Hattie Wyatt Caraway
Hattie Wyatt Caraway
|United States Senator|
December 9, 1931 – January 3, 1945
|Preceded by||Thaddeus Caraway|
|Succeeded by||William Fulbright|
Hattie Ophelia Wyatt
February 1, 1878
Bakerville, Tennessee, U.S.
|Died||December 21, 1950 (aged 72)|
Falls Church, Virginia, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Thaddeus H. Caraway (1902–1931)|
|Children||3, including Paul|
Dickson Normal College (BA)
Hattie Ophelia Wyatt Caraway (February 1, 1878 – December 21, 1950) was an American politician who became the first woman elected to serve a full term as a United States Senator. Caraway represented Arkansas. She was the first woman to preside over the Senate. She won reelection to a full term in 1932 with the active support of fellow Senator Huey Long, of neighboring Louisiana. She was the first woman to win an election for the United States Senate.
Hattie Wyatt was born near rural Bakerville in Humphreys County in west central Tennessee, the daughter of William Carroll Wyatt, a farmer and shopkeeper, and the former Lucy Mildred Burch. At the age of four, she moved with her family to Hustburg in Humphreys County. Despite her family's relative poverty, she had always hoped to pursue higher education, which was made possible through the generosity of a wealthy aunt. After attending a one room schoolhouse and Ebenezer Church in Hustburg, she transferred to Dickson (Tennessee) Normal College, wherein 1896 she received her Bachelor of Arts degree. She taught school for a time before in 1902 marrying Thaddeus Caraway, whom she had met in college. They had three children: Paul, Forrest, and Robert; Paul and Forrest became generals in the United States Army. The couple settled in Jonesboro, Arkansas, where he established a legal practice while she cared for the children, tended the household and kitchen garden, and helped to oversee the family's cotton farm.[page needed]
The Caraways established a second home Riversdale at Riverdale Park, Maryland. Husband Thaddeus was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1912, and he served in that office until 1921 when he became a U.S. senator. Although she took an interest in her husband's political career, Hattie Caraway avoided the capitol's social and political life as well as the campaign for women's suffrage. She recalled that "after equal suffrage I just added voting to cooking and sewing and other household duties." Thaddeus Caraway died in office in 1931. Following the precedent of appointing widows to temporarily take their husbands' places, Arkansas governor Harvey Parnell appointed Hattie Caraway to the vacant seat, and she was sworn into office on December 9. With the Democratic Party of Arkansas's backing, she easily won a special election in January 1932 for the remaining months of the term, becoming the first woman elected to the Senate.
In May 1932, Caraway surprised Arkansas politicians by announcing that she would run for a full term in the upcoming election, joining a field already crowded with prominent candidates who had assumed she would step aside. She told reporters, "The time has passed when a woman should be placed in a position and kept there only while someone else is being groomed for the job." When she was invited by Vice President Charles Curtis to preside over the Senate she took advantage of the situation to announce that she would run for reelection. Populist former Governor and Senator Huey Long of neighboring Louisiana traveled to Arkansas on a seven-day campaign swing on her behalf. She was the first female senator to preside over the body as well as the first to chair a committee (Senate Committee on Enrolled Bills). Lacking any significant political backing, Caraway accepted the offer of help from Long, whose efforts to limit incomes of the wealthy and increase aid to the poor she had supported. Long was also motivated by sympathy for the widow and his ambition to extend his influence into the home state of his party rival, Senator Joseph Robinson, who had been Al Smith's vice-presidential candidate in 1928. Bringing his colorful and flamboyant campaign style to Arkansas, Long stumped the state with Caraway for a week just before the Democratic primary. He helped her to amass nearly twice as many votes as her closest opponent.[page needed]
Long effectively used a method to quiet crying babies at campaign stops in Arkansas to encourage voter interest:
Mrs. Caraway would never forget nor cease to laugh over the plans we made for caring for obstreperous infants in the audience so that their mothers might listen to the speeches without the crowds being disturbed. I remember when I saw her notice one of our campaigners take charge of the first baby. The child began fretting and then began to cry. One of the young men accompanying us immediately gave it a drink of water. The child quieted for a bit and resumed a whimper, whereupon the same campaign worker handed the baby an all-day sucker, which it immediately grasped and soon fell asleep. Mrs. Caraway did not understand that it was a matter of design until it had been repeated several times.
Caraway's Senate committee assignments included Agriculture and Forestry, Commerce, and Enrolled Bills and Library, which she chaired. She sustained a special interest in relief for farmers, flood control, and veterans' benefits, all of direct concern to her constituents, and cast her votes for nearly every New Deal measure. Her loyalty to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, however, did not extend to racial issues, and in 1938, she joined fellow Southerners in a filibuster against the administration's anti-lynching bill. Although she carefully prepared herself for Senate work, Caraway spoke infrequently and rarely made speeches on the floor but built a reputation as an honest and sincere senator. She was sometimes portrayed by patronizing reporters as "Silent Hattie" or "the quiet grandmother who never said anything or did anything." She explained her reticence as unwillingness "to take a minute away from the men. The poor dears love it so."
