History of ballooning
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The history of ballooning, both with hot air and gas, spans many centuries. It includes many firsts, including the first human flight, first flight across the English Channel, first flight in North America, and first aircraft related disaster.
Premodern and unmanned balloons
Unmanned hot air balloons are popular in Chinese history. Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han kingdom, in the Three Kingdoms era (c. AD 220–280) used airborne lanterns for military signaling. These lanterns are known Chinese lanterns Kongming lanterns (孔明灯).
The first documented balloon flight in Europe was by the Brazilian-Portuguese priest Bartolomeu de Gusmão. On August 8, 1709, in Lisbon, Bartolomeu de Gusmão managed to lift a small balloon made of paper full of hot air about four meters in front of king John V and the Portuguese court.
First hydrogen balloon
Following Robert Boyle's Boyle's Law which had been published in 1662, and Henry Cavendish's 1766 work on hydrogen, Joseph Black proposed that if the gaseous element filled a balloon, the inflated object could rise up into the air. Jacques Charles, whose study of gases led to his namesake law of volumes, had studied the works of Cavendish, Black, and Tiberius Cavallo, and also thought that hydrogen could lift a balloon.
Jacques Charles designed the balloon, and the Robert brothers constructed a lightweight, airtight gas bag. Barthélémy Faujas de Saint-Fond organized a crowd-funded subscription to finance the brothers' project. The Roberts dissolved rubber in a solution of turpentine, with which they varnished stitched-together sheets of silk, to make the main envelope. They used alternating strips of red and white silk, but the rubberising varnish yellowed the white silk.
Jacques Charles and the Robert brothers began filling the world's first hydrogen balloon on the 23rd of August 1783, in the Place des Victoires, Paris. The balloon was comparatively small, a 35-cubic-metre sphere of rubberised silk (about 13 feet in diameter), and only capable of lifting about 9 kg. It was filled with hydrogen that had been made by pouring nearly a quarter of a tonne of sulphuric acid onto half a tonne of scrap iron. The hydrogen gas was fed into the envelope via lead pipes; as it was not passed through cold water, the gas was hot when produced, and then contracted as it cooled in the balloon, causing great difficulty in filling the balloon completely. Daily progress bulletins were issued on the inflation, attracting a crowd that became so great that on the 26th the balloon was moved secretly by night to the Champ de Mars (now the site of the Eiffel Tower), a distance of 4 kilometres. On August 27, 1783, the balloon was released; Benjamin Franklin was among the crowd of onlookers.
The balloon flew northwards for 45 minutes, pursued by chasers on horseback, and landed 21 kilometres away in the village of Gonesse, where the reportedly terrified local peasants attacked it with pitchforks and knives, and destroyed it.
First unmanned flight
On 5 June 1783 the Montgolfier brothers first publicly demonstrated an unmanned hot-air balloon 35 feet (11 m) in diameter. On 19 September 1783, their balloon Aerostat Réveillon was flown with the first (non-human) living creatures in a basket attached to the balloon: a sheep called Montauciel ("Climb-to-the-sky"), a duck and a rooster. The sheep was believed to have a reasonable approximation of human physiology. The duck was expected to be unharmed by being lifted aloft. It was included as a control for effects created by the aircraft rather than the altitude. The rooster was included as a further control as it was a bird that did not fly at high altitudes. This demonstration was performed before a crowd at the royal palace in Versailles, before King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette. The flight lasted approximately eight minutes, covered two miles (3 km), and obtained an altitude of about 1,500 feet (460 m). The craft landed safely after flying.
First manned flight
The first clearly recorded instance of a balloon carrying human passengers used hot air to generate buoyancy and was built by the brothers Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier in Annonay, France. These brothers came from a family of paper manufacturers and had noticed ash rising in paper fires. The Montgolfier brothers gave their first public demonstration of their invention on June 4, 1783. After experimenting with unmanned balloons and flights with animals, the first tethered balloon flight with humans on board took place on October 19, 1783 with the scientist Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, the manufacture manager, Jean-Baptiste Réveillon and Giroud de Villette, at the Folie Titon in Paris.
