An orange ribbon—the awareness ribbon for malnutrition.
|Classification and external resources|
Malnutrition or malnourishment is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems. It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. Not enough nutrients is called undernutrition while too much is called overnutrition. Malnutrition is often used specifically to refer to undernutrition where there is not enough calories, protein or micronutrients. If undernutrition occurs during either pregnancy or before the age of two years of age it may result in permanent problems with physical and mental development. Extreme undernourishment, known as starvation, may have symptoms that include: a short height, thin body, very poor energy levels, and swollen legs and abdomen. People also often get infections and are frequently cold. The symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies depend on the micronutrient that is lacking.
Undernourishment is most often due to not enough high quality food available to eat. This is often related to high food prices and poverty. A lack of breast feeding may contribute, as may a number of infectious diseases such as: gastroenteritis, pneumonia, malaria and measles which increase nutrient requirements. There are two main types of undernutrition: protein-energy malnutrition and dietary deficiencies. Protein-energy malnutrition has two severe forms: marasmus (a lack of protein and calories) and kwashiorkor (a lack of just protein). Common micronutrient deficiencies include: a lack of iron, iodine and vitamin A. During pregnancy, due to increased demand, deficiencies become more common. In some developing countries overnutrition in the form of obesity is beginning to present within the same communities as undernutrition. Other causes of malnutrition include anorexia nervosa and bariatric surgery.
Efforts to improve nutrition are some of the most effective forms of development aid. Breastfeeding can reduce rates of malnutrition and death in children, and efforts to promote the practice increase rates. In young children providing food in addition to breastmilk between six months and two years improves outcomes. There is also good evidence supporting the supplementation of a number of micronutrients during pregnancy and among young children in the developing world. To get food to people who need it most both delivering food and providing money so that people can buy food within local markets are effective. Simply feeding people at school is insufficient. Management of severe malnutrition within the person's home with ready-to-use therapeutic foods is possible much of the time. In those who have severe malnutrition complicated by other health problems treatment within hospital is recommended. This often involves managing low blood sugar, body temperature, dehydration, and gradual feeding. Routine antibiotics are usually recommended due to the high risk of infection. Longer term measures include: improving agricultural practices, reducing poverty, improving sanitation, and the empowerment of women.
There were 925 million undernourished people in the world in 2010, an increase of 80 million since 1990. Another billion people are estimated to have a lack of vitamins and minerals. In 2013 protein-energy malnutrition was estimated to have resulted in 469,000 deaths down from 510,000 deaths in 1990. Other nutritional deficiencies, which include iodine deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, result in another 84,000 deaths. Undernutrition as of 2010 was the cause of 1.4% of all disability adjusted life years. About a third of deaths in children are believed to be due to undernutrition; however, the deaths are rarely labelled as such. In 2010 it was estimated to have contributed to about 1.5 million deaths in women and children though some estimate the number may be greater than 3 million. An additional 165 million children have stunted growth from the disease. Undernutrition is more common in developing countries. Certain groups have higher rates of undernutrition including women, in particular while pregnant or breastfeeding, children under five years of age and the elderly. In the elderly undernutrition becomes more common due to physical, psychological and social factors.
- 1 Definitions
- 2 Effects
- 3 Causes
- 4 Prevention
- 5 Management
- 6 Epidemiology
- 7 Society and culture
- 8 Special populations
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Unless specifically mentioned otherwise, the term malnutrition refers to undernutrition for the remainder of this article.
Undernutrition and overnutrition
Malnutrition is caused by eating a diet in which nutrients are not enough or are too much such that it causes health problems. It is a category of diseases that includes undernutrition and overnutrition. Overnutrition can result in obesity and overweight.
However, the term malnutrition is commonly used to refer to undernutrition only. This applies particularly to the context of development cooperation. Therefore, "malnutrition" in documents by the World Health Organization, UNICEF, Save the Children or other international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) usually is equated to undernutrition.
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
Undernutrition is sometimes used as a synonym of protein–energy malnutrition (PEM). While other include both micronutrient deficiencies and protein energy malnutrition in its definition. It differs from calorie restriction in that calorie restriction may not result in negative health effects. The term hypoalimentation means underfeeding.
The term "severe malnutrition" or "severe undernutrition" is often used to refer specifically to PEM. PEM is often associated with micronutrient deficiency. Two forms of PEM are kwashiorkor and marasmus, and they commonly coexist.
Kwashiorkor (‘displaced child’) is mainly caused by inadequate protein intake resulting in a low concentration of amino acids. The main symptoms are edema, wasting, liver enlargement, hypoalbuminaemia, steatosis, and possibly depigmentation of skin and hair. Kwashiorkor is identified by swelling of the extremities and belly, which is deceiving of actual nutritional status.
Marasmus (‘to waste away’) is caused by an inadequate intake of protein and energy. The main symptoms are severe wasting, leaving little or no edema, minimal subcutaneous fat, severe muscle wasting, and non-normal serum albumin levels. Marasmus can result from a sustained diet of inadequate energy and protein, and the metabolism adapts to prolong survival. It is traditionally seen in famine, significant food restriction, or more severe cases of anorexia. Conditions are characterized by extreme wasting of the muscles and a gaunt expression.
Undernutrition encompasses stunted growth (stunting), wasting, and deficiencies of essential vitamins and minerals (collectively referred to as micronutrients). The term hunger, which describes a feeling of discomfort from not eating, has been used to describe undernutrition, especially in reference to food insecurity.
Definition by Gomez
In 1956, Gómez and Galvan studied factors associated with death in a group of malnourished (undernourished) children in a hospital in Mexico City, Mexico and defined categories of malnutrition: first, second, and third degree. The degrees were based on weight below a specified percentage of median weight for age. The risk of death increases with increasing degree of malnutrition. An adaptation of Gomez's original classification is still used today. While it provides a way to compare malnutrition within and between populations, the classification has been criticized for being "arbitrary" and for not considering overweight as a form of malnutrition. Also, height alone may not be the best indicator of malnutrition; children who are born prematurely may be considered short for their age even if they have good nutrition.
|Degree of PEM||% of desired body weight for age and sex|
|Mild: Grade I (1st degree)||75%-89%|
|Moderate: Grade II (2nd degree)||60%-74%|
|Severe: Grade III (3rd degree)||<60%|
|SOURCE:"Serum Total Protein and Albumin Levels in Different Grades of Protein Energy Malnutrition"|
Definition by Waterlow
John Conrad Waterlow established a new classification for malnutrition. Instead of using just weight for age measurements, the classification established by Waterlow combines weight-for-height (indicating acute episodes of malnutrition) with height-for-age to show the stunting that results from chronic malnutrition. One advantage of the Waterlow classification over the Gomez classification is that weight for height can be examined even if ages are not known.
|Degree of PEM||Stunting (%) Height for age||Wasting (%) Weight for height|
|Normal: Grade 0||>95%||>90%|
|Mild: Grade I||87.5-95%||80-90%|
|Moderate: Grade II||80-87.5%||70-80%|
|Severe: Grade III||<80%||<70%|
|SOURCE: "Classification and definition of protein-calorie malnutrition." by Waterlow, 1972|
These classifications of malnutrition are commonly used with some modifications by WHO.