In 1938, Caraway entered a tough fight for reelection, challenged by Representative John Little McClellan, who argued that a man could more effectively promote the state's interests using the slogan, "Arkansas Needs Another Man in the Senate!" With backing from government employees, women's groups, and unions, Caraway won a narrow victory in the primary and took the general election with 89.4 percent of the vote over the Republican C. D. Atkinson of Fayetteville in Washington County. In doing so, she became not only the first woman to be elected to the Senate, but also the first to be re-elected.
During her tenure in the Senate, three other women – Long's widow, Rose McConnell Long, Dixie Bibb Graves, and Gladys Pyle – held brief tenures of two years or less in the Senate, but none of them overlapped, and so there were never more than two women in the body. She supported Roosevelt's foreign policy, arguing for his Lend-Lease bill from her perspective as a mother with two sons in the United States Army. While encouraging women to contribute to the war effort, Caraway insisted that caring for the home and family was a woman's primary task. Yet her consciousness of women's disadvantages was evident as early as 1931, when, upon being assigned the same Senate desk that had been briefly occupied by the first widow ever appointed to take her husband's place, she commented privately, "I guess they wanted as few of them contaminated as possible." Moreover, in 1943, Caraway became the first woman legislator to cosponsor the Equal Rights Amendment.[page needed] In early 1944, she was an early sponsor of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, popularly known as the G.I. Bill. However, by supporting the bill, she placed herself in opposition to powerful congressmen who condemned the bill for being socialist.
In her bid for reelection in 1944, Caraway placed a poor fourth in the Democratic primary and lost to freshman U.S. Representative J. William Fulbright of Arkansas' 3rd congressional district. He was the young, dynamic former president of the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville who had already gained a national reputation. To claim the seat, Fulbright defeated sitting Governor Homer Martin Adkins and then the Republican Victor Wade of Batesville. The lack of visibility with her constituents may have been the primary reason that Caraway lost the 1944 nomination. On her final day in the Senate, she received a rare standing ovation from her all-male colleagues. Roosevelt then appointed her to the Employees' Compensation Commission, and in 1946, President Harry S. Truman gave her a post on the Employees' Compensation Appeals Board, on which she served until suffering a stroke in January 1950. She died on December 21 of the same year in Falls Church, Virginia, and was buried in Oaklawn Cemetery in Jonesboro, Arkansas.
Caraway was a prohibitionist and voted against anti-lynching legislation along with other Southern Democratic senators. She was generally a supporter of the New Deal. Caraway's defiance of the Arkansas establishment in insisting that she was more than a temporary stand-in for her husband enabled her to set a valuable precedent for women in politics. Although she remained at the margins of power, Caraway's diligent and capable attention to Senate responsibilities won the respect of her colleagues, encouraged advocates of wider public roles for women, and demonstrated that political skills were not the exclusive property of men.[page needed]
On February 21, 2001, the United States Postal Service issued a 76-cent Distinguished Americans series postage stamp in her honor. Her gravesite at Oaklawn Cemetery in Jonesboro, Arkansas, was listed in 2007 on the National Register of Historic Places.
- Kathryn Cullen-DuPont (2009). Encyclopedia of Women's History in America, 2nd ed. Infobase Publishing. pp. 40–41. ISBN 9781438110332. Archived from the original on 2020-06-30. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
- Snyder, Robert E. (1975). "Huey Long and the Presidential Election of 1936". Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association. 16 (2): 129. JSTOR 4231456. Archived from the original on 2020-11-02. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
- "Hattie Caraway, the First Woman Elected to the U.S. Senate, Faced a Familiar Struggle With Gender Politics". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 2020-01-08. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
- Hendricks, Nancy (April 9, 2013). Senator Hattie Caraway: An Arkansas Legacy. The History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-968-6.
- Suzi Parker, "Bill Clinton's native Arkansas no friend to women," Washington Post March 27, 2012 Archived August 18, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
- "CARAWAY, Hattie Wyatt | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Archived from the original on 2019-02-15. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
- "Women in Congress: Statistics and Brief Overview" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. December 6, 2019. p. 13. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 23, 2020. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- Huey Pierce Long, Jr., Every Man a King: The Autobiography of Huey P. Long (New Orleans: National Book Club, Inc., 1933), pp. 313–314.
- Molly A. Mayhead; Brenda DeVore Marshall (2005). Women's Political Discourse: A 21st-Century Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 47. ISBN 9781461622444.
- Weatherford, Doris (2009-10-13). American Women during World War II: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780203870662. Archived from the original on 2021-01-20. Retrieved 2020-11-11.
- "Arago: 76-cent Hattie W. Caraway". arago.si.edu. Archived from the original on 2019-02-16. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
- Hattie Wyatt Caraway Papers University of Arkansas, Special Collections Department, MS C176
- Silent Hattie Speaks: The Personal Journal of Senator Hattie Caraway, edited by Diane D. Kincaid (1979), ISBN 978-0313208201
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hattie Caraway (US Senator).|
- United States Congress. "Hattie Wyatt Caraway (id: C000138)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.