The first untethered, free flight with human passengers was on 21 November 1783. King Louis XVI had originally decreed that condemned criminals would be the first pilots, but de Rozier, along with the Marquis François d'Arlandes, successfully petitioned for the honor. For this occasion the diameter of the balloon rose to almost 50 feet, with a smoky fire slung under the neck of the balloon placed in an iron basket; it was controllable and replenishable by the balloonists. In 25 minutes the two men traveled just over five miles. Enough fuel remained on board at the end of the flight to have allowed the balloon to fly four to five times as far, but burning embers from the fire threatened to engulf the balloon and the men decided to land as soon as they were over open countryside.
News of the balloon flights spread quickly. By December 1783 Goethe wrote to a friend on Wilhelm Heinrich Sebastian Bucholz's attempt in Weimar "to master the art of Montgolfier". The pioneering work of the Montgolfier brothers in developing the hot air balloon was recognised by this type of balloon being named Montgolfière after them.
First manned hydrogen balloon flight
Only a few days later, at 13:45 on December 1, 1783, professor Jacques Charles and the Robert brothers (Les Frères Robert) launched a new, manned hydrogen balloon from the Jardin des Tuileries in Paris, amid vast crowds and excitement. The balloon was held on ropes and led to its final launch place by four of the leading noblemen in France, the Marechal de Richelieu, Marshal de Biron, the Bailli de Suffren, and the Duke of Chaulnes. Jacques Charles was accompanied by Nicolas-Louis Robert as co-pilot of the 380-cubic-metre, hydrogen-filled balloon. The envelope was fitted with a hydrogen release valve, and was covered with a net from which the basket was suspended. Sand ballast was used to control altitude. They ascended to a height of about 1,800 feet (550 m) and landed at sunset in Nesles-la-Vallée after a flight of 2 hours and 5 minutes, covering 36 km. The chasers on horseback, who were led by the Duc de Chartres, held down the craft while both Charles and Robert alighted.
Charles then decided to ascend again, but alone this time because the balloon had lost some of its hydrogen. This time he ascended rapidly to an altitude of about 3,000 metres), where he saw the sun again. He began suffering from aching pain in his ears so he 'valved' to release gas, and descended to land gently about 3 km away at Tour du Lay. Unlike the Robert brothers, Charles never flew again, although a balloon using hydrogen for its lift came to be called a Charlière in his honour.
Charles and Robert carried a barometer and a thermometer to measure the pressure and the temperature of the air, making this not only the first manned hydrogen balloon flight, but also the first balloon flight to provide meteorological measurements of the atmosphere above the Earth's surface.
It is reported that 400,000 spectators witnessed the launch, and that hundreds had paid one crown each to help finance the construction and receive access to a "special enclosure" for a "close-up view" of the take-off. Among the "special enclosure" crowd was Benjamin Franklin, the diplomatic representative of the United States of America. Also present was Joseph Montgolfier, whom Charles honoured by asking him to release the small, bright green, pilot balloon to assess the wind and weather conditions.
The first aircraft disaster occurred in May 1785 when the town of Tullamore, County Offaly, Ireland was seriously damaged when the crash of a balloon resulted in a fire that burned down about 100 houses, making the town home to the world's first aviation disaster. To this day, the town shield depicts a phoenix rising from the ashes.
Blanchard went on to make the first manned flight of a balloon in America on January 10, 1793. His hydrogen-filled balloon took off from a prison yard in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The flight reached 5,800 feet (1,770 m) and landed in Gloucester County, New Jersey. President George Washington was among the guests observing the takeoff.
Gas balloons became the most common type from the 1790s until the 1960s.
Balloonists sought a means to control the balloon's direction. The first steerable balloon (also known as a dirigible) was flown by Henri Giffard in 1852. Powered by a steam engine, it was too slow to be effective. Like heavier than air flight, the internal combustion engine made dirigibles—especially blimps—practical, starting in the late 19th century. In 1872 Paul Haenlein flew the first (tethered) internal combustion motor-powered balloon. The first to fly in an untethered airship powered by an internal combustion engine was Alberto Santos Dumont in 1898.
