H6N2

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H6N2 is an avian influenza virus with two forms: one has a low and the other a high pathogenicity. Avian derived from the Latin word avis for "bird." It can cause a serious problem for poultry, and also infects ducks as well.[1] H6N2 subtype is considered to be a non-pathogenic chicken virus, the host still unknown, but could strain from feral animals, and/or aquatic bird reservoirs.[2] H6N2 along with H6N6 are viruses that are found to replicate in mice without preadaptation, and some have acquired the ability to bind to human-like receptors.[3] Genetic markers for H6N2 include 22-amino acid stalk deletion in neuraminidase (NA) protein gene, increased N-glycosylation, and a D144 mutation of the Haemagglutinin (HA) protein gene.[4] Transmission of avian influenza viruses from wild aquatic birds to domestic birds usually cause subclinical infections, and occasionally, respiratory disease and drops in egg production.[5] Some histological features presented in chicken infected with H6N2 are fibrinous yolk peritonitis, salpingitis, oophoritis, nephritis, along with swollen kidneys as well.[6]

Symptoms observed:

  • sneezing and lacrimation
  • prostration
  • anorexia and fever
  • sometimes swelling of the infraorbital sinuses with nasal mucous [7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jackwood, MW; Suarez, DL; Pantin-Jackwood, MJ; Spackman, E; Woolcock, P; Cardona, C. (2010). "Biologic characterization of chicken-derived H6N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks". Avian Dis. 54 (1): 120–125. doi:10.1637/8987-070909-resnote.1. PMID 20408410. 
  2. ^ Webby, Richard J.; Woolcock, Peter R.; Krauss, Scott L.; Webster, Robert G. (2002). "Reassortment and Interspecies Transmission of North American H6N2 Influenza Viruses" (PDF). Virology. 295: 44–53. doi:10.1006/viro.2001.1341. PMID 12033764. 
  3. ^ Wang, Guojun; Deng, Guohua; Shi, Jianzhong; Luo, Weiyu; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhang, Qianyi; Liu, Liling; Jiang, Yongping; Li, Chengjun; Sriwilaijaroen, Nongluk; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Yasuo; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan (15 April 2014). "H6 Influenza Viruses Pose a Potential Threat to Human Health". Journal of Virology. 88 (8): 3953–3964. doi:10.1128/JVI.03292-13. ISSN 0022-538X. PMC 3993743Freely accessible. PMID 24501418. 
  4. ^ Abolnik, C.; Bisschop, S.; Gerdes, T.; Olivier, A.; Horner, R. (2007). "Outbreaks of avian influenza H6N2 viruses in chickens arose by a reassortment of H6N8 and H9N2 ostrich viruses.". Virus Genes. 34 (1): 37–45. doi:10.1007/s11262-006-0007-6. PMID 16927114. 
  5. ^ Jackwood, MW; Suarez, DL; Pantin-Jackwood, MJ; Spackman, E; Woolcock, P; Cardona, C. (2010). "Biologic characterization of chicken-derived H6N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks". Avian Dis. 54 (1): 120–125. doi:10.1637/8987-070909-resnote.1. PMID 20408410. 
  6. ^ Kinde, Hailu; Read, Deryck H.; Daft, Barbara M.; Hammarlund, Marion; Moore, Janet; Uzal, Francisco; Mukai, Janee; Woolcock, Peter (September 2003). "he Occurrence of Avian Influenza A Subtype H6N2 in Commercial Layer Flocks in Southern California (2000–02): Clinicopathologic Findings". Avian Diseases. 47 (3): 1214–1218. doi:10.1637/0005-2086-47.s3.1214. 
  7. ^ McFerran, J. B.; McNulty, M. S. (6 December 2012). "Acute Virus Infections of Poultry: A Seminar in the CEC Agricultural Research Programme, held in Brussels, June 13–14, 1985". Springer Science & Business Media.