food Autonomy Movement". Decolonizing Latinx Masculinities. University of Arizona Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 9780816539369. ...we checked in with our Indigenous ethics at every step in the journey toward successfully completing the course [...] The check-in served to provide the 'people care' of permaculture that is so often missing in Eurocolonialist capitalist societies and to look at how we were integrating respect, reciprocity, and relationships (the three Rs) into our lives and our growing projects.
  40. ^ Mollison, Bill (1990). Permaculture: A Practical Guide for a Sustainable Future. Island Press. p. 23. ISBN 9781559630481.
  41. ^ Zamuido, Mirtha; Hoyt, Hoyt; Cortez, Imelda; Gillman, Elizabeth; Escobar, Tiffany; Muñoz, Ramon (11 March 2011). "TYLO Garden Project: Promoting Self-Efficacy and Sustainability to a Southside Community" (PDF). Mexican American Studies 435. By incorporating the permaculture ethics you then begin a healing process that not only begins to heal the person who is building a garden in their backyard but also transmits that healing to a next door neighbor and healing especially begins to happen within your own family.
  42. ^ Sola Corazon, Sus; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Steen Moeller, Maja; Moeller Rasmussen, Susan (December 2012). "Nature as therapist: Integrating permaculture with mindfulness- and acceptance-based therapy in the Danish Healing Forest Garden Nacadia" (PDF). European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling. 14: 339–340.[permanent dead link]
  43. ^ Felix-Romero, Jessica (2010). "Harvesting peace: permaculture as peacebuilding" (PDF). Termple University.
  44. ^ a b c Roodhof, Anna (August 2020). "From Universal to Mayan Permaculture: An Analysis of Ontological Encounters in San Lucas Tolimán, Guatemala". Sociology of Development and Change Group Wageningen University and Research: 35–38.
  45. ^ Gibsone, Craig; Bang, Jan Martin (2015). Permaculture: A Spiritual Approach. Simon and Schuster. p. 1. ISBN 9781844098248.
  46. ^ Brawner, A. June (2015). "Permaculture in the margins: realizing Central European regeneration". Journal of Political Ecology. 22: 435–36.
  47. ^ "USDA National Agroforestry Center (NAC)". UNL. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  48. ^ "USDA Agroforestry Strategic Framework" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  49. ^ "The Charter of the Forest". The Charter of the Forest. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  50. ^ "11.6.19: Katakuri". The Charter of the Forest. 7 November 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  51. ^ a b "4.8.20: Pale Rust and an Albino Hawk". The Charter of the Forest. 8 April 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  52. ^ "Graham Bell's Forest Garden". Permaculture. Media mice. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012.
  53. ^ "Establishing a Food Forest" (film review). Transition culture. 11 February 2009.
  54. ^ "Wildfire". University of Virginia. 6: 22. 1992 – via Google Books.
  55. ^ Spencer, Jan (Winter 2017). "Green and Resilient Neighborhoods: Portland, Oregon and Beyond". Communities. 177: 49–54 – via ProQuest.
  56. ^ "Suburban Permaculture". Suburban Permaculture. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  57. ^ a b c Korsunsky, Alex (2019). "From vacant land to urban fallows: a permacultural approach to wasted land in cities and suburbs". Journal of Political Ecology. 26: 293–94.
  58. ^ Kuipers, Dean (23 April 2020). "Digging the Dirt on an L.A. Farm". Alta Online.
  59. ^ Ngo, Audrey (20 August 2018). "Hope Grows At The Once 'Magical' Site Of LA's South Central Farm". LAist.[permanent dead link]
  60. ^ Alpert Reyes, Emily (2 July 2019). "Latest battle over South Central Farm ends — this time not with arrests, but a vote". Los Angeles Times.
  61. ^ Wheaton, Paul. "Raised garden beds: hugelkultur instead of irrigation" Richsoil. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  62. ^ Hemenway 2009, pp. 84–85.
  63. ^ Feineigle, Mark. "Hugelkultur: Composting Whole Trees With Ease" Archived 28 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Permaculture Research Institute of Australia. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  64. ^ Gordon Glore, Angela (2014). "A worldwide tour of (almost) permaculture". Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development. 5: 151.
  65. ^ Laffoon, Megan; Meier, Albert; Groves, Chris (2015). "Potential Application of Hugelkultur to Increase Water Holding Capacity of Karst Rocky Desertified Lands". National Cave and Karst Management Symposium. 21: 9–11.
  66. ^ Beyers, R; MacLean, S. "Developing an educational curriculum fororganic farming and permaculture in theDistrict of Santa Fe" (PDF). La Foundación Héctor Gallego: 16. All the permaculture farms we visited had a large, fully-functioning vermicompost which produced fertilizer that was naturally rich in nutrients and acid that was used as a substance for fumigation instead of synthetic based substances.
  67. ^ a b Reza, Shamim (24 March 2016). "Vermicomposting – A Great Way to Turn the Burdens into Resources". Permaculture Research Institute.
  68. ^ de la Vega, Anna (2016). "Vermicomposting: The Future of Sustainable Agriculture and Organic Waste Management" (PDF). Winston Churchill Report: 29–31.