Malnutrition increases the risk of infection and infectious disease, and moderate malnutrition weakens every part of the immune system. For example, it is a major risk factor in the onset of active tuberculosis. Protein and energy malnutrition and deficiencies of specific micronutrients (including iron, zinc, and vitamins) increase susceptibility to infection. Malnutrition affects HIV transmission by increasing the risk of transmission from mother to child and also increasing replication of the virus. In communities or areas that lack access to safe drinking water, these additional health risks present a critical problem. Lower energy and impaired function of the brain also represent the downward spiral of malnutrition as victims are less able to perform the tasks they need to in order to acquire food, earn an income, or gain an education.
Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) can result from a child not eating for 4 to 6 hours. Hypoglycemia should be considered if there is lethargy, limpness, convulsion, or loss of consciousness. If blood sugar can be measured immediately and quickly, perform a finger or heel stick.
In those with malnutrition some of the signs of dehydration differ. Children; however, may still be interested in drinking, have decreased interactions with the world around them, have decreased urine output, and may be cool to touch.
|Face||Moon face (kwashiorkor), simian facies (marasmus)|
|Eye||Dry eyes, pale conjunctiva, Bitot's spots (vitamin A), periorbital edema|
|Mouth||Angular stomatitis, cheilitis, glossitis, spongy bleeding gums (vitamin C), parotid enlargement|
|Teeth||Enamel mottling, delayed eruption|
|Hair||Dull, sparse, brittle hair, hypopigmentation, flag sign (alternating bands of light and normal color), broomstick eyelashes, alopecia|
|Skin||Loose and wrinkled (marasmus), shiny and edematous (kwashiorkor), dry, follicular hyperkeratosis, patchy hyper- and hypopigmentation, erosions, poor wound healing|
|Nail||Koilonychia, thin and soft nail plates, fissures or ridges|
|Musculature||Muscles wasting, particularly in the buttocks and thighs|
|Skeletal||Deformities usually a result of calcium, vitamin D, or vitamin C deficiencies|
|Abdomen||Distended - hepatomegaly with fatty liver, ascites may be present|
|Cardiovascular||Bradycardia, hypotension, reduced cardiac output, small vessel vasculopathy|
|Neurologic||Global development delay, loss of knee and ankle reflexes, poor memory|
|Hematological||Pallor, petechiae, bleeding diathesis|
|Source: "Protein Energy Malnutrition"|
Protein-calorie malnutrition can cause cognitive impairments. For humans, "critical period varies from the final third of gestation to the first 2 years of life". Iron deficiency anemia in children under two years of age likely affects brain function acutely and probably also chronically. Folate deficiency has been linked to neural tube defects.
Malnutrition in the form of iodine deficiency is "the most common preventable cause of mental impairment worldwide." "Even moderate deficiency, especially in pregnant women and infants, lowers intelligence by 10 to 15 I.Q. points, shaving incalculable potential off a nation's development. The most visible and severe effects — disabling goiters, cretinism and dwarfism — affect a tiny minority, usually in mountain villages. But 16 percent of the world's people have at least mild goiter, a swollen thyroid gland in the neck."
Major causes of malnutrition include poverty and food prices, dietary practices and agricultural productivity, with many individual cases being a mixture of several factors. Clinical malnutrition, such as in cachexia, is a major burden also in developed countries. Various scales of analysis also have to be considered in order to determine the sociopolitical causes of malnutrition. For example, the population of a community may be at risk if the area lacks health-related services, but on a smaller scale certain households or individuals may be at even higher risk due to differences in income levels, access to land, or levels of education.
Malnutrition can be a consequence of health issues such as gastroenteritis or chronic illness, especially the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Diarrhea and other infections can cause malnutrition through decreased nutrient absorption, decreased intake of food, increased metabolic requirements, and direct nutrient loss. Parasite infections, in particular intestinal worm infections (helminthiasis), can also lead to malnutrition. A leading cause of diarrhea and intestinal worm infections in children in developing countries is lack of sanitation and hygiene.
A lack of adequate breastfeeding leads to malnutrition in infants and children, associated with the deaths of an estimated one million children annually. Illegal advertising of breast milk substitutes continues three decades after its 1981 prohibition under the WHO International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes.
Deriving too much of one's diet from a single source, such as eating almost exclusively corn or rice, can cause malnutrition. This may either be from a lack of education about proper nutrition, or from only having access to a single food source.
Overnutrition caused by overeating is also a form of malnutrition. In the United States, more than half of all adults are now overweight — a condition that, like hunger, increases susceptibility to disease and disability, reduces worker productivity, and lowers life expectancy. Overeating is much more common in the United States, where for the majority of people, access to food is not an issue. Many parts of the world have access to a surplus of non-nutritious food, in addition to increased sedentary lifestyles. Yale psychologist Kelly Brownell calls this a "toxic food environment” where fat and sugar laden foods have taken precedent over healthy nutritious foods.
The issue in these developed countries is choosing the right kind of food. More fast food is consumed per capita in the United States than in any other country. The reason for this mass consumption of fast food is its affordability and accessibility. Often fast food, low in cost and nutrition, is high in calories and heavily promoted. When these eating habits are combined with increasingly urbanized, automated, and more sedentary lifestyles, it becomes clear why weight gain is difficult to avoid.
Not only does obesity occur in developed countries, problems are also occurring in developing countries in areas where income is on the rise. Overeating is also a problem in countries where hunger and poverty persist. In China, consumption of high-fat foods has increased while consumption of rice and other goods has decreased.
Overeating leads to many diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes, that may result in death.
Poverty and food prices
In Bangladesh, poor socioeconomic position was associated with chronic malnutrition since it inhibits purchase of nutritious foods such as milk, meat, poultry, and fruits. As much as food shortages may be a contributing factor to malnutrition in countries with lack of technology, the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) has estimated that eighty percent of malnourished children living in the developing world live in countries that produce food surpluses. The economist Amartya Sen observed that, in recent decades, famine has always a problem of food distribution and/or poverty, as there has been sufficient food to feed the whole population of the world. He states that malnutrition and famine were more related to problems of food distribution and purchasing power.
It is argued that commodity speculators are increasing the cost of food. As the real estate bubble in the United States was collapsing, it is said that trillions of dollars moved to invest in food and primary commodities, causing the 2007–2008 food price crisis.
The use of biofuels as a replacement for traditional fuels and raises the price of food. The United Nations special rapporteur on the right to food, Jean Ziegler proposes that agricultural waste, such as corn cobs and banana leaves, rather than crops themselves be used as fuel.