On 3 July 2002, Steve Fossett became the first person to fly around the world alone, nonstop, in any kind of aircraft, by hot air balloon. He launched the balloon Spirit of Freedom from Northam, Western Australia, on 19 June 2002 and returned to Australia on 3 July 2002, subsequently landing in Queensland. Duration and distance of this solo balloon flight was 13 days, 8 hours, 33 minutes (14 days 19 hours 50 minutes to landing), 20,626.48 statute miles (33,195.10 km). The trip set a number of records for ballooning: Fastest (200 miles per hour (320 km/h), breaking his own previous record of 166 miles per hour (270 km/h)), Fastest Around the World (13.5 days), Longest Distance Flown Solo in a Balloon (20,482.26 miles (32,963.00 km)), and 24-Hour Balloon Distance (3,186.80 miles (5,128.66 km) on July 1).
Ballooning in Britain and Ireland
The first manned balloon flight in Britain was by James Tytler on August 27, 1784. Tytler flew his balloon from Abbeyhill to Restalrig, then suburbs of Edinburgh. He flew for ten minutes at a height of 350 feet.
The first manned balloon flight in England was by Signor Vincent Lunardi who ascended from Moorfields (London) on 15 September 1784. The first British woman to ascend was Letitia Ann Sage, who ascended in one of Lunardi's balloons in June 1785.
Jean-Pierre Blanchard and Jeffries flew from Dover to Calais in 1785.
In the same year, a Mr Arnold went up from St George's Fields (London), but came down in the River Thames, and a Major John Money (1752–1817) took off from Norwich in an attempt to raise money for the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. He passed over Lowestoft at 6 p.m. and came down about 18 miles (29 km) into the North Sea; he was saved by a revenue cutter about five hours later.
James Sadler made many flights in England, but on 9 October 1812 he came down in the sea and was rescued near Holyhead. His son, Windham Sadler, was killed when he fell from a balloon in 1825. Lieutenant Harris was killed falling from a balloon on 25 May 1824.
Charles Green and others made a number of ascents in London between 1821 and 1852. His first ascent was on July 19, 1821. He claimed that in May 1828 he actually took his horse up with him but this was disputed, and the public had to wait until July 1850 when he lifted off from Vauxhall Gardens with a somewhat diminutive pony as his "steed". Further attempts were made in France until Madame Poitevin took off from Cremorne Gardens in London in August 1852, as "Europa on a Bull" (the bull dressed as rather a nervous "Zeus"). This event led to a charge of cruelty to animals, a police case, a diplomatic dilemma and general public outrage, after which no animals were used.
In 1836, the "Royal Vauxhall" balloon which was used as a pleasure balloon in Vauxhall Gardens was flown by Charles Green with two crew; after 18 hours it came down safely at Weilburg in the German Duchy of Nassau, setting a record unbeaten until 1907.
Robert Cocking, an artist, devised a parachute based upon Garnerin’s prototype (in which he had great faith) and ascended in a balloon from Vauxhall (London) on 24 July 1837 to about 1,500 metres (4,900 ft). The parachute failed to open properly and Cocking was killed.
The first military use of aircraft in Europe took place during the French Revolutionary Wars, when the French used a tethered hydrogen balloon to observe the movements of the Austrian army during the Battle of Fleurus (1794).