  69. ^ Quiquivix, Linda (2017). "Beyond Permaculture Ethics: Review of Permaculture Magazine's Film Series, "Living with the Land"". Capitalism Nature Socialism. 28: 130 – via Taylor & Francis.
  70. ^ "Rainwater harvesting". Germany: Aramo. 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  71. ^ Mollison 1988, p. 5: 'Deer, rabbits, sheep, and herbivorous fish are very useful to us, in that they convert unusable herbage to acceptable human food. Animals represent a valid method of storing inedible vegetation as food.'
  72. ^ a b "Backyard Animals | Permaculture Institute". www.permaculture.org. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  73. ^ "Permaculture Animals as a Discipline to the System". The Permaculture Research Institute. 7 March 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  74. ^ "Sheet Mulching: Greater Plant and Soil Health for Less Work". Agroforestry. 3 September 2011. Archived from the original on 10 December 2002. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  75. ^ Mason, J (2003), Sustainable Agriculture, Landlinks.
  76. ^ Stratton, Margie Lynn; Barker, Allen; Ragsdale, James (April 2000). "Sheet composting overpowers weeds in restoration project". BioCycle. 41 (4): 57.
  77. ^ "Prince Charles sends a message to IUCN's World Conservation Congress". International Union for Conservation of Nature. 26 August 2012. Archived from the original on 15 March 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  78. ^ Undersander, Dan; et al. "Grassland birds: Fostering habitat using rotational grazing" (PDF). University of Wisconsin-Extension. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
  79. ^ Fairlie, Simon (2010). Meat: A Benign Extravagance. Chelsea Green. pp. 191–93. ISBN 978-1-60358325-1.
  80. ^ Bradley, Kirsten (26 April 2010). "Holistic Management: Herbivores, Hats, and Hope". Milkwood. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  81. ^ Ash, Andrew (2002), The Ecograze Project – developing guidelines to better manage grazing country (PDF), et al., CSIRO, ISBN 978-0-9579842-0-2, archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2012, retrieved 7 April 2013
  82. ^ McCarthy, Caroline. "Things to make you happy: Google employs goats". CNET. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
  83. ^ Gordon, Ian. "A systems approach to livestock/resource interactions in tropical pasture systems" (PDF). The James Hutton Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
  84. ^ "Munching sheep replace lawn mowers in Paris". The Sunday Times. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
  85. ^ Klynstra, Elizabeth. "Hungry sheep invade Candler Park". CBS Atlanta. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
  86. ^ Littman, Margaret. "Getting your goat: Eco-friendly mowers". Chicago Tribune News. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
  87. ^ Stevens, Alexis. "Kudzu-eating sheep take a bite out of weeds". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  88. ^ Yeomas, P.A (1954). The Keyline plan. Australia: Authour. p. 120.
  89. ^ Tipping, Don (4 January 2013). "Creating Permaculture Keyline Water Systems" (video). UK: Beaver State Permaculture.
  90. ^ a b c Masanobu, Fukuoka (1987) [1985], The Natural Way of Farming – The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy (rev ed.), Tokyo: Japan Publications, p. 204
  91. ^ Fukuoka 1978, pp. 13, 15–18, 46, 58–60.
  92. ^ a b Fukuoka 1978.
  93. ^ "Masanobu Fukuoka", Public Service (biography), Philippines: The Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation, 1988, archived from the original on 15 January 2009, retrieved 27 November 2013.
  94. ^ "Climate Foundation: Marine Permaculture". Climate Foundation. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  95. ^ Jospe, Christophe (14 August 2018). "Five ways farming at sea is a climate game changer". Medium. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  96. ^ a b "Santa Barbara Permaculture Network - local to global, an educational non-profit since 2000 - Events". www.sbpermaculture.org. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  97. ^ Hollarsmith, Jordan A.; Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Camus, Carolina; Grosholz, Edwin D. (1 January 2020). "Varying reproductive success under ocean warming and acidification across giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) populations". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 522: 151247. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2019.151247. ISSN 0022-0981.
  98. ^ a b Flannery, Tim (2017). Sunlight and Seaweed: An Argument for How to Feed, Power and Clean Up the World. Melbourne, Victoria: Text Publishing House Melbourne. ISBN 9781925498684.
  99. ^ Jiang, Zhibing; Liu, Jingjing; Li, Shanglu; Chen, Yue; Du, Ping; Zhu, Yuanli; Liao, Yibo; Chen, Quanzhen; Shou, Lu; Yan, Xiaojun; Zeng, Jiangning; Chen, Jianfang (10 March 2020). "Kelp cultivation effectively improves water quality and regulates phytoplankton community in a turbid, highly eutrophic bay". Science of the Total Environment. 707: 135561. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.707m5561J. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135561. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 31972904.