Local food shortages can be caused by a lack of arable land, adverse weather, lower farming skills such as crop rotation, or by a lack of technology or resources needed for the higher yields found in modern agriculture, such as fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, machinery and storage facilities. As a result of widespread poverty, farmers cannot afford or governments cannot provide the resources necessary to improve local yields. The World Bank and some wealthy donor countries also press nations that depend on aid to cut or eliminate subsidized agricultural inputs such as fertilizer, in the name of free market policies even as the United States and Europe extensively subsidized their own farmers. Many, if not most, farmers cannot afford fertilizer at market prices, leading to low agricultural production and wages and high, unaffordable food prices. Reasons for the unavailability of fertilizer include moves to stop supplying fertilizer on environmental grounds, cited as the obstacle to feeding Africa by the Green Revolution pioneers Norman Borlaug and Keith Rosenberg.
There are a number of potential disruptions to global food supply that could cause widespread malnutrition.
Climate change is of importance to food security, with 95 percent of all malnourished peoples living in the relatively stable climate region of the sub-tropics and tropics. According to the latest IPCC reports, temperature increases in these regions are "very likely." Even small changes in temperatures can lead to increased frequency of extreme weather conditions. Many of these have great impact on agricultural production and hence nutrition. For example, the 1998–2001 central Asian drought brought about an 80 percent livestock loss and 50 percent reduction in wheat and barley crops in Iran. Similar figures were present in other nations. An increase in extreme weather such as drought in regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa would have even greater consequences in terms of malnutrition. Even without an increase of extreme weather events, a simple increase in temperature reduces the productivity of many crop species, also decreasing food security in these regions.
Colony collapse disorder is a phenomenon where bees die in large numbers. Since many agricultural crops worldwide are pollinated by bees, this represents a threat to the supply of food.
The effort to bring modern agricultural techniques found in the West, such as nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides, to Asia, called the Green Revolution, resulted in decreases in malnutrition similar to those seen earlier in Western nations. This was possible because of existing infrastructure and institutions that are in short supply in Africa, such as a system of roads or public seed companies that made seeds available. Investments in agriculture, such as subsidized fertilizers and seeds, increases food harvest and reduces food prices. For example, in the case of Malawi, almost five million of its 13 million people used to need emergency food aid. However, after the government changed policy and subsidies for fertilizer and seed were introduced against World Bank strictures, farmers produced record-breaking corn harvests as production leaped to 3.4 million in 2007 from 1.2 million in 2005, making Malawi a major food exporter. This lowered food prices and increased wages for farm workers. Such investments in agriculture are still needed in other African countries like the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The country has one of the highest prevalence of malnutrition even though it is blessed with great agricultural potential John Ulimwengu explains in his article for D+C. Proponents for investing in agriculture include Jeffrey Sachs, who has championed the idea that wealthy countries should invest in fertilizer and seed for Africa’s farmers.
New technology in agricultural production also has great potential to combat undernutrition. By improving agricultural yields, farmers could reduce poverty by increasing income as well as open up area for diversification of crops for household use. The World Bank itself claims to be part of the solution to malnutrition, asserting that the best way for countries to succeed in breaking the cycle of poverty and malnutrition is to build export-led economies that will give them the financial means to buy foodstuffs on the world market.
Breastfeeding in the first two years and exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months could save 1.3 million children’s lives.
Manufacturers are trying to fortify everyday foods with micronutrients that can be sold to consumers such as wheat flour for Beladi bread in Egypt or fish sauce in Vietnam and the iodization of salt.
For example, flour has been fortified with iron, zinc, folic acid and other B vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin,niacin and vitamin B12.
Restricting population size is a proposed solution. Thomas Malthus argued that population growth could be controlled by natural disasters and voluntary limits through “moral restraint.” Robert Chapman suggests that an intervention through government policies is a necessary ingredient of curtailing global population growth. However, there are many who believe that the world has more than enough resources to sustain its population. Instead, these theorists point to unequal distribution of resources and under- or unutilized arable land as the cause for malnutrition problems. For example, Amartya Sen advocates that, “no matter how a famine is caused, methods of breaking it call for a large supply of food in the public distribution system. This applies not only to organizing rationing and control, but also to undertaking work programmes and other methods of increasing purchasing power for those hit by shifts in exchange entitlements in a general inflationary situation.”
One suggested policy framework to resolve access issues is termed food sovereignty, the right of peoples to define their own food, agriculture, livestock, and fisheries systems in contrast to having food largely subjected to international market forces. Food First is one of the primary think tanks working to build support for food sovereignty. Neoliberals advocate for an increasing role of the free market.
Another possible long term solution would be to increase access to health facilities to rural parts of the world. These facilities could monitor undernourished children, act as supplemental food distribution centers, and provide education on dietary needs. These types of facilities have already proven very successful in countries such as Peru and Ghana.
In response to child malnutrition, the Bangladeshi government recommends 10 steps for treating severe malnutrition. They are to prevent or treat dehydration, low blood sugar, low body temperature, infection, correct electrolyte imbalances and micronutrient deficiencies, start feeding cautiously, achieve catch-up growth, provide psychological support, and prepare for discharge and follow-up after recovery.
The evidence for benefit of supplementary feeding is poor. This is due to the small amount of research done on this treatment.
Specially formulated foods do however appear useful in those from the developing world with moderate acute malnutrition. In young children with severe acute malnutrition it is unclear if ready-to-use therapeutic food differs from a normal diet. They may have some benefits in humanitarian emergencies as they can be eaten directly from the packet, do not require refrigeration or mixing with clean water, and can be stored for years.
In those who are severely malnourished, feeding too much too quickly can result in refeeding syndrome. This can result regardless of route of feeding and can present itself a couple of days after eating with heart failure, dysrhythmias and confusion that can result in death.
Treating malnutrition, mostly through fortifying foods with micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), improves lives at a lower cost and shorter time than other forms of aid, according to the World Bank. The Copenhagen Consensus, which look at a variety of development proposals, ranked micronutrient supplements as number one.
In those with diarrhea, once an initial four-hour rehydration period is completed, zinc supplementation is recommended. Daily zinc increases the chances of reducing the severity and duration of the diarrhea, and continuing with daily zinc for ten to fourteen days makes diarrhea less likely recur in the next two to three months.
In addition, malnourished children need both potassium and magnesium. This can be obtained by following the above recommendations for the dehydrated child to continue eating within two to three hours of starting rehydration, and including foods rich in potassium as above. Low blood potassium is worsened when base (as in Ringer's/Hartmann's) is given to treat acidosis without simultaneously providing potassium. As above, available home products such as salted and unsalted cereal water, salted and unsalted vegetable broth can be given early during the course of a child's diarrhea along with continued eating. Vitamin A, potassium, magnesium, and zinc should be added with other vitamins and minerals if available.