In 1811 Franz Leppich went to Napoleon and claimed that he could build a hydrogen balloon that would enable the French to attack from the air. Napoleon forbade Leppich further experiments and subsequently ordered that he be removed from French territory. In 1812 the Russian secret service got Leppich a passport with the name Schmidt, and he went to Moscow to work under the supervision of Count Rostopchin with the aim of building a dirigible airship to help the Russian army halt Napoleon's invasion. A heavily guarded, high-walled shipyard was secretly set up near Moscow with about 50 other German-speaking mechanics, and Leppich started to build airship prototypes. Leppich's huge inflatable blimp was sewn from thick fabric, attached to a 20-meter wooden platform ringed with gun mounts and compartments for bombs. Its locomotion was to be provided by forty rowers with giant paddles. The airship's development was plagued with problems; the material leaked and the paddles repeatedly broke. When the dirigible was finally tried out, it worked but was unable to move against the wind. By the time Napoleon began the French invasion of Russia in 1812, Leppich's airship was still not ready, and the prototype was destroyed. After the Battle of Borodino, Leppich continued to work on his airship for another year near St. Petersburg, and then he left for Germany again. There he worked on the device until 1817, though it was never used. In 1818 he received a patent in his and his brother's name in Vienna for making nails with a punch.
In Tolstoy's novel, War and Peace, Count Pyótr Kiríllovich Bezúkhov (Pierre) makes an excursion to see this balloon, though he does not see it. Tolstoy also includes a letter from the sovereign Emperor Alexander I to Count Rostopchin concerning the balloon.
French Emperor Napoleon III employed a corps of observation balloons, led by Eugène Godard, for aerial reconnaissance over battlefields both in Franco-Austrian war of 1859, and in 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War and the Siege of Paris.
Hot air balloons were employed during the American Civil War. The military balloons used by the Union Army Balloon Corps under the command of Prof. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe were limp silk envelopes inflated with coal gas (town gas) or hydrogen.
During World War II, a large number of barrage balloons were inflated over the city of London in an effort to obstruct Luftwaffe air attacks during the Battle of Britain. Whatever their effectiveness, they were a cheap defense but did not stop heavy damage inflicted on Londoners during the Blitz, probably because the Heinkel He 111 bombers flew too high. Nonetheless, some 231 V-1 flying bombs were destroyed.
In the early and mid-20th century, hydrogen balloons were used extensively in upper-atmosphere research in such projects as Osoaviakhim-1, the Stratobowl launches, Project Manhigh, and Project Strato-Lab. A series of ascensions set a number of high-altitude records before space flight eclipsed ballooning as an endeavor. When governments lost interest in manned balloons, private citizens continued to strive to set records, especially for long distances, and to achieve "first" marks (such as Double Eagle II (first to cross the Atlantic Ocean) and Breitling Orbiter 3 (first to circumnavigate the world).
Modern hot air balloons, with a more sophisticated onboard heat source than the Montgolfier brothers' basket of hot coals, were pioneered beginning in the 1950s by Ed Yost, who had his first successful flight on October 22, 1960. The first modern-day hot air balloon to be built in the United Kingdom (UK) was the Bristol Belle in 1967. Today, hot air balloons are used primarily for recreation, and there are some 7,500 hot air balloons operating in the United States.
November 1975 Pilot Terry McCormack and passenger Tony Hayes were killed near Wagga Wagga, NSW as the balloon The New Endeavour was struck by a whirlwind, causing the envelope to collapse.
On 12 September 1995, three gas balloons participating in the Gordon Bennett Cup entered Belarusian air space. Despite the fact that competition organizers had informed the Belarusian Government about the race in May and that flight plans had been filed, a Mil Mi-24B attack helicopter of the Belarusian Air Force shot down one balloon, killing two American citizens, Alan Fraenckel and John Stuart-Jervis. Another of the balloons was forced to land while the third landed safely over two hours after the initial downing. The crews of the two balloons were fined for entering Belarus without a visa and released. Belarus has neither apologized nor offered compensation for the deaths.
On 11 August 2007, a hot air balloon burned and crashed in British Columbia when a fuel line became dislodged from a propane tank, killing two passengers; the Transportation Safety Board of Canada subsequently ruled that fuel tanks should have automatic shutoff valves.
