Hounsfield scale

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The Hounsfield scale /ˈhnzˌfld/ or CT numbers, named after Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, is a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity.


The Hounsfield unit (HU) scale is a linear transformation of the original linear attenuation coefficient measurement into one in which the radiodensity of distilled water at standard pressure and temperature (STP) is defined as zero Hounsfield units (HU), while the radiodensity of air at STP is defined as -1000 HU. In a voxel with average linear attenuation coefficient , the corresponding HU value is therefore given by:

Where and are respectively the linear attenuation coefficients of water and air.

Thus, a change of one Hounsfield unit (HU) represents a change of 0.1% of the attenuation coefficient of water since the attenuation coefficient of air is nearly zero.

It is the definition for CT scanners that are calibrated with reference to water.


The above standards were chosen as they are universally available references and suited to the key application for which computed axial tomography was developed: imaging the internal anatomy of living creatures based on organized water structures and mostly living in air, e.g. humans.

The HU of common substances[edit]

The Hounsfield scale applies to medical-grade CT scans but not to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans.[1]

Substance HU
Air −1000
Lung -700 to −600[2]
Fat −120 to −90[3]
Chyle −30[4]
Water 0
Urine -5 to +15[3]
Bile -5 to +15[3]
CSF +15
Kidney +20 to +45[3]
Liver 60 ± 6[5]
Lymph nodes +10 to +20[6]
Blood +30 to +45
Muscle +35 to +55[3]
White matter +20 to +30
Grey matter +37 to +45
Soft Tissue, Contrast +100 to +300
Bone +200 (craniofacial bone), +700 (cancellous bone) to +3000 (cortical bone)

A practical application of this is in evaluation of tumors, where, for example, an adrenal tumor with a radiodensity of less than 10 HU is rather fatty in composition and almost certainly a benign adrenal adenoma.[7]


CT machines were the first imaging devices for detailed visualization of the internal three-dimensional anatomy of living creatures, initially only as tomographic reconstructions of slice views or sections. Since the early 1990s, with advances in computer technology and scanners using spiral CT technology, internal three-dimensional anatomy is viewable by three-dimensional software reconstructions, from multiple perspectives, on computer monitors. By comparison, conventional X-ray images are two-dimensional projections of the true three-dimensional anatomy, i.e. radiodensity shadows. It was established by Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, one of the principal engineers and developers of computed axial tomography (CAT, or CT scans).

See also[edit]



  1. ^ De Vos, W; et al. Cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) imaging of the oral and maxillofacial region: A systematic review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009;38:609–625.
  2. ^ Page 379 in: Ella A. Kazerooni, Barry H. Gross (2004). Cardiopulmonary Imaging. 4. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9780781736558. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Page 83 in: Herbert Lepor (2000). Prostatic Diseases. W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 9780721674162. 
  4. ^ Page 342 in: Luca Saba, Jasjit S. Suri (2013). Multi-Detector CT Imaging: Principles, Head, Neck, and Vascular Systems, Volume 1. CRC Press. ISBN 9781439893845. 
  5. ^ page 210 in: Erwin Kuntz, Hans-Dieter Kuntz (2006). Hepatology, Principles and Practice: History, Morphology, Biochemistry, Diagnostics, Clinic, Therapy. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9783540289777. 
  6. ^ Page 58 in: G. Maatman (2012). High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Paranasal Sinuses and Pharynx and Related Regions: Impact of CT identification on diagnosis and patient management. Volume 12 of Series in Radiology. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9789400942776. 
  7. ^ medscape >Adrenal Adenoma Imaging. Author: Perry J Horwich. Chief Editor: Eugene C Lin. Updated: Apr 21, 2011

External links[edit]