For a malnourished child with diarrhea from any cause, this should include foods rich in potassium such as bananas, green coconut water, and unsweetened fresh fruit juice.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends rehydrating a severely undernourished child who has diarrhea relatively slowly. The preferred method is with fluids by mouth using a drink called oral rehydration solution (ORS). The oral rehydration solution is both slightly sweet and slightly salty and the one recommended in those with severe undernutrition should have half the usual sodium and greater potassium. Fluids by nasogastric tube may be use in those who do not drink. Intravenous fluids are recommended only in those who have significant dehydration due to their potential complications. These complications include congestive heart failure.
Breast feeding and eating should resume as soon as possible. Drinks such as soft drinks, fruit juices, or sweetened teas are not recommended as they contain too much sugar and may worsen diarrhea. Broad spectrum antibiotics are recommended in all severely undernourished children with diarrhea requiring admission to hospital.
To prevent dehydration readily available fluids, preferably with a modest amount of sugars and salt such as vegetable broth or salted rice water, may be used. The drinking of additional clean water is also recommended. Once dehydration develops oral rehydration solutions are preferred. As much of these drinks as the person wants can be given, unless there are signs of swelling. If vomiting occurs, fluids can be paused for 5–10 minutes and then restarting more slowly. Vomiting rarely prevents rehydration as fluid are still absorbed and the vomiting rarely last long. A severely malnourished child with what appears to be dehydration but who has not had diarrhea should be treated as if they have an infection.
For babies a dropper or syringe without the needle can be used to put small amounts of fluid into the mouth; for children under 2, a teaspoon every one to two minutes; and for older children and adults, frequent sips directly from a cup. After the first two hours, rehydration should be continued at the same or slower rate, determined by how much fluid the child wants and any ongoing diarrheal loses. After the first two hours of rehydration it is recommended that to alternate between rehydration and food.
In 2003, WHO and UNICEF recommended a reduced-osmolarity ORS which still treats dehydration but also reduced stool volume and vomiting. Reduced-osmolarity ORS is the current standard ORS with reasonably wide availability. For general use, one packet of ORS (glucose sugar, salt, potassium chloride, and trisodium citrate) is added to one liter of water; however, for malnourished children it's recommended that one packet of ORS be added to two liters of water along with an extra 50 grams of sucrose sugar and some stock potassium solution.
Malnourished children have an excess of body sodium. Recommendations for home remedies agree with one liter of water (34 oz.) and 6 teaspoons sugar and disagree regarding whether it's then one teaspoon of salt added or only 1/2, with perhaps most sources recommending 1/2 teaspoon of added salt to one liter water.
Low blood sugar
Hypoglycemia, whether known or suspected, can be treated with a mixture of sugar and water. If the child is conscious, the initial dose of sugar and water can be given by mouth. If the child is unconscious, give glucose by intravenous or nasogastric tube. If seizures occur after despite glucose, rectal diazepam is recommended. Blood sugar levels should be re-checked on two hour intervals.
Hypothermia can occur. To prevent or treat this, the child can be kept warm with covering including of the head or by direct skin-to-skin contact with the mother or father and then covering both parent and child. Prolonged bathing or prolonged medical exams should be avoided. Warming methods are usually most important at night.
There is a growing realization among aid groups that giving cash or cash vouchers instead of food is a cheaper, faster, and more efficient way to deliver help to the hungry, particularly in areas where food is available but unaffordable. The UN's World Food Program, the biggest non-governmental distributor of food, announced that it will begin distributing cash and vouchers instead of food in some areas, which Josette Sheeran, the WFP's executive director, described as a "revolution" in food aid. The aid agency Concern Worldwide is piloting a method through a mobile phone operator, Safaricom, which runs a money transfer program that allows cash to be sent from one part of the country to another.
However, for people in a drought living a long way from and with limited access to markets, delivering food may be the most appropriate way to help. Fred Cuny stated that "the chances of saving lives at the outset of a relief operation are greatly reduced when food is imported. By the time it arrives in the country and gets to people, many will have died." U.S. law, which requires buying food at home rather than where the hungry live, is inefficient because approximately half of what is spent goes for transport. Cuny further pointed out "studies of every recent famine have shown that food was available in-country — though not always in the immediate food deficit area" and "even though by local standards the prices are too high for the poor to purchase it, it would usually be cheaper for a donor to buy the hoarded food at the inflated price than to import it from abroad."
Ethiopia has been pioneering a program that has now become part of the World Bank's prescribed method for coping with a food crisis and had been seen by aid organizations as a model of how to best help hungry nations. Through the country's main food assistance program, the Productive Safety Net Program, Ethiopia has been giving rural residents who are chronically short of food, a chance to work for food or cash. Foreign aid organizations like the World Food Program were then able to buy food locally from surplus areas to distribute in areas with a shortage of food. Ethiopia been pioneering a program, and Brazil has established a recycling program for organic waste that benefits farmers, urban poor, and the city in general. City residents separate organic waste from their garbage, bag it, and then exchange it for fresh fruit and vegetables from local farmers. As a result, the country's waste is reduced and the urban poor get a steady supply of nutritious food.
The figures provided in this section on epidemiology all refer to undernutrition even if the term malnutrition is used which by definition could also apply to too much nutrition.
There were 925 million undernourished people in the world in 2010, an increase of 80 million since 1990. This is despite the world's farmers producing enough food to feed around 12 billion people - almost double the current world population.
|Number in millions||843||788||848||923|
|Percentage in the developing world||37%||28%||20%||16%||17%|
Mortality due to malnutrition accounted for 58 percent of the total mortality in 2006: "In the world, approximately 62 million people, all causes of death combined, die each year. One in twelve people worldwide is malnourished and according to the Save the Children 2012 report, one in four of the world’s children are chronically malnourished.[dead link] In 2006, more than 36 million died of hunger or diseases due to deficiencies in micronutrients".
In 2010 protein-energy malnutrition resulted in 600,000 deaths down from 883,000 deaths in 1990. Other nutritional deficiencies, which include iodine deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, result in another 84,000 deaths. In 2010 malnutrition caused about 1.5 million deaths in women and children.
According to the World Health Organization, malnutrition is the biggest contributor to child mortality, present in half of all cases. Six million children die of hunger every year. Underweight births and intrauterine growth restrictions cause 2.2 million child deaths a year. Poor or non-existent breastfeeding causes another 1.4 million. Other deficiencies, such as lack of vitamin A or zinc, for example, account for 1 million. Malnutrition in the first two years is irreversible. Malnourished children grow up with worse health and lower education achievement. Their own children tend to be smaller. Malnutrition was previously seen as something that exacerbates the problems of diseases as measles, pneumonia and diarrhea. But malnutrition actually causes diseases and can be fatal in its own right.
Society and culture
Roughly $300 million of aid goes to basic nutrition each year, less than $2 for each child below two in the 20 worst affected countries. In contrast, HIV/AIDS, which causes fewer deaths than child malnutrition, received $2.2 billion—$67 per person with HIV in all countries.