On March 16th 2012 in Fitzgerald Georgia USA, at a festival, a hot air balloon crashed due to a severe and unexpected thunderstorm. The pilot died directly from the fall and impact of the basket hitting the ground due to the envelope failing. However, Before the crash, the pilot made the choice to ascend to a higher altitude so that the 5 passengers on board would be safe to skydive from the basket. The choice proved to be fatal for the pilot, Edward Ristaino, but imperative for the survival of the passengers. The pilots body was not found until three days later. Mr. Ristaino's actions, selflessness, and quick thinking saved the 5 people on board. He was considered a hero and nominated for the gold medal freedom award. The highest honor in which a non military civilian may receive in the U.S.
- Balloon (aeronautics)
- Balloon satellite
- Barrage balloon
- Bristol International Balloon Fiesta
- Cluster ballooning
- Espionage balloon
- Early flying machines
- Gas balloon
- High-altitude balloon
- Hopper balloon
- Hot air balloon festivals
- Hot air ballooning
- Lighter than air
- List of balloon uses
- Montgolfier brothers
- Non-rigid airship (Blimp)
- Observation balloon
- Research balloon
- Skyhook balloon
- Solar balloon
- Thermal airship (Hot air airship)
- Ancient Chinese Inventions
- The Ten Thousand Infallible Arts of the Prince of Huai-Nan Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine
- AMEIDA, L. Ferrand de, "Gusmão, Bartolomeu Lourenço de", in SERRÃO, Joel, Dicionário de História de Portugal, Porto, Figueirinhas, 1981, vol. III, pp. 184–185
- CARVALHO, História dos Balões, Lisboa, Relógio d'Agua, 1991
- CRUZ FILHO, F. Murillo, Bartolomeu Lourenço de Gusmão: Sua Obra e o Significado Fáustico de Sua Vida, Rio de Janeiro, Biblioteca Reprográfica Xerox, 1985
- SILVA, Inocencio da, ARANHA, Brito, Diccionario Bibliographico Portuguez, Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional, T. I, pp. 332–334
- TAUNAY, Affonso d'Escragnolle, Bartolomeu de Gusmão: inventor do aerostato: a vida e a obra do primeiro inventor americano, S. Paulo, Leia, 1942
- TAUNAY, Affonso d'Escragnolle, Bartholomeu de Gusmão e a sua prioridade aerostatica, S. Paulo: Escolas Profissionaes Salesianas, 1935, Sep. do Annuario da Escola Polytechnica da Univ. de São Paulo, 1935
- Federation Aeronautique Internationale, Ballooning Commission, Hall of Fame, Robert Brothers. Archived 2008-05-16 at the Wayback Machine
- Science and Society, Medal commemorating Charles and Robert’s balloon ascent, Paris, 1783.
- Eccentric France: Bradt Guide to mad, magical and marvellous France By Piers Letcher – Jacques Charles
- Today in Science, The Montgolfier and Charles Balloons, from 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
- Fiddlers Green, History of Ballooning, Jacques Charles
- Ley, Willy (December 1961). "Dragons and Hot-Air Balloons". For Your Information. Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 79–89.
- Gillispie, CC (1983). The Montgolfier brothers and the invention of aviation 1783-1784. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08321-6.
- Beischer, DE; Fregly, AR (1962). "Animals and man in space. A chronology and annotated bibliography through the year 1960". US Naval School of Aviation Medicine. ONR TR ACR-64 (AD0272581): 11. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
On Sept. 19, 1785 a balloon launched a sheep, a cock, and a duck to an altitude of 1500 ft and returned them to earth unharmed from the world's first successful air-passenger flight.
- "CIA Notable flights and performances: Part 01, 0000-1785". Svenska Ballong Federationen. Retrieved 2010-04-11.
Date 1783-11-21 Pilot: Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, First recorded manned flight.
- "U.S. Centennial of Flight Commisstion: Early Balloon Flight in Europe". Retrieved 2008-06-04.
- "Start-Flying: history of balloon flying". Retrieved 2007-12-28.
- "Lighter than air: The Montgolfier Brothers". Retrieved 2007-12-28.
- "National Air and Space Museum: Pioneers of Flight gallery". Retrieved 2007-12-28.