  100. ^ Wernberg, Thomas; Krumhansl, Kira; Filbee-Dexter, Karen; Pedersen, Morten F. (1 January 2019), Sheppard, Charles (ed.), "Chapter 3 - Status and Trends for the World's Kelp Forests", World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation (Second Edition), Academic Press, pp. 57–78, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-805052-1.00003-6, ISBN 978-0-12-805052-1, retrieved 29 July 2020
  101. ^ Belanche, Alejandro; Jones, Eleanor; Parveen, Ifat; Newbold, Charles J. (2016). "A Metagenomics Approach to Evaluate the Impact of Dietary Supplementation with Ascophyllum nodosum or Laminaria digitata on Rumen Function in Rusitec Fermenters". Frontiers in Microbiology. 7: 299. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00299. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 4785176. PMID 27014222.
  102. ^ Girão, Mariana; Ribeiro, Inês; Ribeiro, Tiago; Azevedo, Isabel C.; Pereira, Filipe; Urbatzka, Ralph; Leão, Pedro N.; Carvalho, Maria F. (2019). "Actinobacteria Isolated From Laminaria ochroleuca: A Source of New Bioactive Compounds". Frontiers in Microbiology. 10: 683. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00683. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 6465344. PMID 31024480.
  103. ^ Laurens, Lieve M. L.; Lane, Madeline; Nelson, Robert S. (6 May 2020). "Sustainable Seaweed Biotechnology Solutions for Carbon Capture, Composition, and Deconstruction". Trends in Biotechnology. 0 (11): 1232–1244. doi:10.1016/j.tibtech.2020.03.015. ISSN 0167-7799. PMID 32386971.
  104. ^ Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Prescott, Steven; Potin, Philippe; Faugeron, Sylvain; Vásquez, Julio A.; Camus, Carolina; Infante, Javier; Hernández-González, María Carmen; Gutíerrez, Alfonso (1 January 2014), Bourgougnon, Nathalie (ed.), "Chapter Six - The Status of Kelp Exploitation and Marine Agronomy, with Emphasis on Macrocystis pyrifera, in Chile", Advances in Botanical Research, Sea Plants, Academic Press, 71, pp. 161–188, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-408062-1.00006-8, hdl:10533/128618, retrieved 29 July 2020
  105. ^ Flannery, Tim, Can seaweed help curb global warming?, retrieved 29 July 2020
  106. ^ Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Lavery, Paul; Serrano, Oscar; Marbà, Núria; Masque, Pere; Duarte, Carlos M. (30 June 2018). "Sequestration of macroalgal carbon: the elephant in the Blue Carbon room". Biology Letters. 14 (6): 20180236. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2018.0236. PMC 6030603. PMID 29925564.
  107. ^ Barton, E. D.; Field, D. B.; Roy, C. (1 September 2013). "Canary current upwelling: More or less?". Progress in Oceanography. 116: 167–178. Bibcode:2013PrOce.116..167B. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2013.07.007. hdl:10261/80552. ISSN 0079-6611.
  108. ^ Thomsen, Mads S.; Mondardini, Luca; Alestra, Tommaso; Gerrity, Shawn; Tait, Leigh; South, Paul M.; Lilley, Stacie A.; Schiel, David R. (2019). "Local Extinction of Bull Kelp (Durvillaea spp.) Due to a Marine Heatwave". Frontiers in Marine Science. 6. doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00084. ISSN 2296-7745. S2CID 69173935.
  109. ^ Straub, Sandra C.; Wernberg, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads S.; Moore, Pippa J.; Burrows, Michael T.; Harvey, Ben P.; Smale, Dan A. (2019). "Resistance, Extinction, and Everything in Between – The Diverse Responses of Seaweeds to Marine Heatwaves". Frontiers in Marine Science. 6. doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00763. ISSN 2296-7745. S2CID 209324664.
  110. ^ Wernberg, T.; Bennett, S.; Babcock, R. C.; de Bettignies, T.; Cure, K.; Depczynski, M.; Dufois, F.; Fromont, J.; Fulton, C. J.; Hovey, R. K.; Harvey, E. S. (8 July 2016). "Climate-driven regime shift of a temperate marine ecosystem". Science. 353 (6295): 169–172. Bibcode:2016Sci...353..169W. doi:10.1126/science.aad8745. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 27387951. S2CID 206645399.
  111. ^ Powers, Matt (10 July 2019). "Marine Permaculture with Brian Von Herzen Episode 113 A Regenerative Future". Youtube.
  112. ^ Gamble, Morag (3 December 2019). "Marine Permaculture with Dr Brian von Herzen & Morag Gamble". Youtube.
  113. ^ Grayson, Russ (2011). "The Permaculture Papers 5: time of change and challenge - 2000–2004". Pacific edge. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  114. ^ United States Patent and Trademark Office (2011). "Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS)". U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  115. ^ "Result". IP Australia. 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  116. ^ Ferguson and Lovell 2013
  117. ^ http://robscott.net/2010/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/Scott2010.pdf
  118. ^ http://academia-danubiana.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/2.12.09.01_HARPER-A-critique-of-permaculture.pdf
  119. ^ Nick Romanowski (2007). Sustainable Freshwater Aquaculture: The Complete Guide from Backyard to Investor. UNSW Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-86840-835-4.
  120. ^ Williams, Greg (2001). "Gaia's Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture". Whole Earth.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]