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), a member of the CGIAR consortium, partners with farmers, governments, researchers and NGOs to help farmers grow nutritious crops, such as chickpea, groundnut, pigeonpea, millet and sorghum. This helps their communities have more balanced diets and become more resilient to pests and drought. The Harnessing Opportunities for Productivity Enhancement of Sorghum and Millets in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (HOPE) project, for example, is increasing yields of finger millet in Tanzania by encouraging farmers to grow improved varieties. Finger millet is very high in calcium, rich in iron and fiber, and has a better energy content than other cereals. These characteristics make it ideal for feeding to infants and the elderly.
Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed food service contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university level institutions. Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success.
The verb form is "malnourish"; "malnourishment" is sometimes used instead of "malnutrition".
Undernutrition is an important determinant of maternal and child health, accounting for more than a third of child deaths and more than 10 percent of the total global disease burden according to 2008 studies.
The World Health Organization estimates that malnutrition accounts for 54 percent of child mortality worldwide, about 1 million children. Another estimate also by WHO states that childhood underweight is the cause for about 35% of all deaths of children under the age of five years worldwide.
As underweight children are more vulnerable to almost all infectious diseases, the indirect disease burden of malnutrition is estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than the disease burden of the direct effects of malnutrition. The combination of direct and indirect deaths from malnutrition caused by unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices is estimated to lead to 860,000 deaths per year in children under five years of age.
Researchers from the Centre for World Food Studies in 2003 found that the gap between levels of undernutrition in men and women is generally small, but that the gap varies from region to region and from country to country. These small-scale studies showed that female undernutrition prevalence rates exceeded male undernutrition prevalence rates in South/Southeast Asia and Latin America and were lower in Sub-Saharan Africa. Datasets for Ethiopia and Zimbabwe reported undernutrition rates between 1.5 and 2 times higher in men than in women; however, in India and Pakistan, datasets rates of undernutrition were 1.5-2 times higher in women than in men. Intra-country variation also occurs, with frequent high gaps between regional undernutrition rates. Gender inequality in nutrition in some countries such as India is present in all stages of life.
Studies on nutrition concerning gender bias within households look at patterns of food allocation, and one study from 2003 suggested that women often receive a lower share of food requirements than men. Gender discrimination, gender roles, and social norms affecting women can lead to early marriage and childbearing, close birth spacing, and undernutrition, all of which contribute to malnourished mothers.
Within the household, there may be differences in levels of malnutrition between men and women, and these differences have been shown to vary significantly from one region to another, with problem areas showing relative deprivation of women. Samples of 1000 women in India in 2008 demonstrated that malnutrition in women is associated with poverty, lack of development and awareness, and illiteracy. The same study showed that gender discrimination in households can prevent a woman's access to sufficient food and healthcare. How socialization affects the health of women in Bangladesh, Najma Rivzi explains in an article about a research program on this topic. In some cases, such as in parts of Kenya in 2006, rates of malnutrition in pregnant women were even higher than rates in children.
Women in some societies are traditionally given less food than men since men are perceived to have heavier workloads. Household chores and agricultural tasks can in fact be very arduous and require additional energy and nutrients; however, physical activity, which largely determines energy requirements, is difficult to estimate.
Women have unique nutritional requirements, and in some cases need more nutrients than men; for example, women need twice as much calcium as men.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
During pregnancy and breastfeeding, women must ingest enough nutrients for themselves and their child, so they need significantly more protein and calories during these periods, as well as more vitamins and minerals (especially iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid, and vitamins A, C, and K). In 2001 the FAO of the UN reported that iron deficiency afflicted 43 percent of women in developing countries and increased the risk of death during childbirth. A 2008 review of interventions estimated that universal supplementation with calcium, iron, and folic acid during pregnancy could prevent 105,000 maternal deaths (23.6 percent of all maternal deaths).
Frequent pregnancies with short intervals between them and long periods of breastfeeding add an additional nutritional burden.
According to the FAO, women are often responsible for preparing food and have the chance to educate their children about beneficial food and health habits, giving mothers another chance to improve the nutrition of their children.
Malnutrition and being underweight are more common in the elderly than in adults of other ages. If elderly people are healthy and active, the aging process alone does not usually cause malnutrition. However, changes in body composition, organ functions, adequate energy intake and ability to eat or access food are associated with aging, and may contribute to malnutrition. Sadness or depression can play a role, causing changes in appetite, digestion, energy level, weight, and well-being. A study on the relationship between malnutrition and other conditions in the elderly found that Malnutrition in the elderly can result from gastrointestinal and endocrine system disorders, loss of taste and smell, decreased appetite and inadequate dietary intake. Poor dental health, ill-fitting dentures, or chewing and swallowing problems can make eating difficult. As a result of these factors, malnutrition is seen to develop more easily in the elderly.
Rates of malnutrition tend to increase with age with less than 10 percent of the “young” elderly (up to age 75) malnourished, while 30 to 65 percent of the elderly in home care, long-term care facilities, or acute hospitals are malnourished. Many elderly people require assistance in eating, which may contribute to malnutrition. Because of this, one of the main requirements of elderly care is to provide an adequate diet and all essential nutrients.
In Australia malnutrition or risk of malnutrition occurs in 80 percent of elderly people presented to hospitals for admission. Malnutrition and weight loss can contribute to sarcopenia with loss of lean body mass and muscle function. Abdominal obesity or weight loss coupled with sarcopenia lead to immobility, skeletal disorders, insulin resistance, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and metabolic disorders. A paper from the Journal of the American Dietetic Association noted that routine nutrition screenings represent one way to detect and therefore decrease the prevalence of malnutrition in the elderly.
- Eating disorder
- Community Therapeutic Care (public health strategy for malnutrition)
- NutritionDay (in Europe)
- Malnutrition in South Africa
- Malnutrition in India
- Malnutrition in Zimbabwe
- Malnutrition in Peru
- "malnutrition" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- Facts for life (4th ed. ed.). New York: United Nations Children's Fund. 2010. pp. 61 and 75. ISBN 978-92-806-4466-1.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Young, E.M. (2012). Food and development. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 36–38. ISBN 9781135999414.
- Essentials of International Health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2011. p. 194. ISBN 9781449667719.
- "Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health". WHO. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- Konje, editor, Mala Arora ; co-editor, Justin C. (2007). Recurrent pregnancy loss (2nd ed. ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Bros. Medical Publishers. ISBN 9788184480061.
- "Progress For Children: A Report Card On Nutrition". UNICEF.
- Prentice, editor-in-chief, Benjamin Caballero ; editors, Lindsay Allen, Andrew (2005). Encyclopedia of human nutrition (2nd ed. ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780080454283.
- Stoelting's anesthesia and co-existing disease (6th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier. 2012. p. 324. ISBN 9781455738120.
- "An update of ‘The Neglected Crisis of Undernutrition: Evidence for Action’". www.gov.uk. Department for International Development. Oct 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Bhutta, ZA; Das, JK; Rizvi, A; Gaffey, MF; Walker, N; Horton, S; Webb, P; Lartey, A; Black, RE; Lancet Nutrition Interventions Review, Group; Maternal and Child Nutrition Study, Group (Aug 3, 2013). "Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost?". Lancet 382 (9890): 452–77. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60996-4. PMID 23746776.