- Histoire Beuvry, Balloon revolution Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine
- Encyclopædia Britannica – Balloon Flight
- Cira, Colo State.edu, Hilger, Metrology, Profile of Nicolas-Louis Robert Archived 2009-07-05 at the Wayback Machine
- "Aviation Adventurer Steve Fossett Missing". CBS News. 4 September 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- Goldman, Jana. "NOAA helps guide balloonist around the world". NOAA. Retrieved 22 July 2016.[permanent dead link]
- Mark Davies (2015). King of All Balloons. Amberley. p. 251. ISBN 9781445653082.
- Praskavich, Michael and Griggs, Denise (2008) "Balloon Voyages in England". In "Conquest of the Skies: a history of ballooning", Lilly Library, University of Indiana. Retrieved 5 August 2012
- "Letitia Ann Sage". University of Wolverhampton. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Rawcliffe, Carole, Wilson, Richard and Clark, Christine. "Norwich Since 1550" Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004, page 207
- MacMahon, Bryan (2010). Ascend or Die: Richard Crosbie – pioneer of balloon flight. The History Press, Ireland, 256 pp., ISBN 9781845889852, cited in James Scannell (2011), "First Flight by an Irishman". Ireland's Genealogical Gazette, ISSN 1649-7937, Volume 6, number 3, page 4, available at "Ireland's Genealogical Gazette" (PDF). (accessed 5 August 2012)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2009-05-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Dictionary of Dates for Universal Reference by Benjamin Vincent, London 1863
- Alexander Vershinin. "Taking war into the skies: The age of the airship". Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- Edmund Götschel, Geschichte des vaterländischen Krieges im Jahre 1812, Band 2, 1840, pp. 229–230 (online)
- In: Cobbett's weekly political register. Volume 22, R. Bagshaw, 1812, P. 659–660 (online)
- Jahrbücher des Kaiserlichen Königlichen Polytechnischen Institutes in Wien, Volume 1, 1919, P. 405 (online).
- Amts- und Intelligenz-Blatt von Salzburg, F.X. Duyle, 1819, pp. 44–46 (online).
- War and Peace. Leo Tolstoy. 2007 Alfred A Knopf. New York. pgs 751 & 1240
- United States Centennial of Flight Commission (2003)"Balloons in the American Civil War" Archived 2007-10-25 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 5 August 2012
- "Barrage Balloons for Low-Level Air Defense". Air & Space Power Journal. Summer 1989. Archived from the original on 2007-08-12. Retrieved 2007-04-16.
- G. Pfotzer, "History of the Use of Balloons in Scientific Experiments", Space Science Reviews, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp. 199-242 (1972).
- E.g., "DIY balloon sent up 30km", Boing Boing, October 26, 2007. Accessed 2009.10.08.
- Hevesi, Dennis (June 4, 2007). "New York Times: Ed Yost, 87, Father of Modern Hot-Air Ballooning, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-04.
- "35th Annual QuickChek New Jersey Festival of Ballooning". Retrieved 24 July 2017.[permanent dead link]
- "Australia Balloon Crash Kills 13". New York Times. AP. August 14, 1989. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
- Browne, Malcolm W. (September 14, 1995). "2 American Balloonists Die When Shot Down in Belarus". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
- "Racing Balloon Is Shot Down by Attack Helicopter in Belarus" (PDF). Flight Safety Foundation. July 1996. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- Cimons, Marlene; Williams, Carol J. (September 15, 1995). "Ill-Fated Balloonists Shared Passion for Flying". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
- "Belarus shoots down US balloon". The Independent. London. September 14, 1995. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
- "Belarus". United States Department of State. August 27, 2010. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- "Dislodged fuel line led to flaming balloon crash in B.C." CBC News.
- Batty, David (January 1, 2011). "Hot air balloon crash kills two". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- "Eleven dead in New Zealand hot air balloon crash". BBC News. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-01-09.
- "Hot Air Balloon Crash In Slovenia Kills 4". Reuters. August 23, 2012. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- "Foreign tourists killed in Egypt balloon crash". NBCNEWS. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.