- "World Food Programme, Cash and Vouchers for Food". WFP.org. April 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Guidelines for the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished children. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2003. ISBN 9241546093.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Jonathan A. Foley, Navin Ramankutty, Kate A. Brauman, Emily S. Cassidy, James S. Gerber, Matt Johnston, Nathaniel D. Mueller, Christine O’Connell, Deepak K. Ray, Paul C. West, Christian Balzer, Elena M. Bennett, Stephen R. Carpenter, Jason Hill1, Chad Monfreda, Stephen Polasky1, Johan Rockström, John Sheehan, Stefan Siebert, David Tilman1, David P. M. Zaks (October 2011). "Solutions for a cultivated planet". Nature 478 (7369): 337–342. doi:10.1038/nature10452. PMID 21993620.
- "Global hunger declining, but still unacceptably high International hunger targets difficult to reach". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. September 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- Food; (FAO), Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008). The state of food insecurity in the world, 2008 : high food prices and food security : threats and opportunities. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). p. 2. ISBN 978-92-5-106049-0.
FAO’s most recent estimates put the number of hungry [actually, malnourished] people at 923 million in 2007, an increase of more than 80 million since the 1990–92 base period.
- GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442.
- Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K et al. (December 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604.
- Murray, CJ (Dec 15, 2012). "Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.". Lancet 380 (9859): 2197–223. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4. PMID 23245608.
- Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD et al. (December 2012). "A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2224–60. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8. PMID 23245609.
- Liz Young (2002). World Hunger Routledge Introductions to Development. p. 20. ISBN 9781134774944.
- editors, Ronnie A. Rosenthal, Michael E. Zenilman, Mark R. Katlic, (2011). Principles and practice of geriatric surgery (2nd ed. ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 78. ISBN 9781441969996.
- Nikolaos Katsilambros (2011). Clinical Nutrition in Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-4443-4777-7.
- "WHO, nutrition experts take action on malnutrition". World Health Organization. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- Nikolaos Katsilambros (2011). Clinical Nutrition in Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4443-4777-7.
- "hypoalimentation" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- Walker, [edited by] Christopher Duggan, John B. Watkins, W. Allan (2008). Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science, clinical application. Hamilton: BC Decker. pp. 127–141. ISBN 978-1-55009-361-2.
- Chowdhury, M. S. I.; Akhter, N.; Haque, M.; Aziz, R.; Nahar, N. (2009). "Serum Total Protein and Albumin Levels in Different Grades of Protein Energy Malnutrition". Journal of Bangladesh Society of Physiologist 3. doi:10.3329/jbsp.v3i0.1799.
- Black, R. E.; Allen, L. H.; Bhutta, Z. A.; Caulfield, L. E.; De Onis, M.; Ezzati, M.; Mathers, C.; Rivera, J.; Maternal Child Undernutrition Study Group (2008). "Maternal and child undernutrition: Global and regional exposures and health consequences". The Lancet 371 (9608): 243–260. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61690-0. PMID 18207566.
- Stevenson, R. D.; Conaway, M. R. (August 2011). "Weight and Mortality Rates: "Gomez Classification" for Children With Cerebral Palsy?". Pediatrics 128 (2): e436–e437. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-1472. PMID 21768321.
- Grover, Zubin; Ee, Looi C. (2009). "Protein Energy Malnutrition". Pediatric Clinics of North America 56 (5): 1055–1068. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2009.07.001. PMID 19931063.
- Gueri, M.; J. M. Gurney, P. Jutsum (1980). "The gomez classification. Time for a change?". Bulletin of the World Health Organization 58 (5): 773–777. PMC 2395976. PMID 6975186.
- J. C. Waterlow (1972). "Classification and Definition of Protein-Calorie Malnutrition". British Medical Journal 3 (5826): 566–569. doi:10.1136/bmj.3.5826.566. PMC 1785878. PMID 4627051.
- Watts, Geoff (December 2010). "John Conrad Waterlow". The Lancet 376 (9757): 1982. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62252-0.
- Stillwaggon, Eileen (2008). "Race, Sex, and the Neglected Risks for Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa". Feminist Economics 14 (4): 67–86. doi:10.1080/13545700802262923.
- Schaible, U. E.; Kaufmann, S. H. E. (2007). "Malnutrition and Infection: Complex Mechanisms and Global Impacts". PLoS Medicine 4 (5): e115. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040115. PMC 1858706. PMID 17472433.
- "8. Management of diarrhoea with severe malnutrition". The Treatment of diarrhoea : a manual for physicians and other senior health workers. (4 ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. 2005. pp. 22–24. ISBN 924159318 0.
- Laus, M. F.; Duarte Manhas Ferreira Vales, L.; Braga Costa, T. M.; Sousa Almeida, S. O. (2011). "Early Postnatal Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and Cognition: A Review of Human and Animal Studies". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8 (2): 590–612. doi:10.3390/ijerph8020590. PMC 3084481. PMID 21556206.
- Kenton R. Holden. "Chapter 2 Malnutrition and Brain Development: A Review. In Neurologic Consequences of Malnutrition, World Federation of Neurology Seminars in Clinical Neurology, 2008, World Federation of Neurology,". Demos Medical Publishing. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- McNeil Jr, Donald G. (2006-12-16). "In raising the world's IQ the secret is in salt". New York Times.
- Fotso, J. C.; Kuate-Defo, B. (2005). "Measuring socioeconomic status in health research in developing countries: Should we be focusing on households, communities or both?". Social Indicators Research 72 (2): 189. doi:10.1007/s11205-004-5579-8.
- Dolin, [edited by] Gerald L. Mandell, John E. Bennett, Raphael (2010). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. pp. Chp 93. ISBN 0-443-06839-9.
- Malnutrition at eMedicine
- Baro, M.; Deubel, T. F. (2006). "Persistent Hunger: Perspectives on Vulnerability, Famine, and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa". Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 521. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.35.081705.123224.
- Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Hassan, Abdelmonem S., Obeid, Omar (August 2011). "The Paradox of Nutrition-Related Diseases in the Arab Countries: The Need for Action". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8 (9): 3637–3671. doi:10.3390/ijerph8093637. PMC 3194109. PMID 22016708.
- World Health Organization (2001). "Water-related diseases: Malnutrition".
- Brady JP (June 2012). "Marketing breast milk substitutes: problems and perils throughout the world". Arch Dis Child 97 (6): 529–32. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2011-301299. PMC 3371222. PMID 22419779.
- Burchi F, Fanzo J, Frison E (February 2011). "The role of food and nutrition system approaches in tackling hidden hunger". Int J Environ Res Public Health 8 (2): 358–73. doi:10.3390/ijerph8020358. PMC 3084466. PMID 21556191.
- UNICEF (2013). Improving Child Nutrition - The achievable imperative for global progress. UNICEF
- Gardner, Gary; Halweil, Brian (2000). "Escaping Hunger, Escaping Excess". World Watch 13 (4): 24.
- Gardner, Gary; Halweil, Brian (2000). "Escaping Hunger, Escaping Excess". World Watch 13 (4): 5.
- Khan, MM; Kraemer, A (August 2009). "Factors associated with being underweight, overweight and obese among ever-married non-pregnant urban women in Bangladesh". Singapore medical journal 50 (8): 804–13. PMID 19710981.
- Sen, Amartya Kumar (1981). Poverty and famines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-828463-5.
- "The role of speculators in the global food crisis". Spiegel Online.
- "Biofuel use increasing poverty". BBC News. 2008-06-25.
- Ferrett, Grant (2007-10-27). "Biofuels 'crime against humanity'". BBC News.
- Dugger, Celia W. (2007-12-02). "Ending Famine, Simply by Ignoring the Experts". New York Times.
- Biles, Peter (2006-02-06). "Zambia: fertile but hungry". BBC News.
- "Forgotten benefactor of humanity". The Atlantic.
- "Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 12–17 November 2007. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
- Battisti, David S. "Climate Change in Developing Countries." University of Washington. Seattle. 27 October 2008.[verification needed]
- Black, Richard (August 9, 2010). "Rice yields falling under global warming". BBC News; Science & Environment.
- Honey Bee Die-Off Alarms Beekeepers, Crop growers and researchers
- Wells, Matt (2007-03-11). "Vanishing bees threaten US crops". BBC News.
- McKie, Robin; Rice, Xan (2007-04-22). "Millions face famine as crop disease rages". Guardian (London).
- Kaplan, Karen (2009-06-14). "A time bomb for world wheat crop". LA Times.
- Dugger, Celia W. (2007-10-10). "In Africa, prosperity from seeds falls short". New York Times.
- Barclay, Eliza (2008-06-18). "How a Kenyan village tripled its corn harvest". Christian Science Monitor.
- John Ulimwengu et al. (March 2013). "Need in a land of planty". dandc.eu.
- Baker, Peter; Dugger, Celia W. (2009-07-09). "Obama enlists major powers to aid poor farmers with $15 billion". The New York Times.
- Li, Jiming, Yeyun Xin and Longping Yuan. (2010). Pushing the Yield Frontier: Hybrid rice in China. In MillionsFed: Proved Success in Agriculture Development. Washington, DC: International Policy Research Institute
- "Millions of children dying needlessly". BBC News. 2003-06-26.
- Anderson, Tatum (2009-06-24). "Firms target nutrition for the poor". BBC News.
- Malthus, Thomas Robert; Appleman, Philip (1976). An essay on the principle of population: text, sources and background, criticism. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-09202-8.
- Chapman, R. (1999). "No room at the inn, or why population problems are not all economic". Population and Environment 21: 81–97. doi:10.1007/BF02436122.
- Ohlin, G. (1967). Population control and economic development. Paris: Dev Centers, OECD.
- Nielson, K. (1992). Global Justice, Capitalism and the Third World. (R. A. Wilkons, Ed.)
- Waters, H. R.; Penny, M. E.; Creed-Kanashiro, H. M.; Robert, R. C.; Narro, R.; Willis, J.; Caulfield, L. E.; Black, R. E. (2006). "The cost-effectiveness of a child nutrition education programme in Peru". Health Policy and Planning 21 (4): 257–264. doi:10.1093/heapol/czl010. PMID 16672293.
- Nyonator, Frank, J Koku Awooner-Williams, James Phillips, Tanya Jones, Robert Miller. (2003). The Ghana Community-based Health Planning and Services Initiative: Fostering Evidence-based Organizational Change and Development in a Resource-constrained Setting. In Policy Research Division Working Papers 180. New York: Population Council. http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/wp/180.pdf
- National Guidelines for the Management of Severely Malnourished Children in Bangladesh, Institute of Public Health Nutrition, Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, May 2008, page 18 (19 in PDF) and following pages.
- Sguassero, Y; de Onis, M; Bonotti, AM; Carroli, G (Jun 13, 2012). "Community-based supplementary feeding for promoting the growth of children under five years of age in low and middle income countries.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 6: CD005039. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005039.pub3. PMID 22696347.
- Lazzerini, M; Rubert, L; Pani, P (Jun 21, 2013). "Specially formulated foods for treating children with moderate acute malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 6: CD009584. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009584.pub2. PMID 23794237.
- Schoonees, A; Lombard, M; Musekiwa, A; Nel, E; Volmink, J (Jun 6, 2013). "Ready-to-use therapeutic food for home-based treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children from six months to five years of age.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 6: CD009000. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009000.pub2. PMID 23744450.
- Viana Lde, A; Burgos, MG; Silva Rde, A (Jan–Mar 2012). "Refeeding syndrome: clinical and nutritional relevance.". Arquivos brasileiros de cirurgia digestiva : ABCD = Brazilian archives of digestive surgery 25 (1): 56–9. PMID 22569981.
- Boateng, AA; Sriram, K; Meguid, MM; Crook, M (Feb 2010). "Refeeding syndrome: treatment considerations based on collective analysis of literature case reports.". Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) 26 (2): 156–67. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2009.11.017. PMID 20122539.
- Kristof, Nicholas D. (2008-12-04). "Raising the world's IQ". The New York Times.
- "Let them eat micronutrients". Newsweek.
- The Treatment of Diarrhoea: A manual for physicians and other senior health workers, World Health Organization, 2005. See especially Ch. 4 "Management of Acute Diarrhoea (Without Blood)" and Ch. 8 "Management of Diarrhoea With Severe Malnutrition."
- "4. Management of acute diarrhoea without blood". The Treatment of diarrhoea : a manual for physicians and other senior health workers. (4 ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. 2005. pp. 8–16. ISBN 924159318 0.
- WHO Drug Information Vol. 16, No. 2, 2002.
- Low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS), Rehydrate Project, updated: April 23, 2014.
- The Treatment of Diarrhoea: A manual for physicians and other senior health workers, WHO, 2005. Specifically, 45 milliliters of potassium chloride solution from a stock solution containing 100g KCl per liter, along with one packet of ORS, two liters of water, and 50 grams of sucrose. And please remember, sucrose has approximately twice the molecular weight of glucose, with one mole of glucose weighing 180 g and one mole of sucrose weighing 342 g.
- "Guidelines for the control of shigellosis, including epidemics due to Shigella dysenteriae type 1". World Health Organization, 2005, Annex 12 - Preparation of Home Made Oral Rehydration Solution, page 51 (57 in PDF): "Ingredients: Half a teaspoon of salt (2.5 grams), six level teaspoons of sugar (30 grams) and one litre of safe drinking water".
- "Dehydration, treatments and drugs." Mayo Clinic 7 January 2011. "In an emergency situation where a pre-formulated solution is unavailable, you can make your own oral rehydration solution by mixing half teaspoon salt, six level teaspoons of sugar and one litre (about 1 quart) of safe drinking water."
- Family Practice Notebook, Oral Rehydration Solution, Scott Moses, MD, Feb. 1, 2014.
- National Guidelines for the Management of Severely Malnourished Children in Bangladesh recommends, for initial hypoglycemia, a 50 milliliter bolus of 10% glucose or sucrose. This can also be achieved by added 1 rounded teaspoon of sugar to 10.5 teaspoons of water (which is 3.5 tablespoons of water).
- "UN aid debate: give cash not food?". Christian Science Monitor. 2008-06-04.
- "Cash roll-out to help hunger hot spots". World Food Programme. December 8, 2008.
- Andrew S. Natsios (Administrator U.S. Agency for International Development)
- Memorandum to former Representative Steve Solarz (United States, Democratic Party, New York), July 1994
- "A model of African food aid is now in trouble". Christian Science Monitor. 2008-05-06.
- "Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO Member States in 2002" (xls). World Health Organization. 2002.
- Jean Ziegler. "Promotion And Protection Of All Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social And Cultural Rights, Including The Right To Development: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Jean Ziegler". Human Rights Council of the United Nations, January 10, 2008."According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the world already produces enough food to feed every child, woman and man and could feed 12 billion people, or double the current world population."
- Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department. "The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security — threats and opportunities". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2008, p. 48.
- Food and Agriculture Organization Agricultural and Development Economics Division. "The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2006 : Eradicating world hunger – taking stock ten years after the World Food Summit". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2006, p. 8. "Because of population growth, the very small decrease in the number of hungry people has nevertheless resulted in a reduction in the proportion of undernourished people in the developing countries by 3 percentage points – from 20 percent in 1990–92 to 17 percent in 2001–03. (...) the prevalence of undernourishment declined by 9 percent (from 37 percent to 28 percent) between 1969–71 and 1979–81 and by a further 8 percentage points (to 20 percent) between 1979–81 and 1990–92.".
- Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department. "The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security — threats and opportunities". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2008, p. 6. "Good progress in reducing the share of hungry people in the developing world had been achieved – down from almost 20 percent in 1990–92 to less than 18 percent in 1995–97 and just above 16 percent in 2003–05. The estimates show that rising food prices have thrown that progress into reverse, with the proportion of undernourished people worldwide moving back towards 17 percent.".
- http://www.savethechildren.org/atf/cf/%7B9def2ebe-10ae-432c-9bd0-df91d2eba74a%7D/STATE-OF-THE-WORLDS-MOTHERS-REPORT-2012-FINAL.PDF[dead link]
- Ziegler, Jean (2007). L'Empire de la honte. Fayard. p. 130. ISBN 978-2-253-12115-2.
- "Malnutrition The Starvelings". The Economist. 2008-01-24.
- "U.N. chief: Hunger kills 17,000 kids daily". CNN. 2009-11-17.
- Alina Paul Bossuet, Nourishing Communities Through Holistic Farming http://exploreit.icrisat.org/page/sorghum/882/249. ICRISAT. Downloaded 26 January 2014.
- Jere R. Behrman (February 1996). "The Impact of Health and Nutrition on Education". The World Bank Research Observer 11 (1): 23–37. doi:10.1093/wbro/11.1.23. JSTOR 3986477.
- Manary, Mark J.; Indi Trehan, Hayley S. Goldbach, Lacey N. LaGrone, Guthrie J. Meuli, Richard J. Wang, and Kenneth M. Maleta (January 31, 2013). "Antibiotics as Part of the Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition". The New England Journal of Medicine 368 (5): 425–435. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1202851. PMC 3654668. PMID 23363496. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
The addition of antibiotics to therapeutic regimens for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition was associated with a significant improvement in recovery and mortality rates.
- Prüss-Üstün, A., Bos, R., Gore, F., Bartram, J. (2008). Safer water, better health - Costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland
- Nubé, M.; Van Den Boom, G. J. M. (2003). "Gender and adult undernutrition in developing countries". Annals of Human Biology 30 (5): 520–537. doi:10.1080/0301446031000119601. PMID 12959894.
- Dewan, Manju (2008). "Malnutrition in Women". Stud. Home Comm. Sci. 2 (1): 7–10. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- Najma Rizvi (March 2013). "Enduring misery". dandc.eu.
- Carter, Rachel Bonham. "Survey Reveals High Malnutrition Rates Among Pregnant Women in Kenya". UNICEF. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "Gender and Nutrition 2001". Food and Agriculture of the United Nations. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- Bhutta, Z. A.; Ahmed, T.; Black, R. E.; Cousens, S.; Dewey, K.; Giugliani, E.; Haider, B. A.; Kirkwood, B.; Morris, S. S.; Sachdev, H. P. S.; Shekar, M.; Maternal Child Undernutrition Study Group (2008). "What works? Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival". The Lancet 371 (9610): 417–440. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61693-6. PMID 18206226.
- Kvamme, January–Magnus; Olsen, Jan Abel, Florholmen, Jon, Jacobsen, Bjarne K. (2011). "Risk of malnutrition and health-related quality of life in community-living elderly men and women: The Tromsø study". Quality of Life Research 20 (4): 575–582. doi:10.1007/s11136-010-9788-0. PMC 3075394. PMID 21076942.
- Wellman, N.S; Weddle, D.O, Kranz, S, Brain, C.T (October 1997). "Elder Insecurities: Poverty, Hunger, and Malnutrition". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97 (10): S120–S122. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(97)00744-X. PMID 9336570.
- Saka, Bulent; Kaya, Omer, Ozturk, Gulistan Bahat, Erten, Nilgun, Karan, M. Akif (2010). "Malnutrition in the elderly and its relationship with other geriatric syndromes". Clinical Nutrition 29 (6): 745–748. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2010.04.006. PMID 20627486.
- Volkert, Dorothee (2002). "Malnutrition in the elderly — prevalence, causes and corrective strategies". Clinical Nutrition 21: 110–112. doi:10.1016/S0261-5614(02)80014-0.
- Volkert, D. (2002). "Malnutrition in the elderly — prevalence, causes and corrective strategies". Clinical Nutrition 21: 110. doi:10.1016/S0261-5614(02)80014-0.
- Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Kihlgren, Mona, Soerlie, Venke; Soerlie, V (2010). "Malnutrition in elder care: qualitative analysis of ethical perceptions of politicians and civil servants". BMC Medical Ethics 11: 11. doi:10.1186/1472-6939-11-11. PMC 2927875. PMID 20553607.
- Bolin, T.; Bare, M.; Caplan, G.; Daniells, S.; Holyday, M. (2010). "Malabsorption may contribute to malnutrition in the elderly". Nutrition 26 (7–8): 852–853. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2009.11.016. PMID 20097534.
|Look up malnutrition or undernutrition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|