Ice Ic

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Ice Ic (pronounced "ice one c" or "ice icy") is a metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice. H. König was the first to identify and deduce the structure of ice Ic.[1] The oxygen atoms in ice Ic are arranged in a diamond structure and is extremely similar to ice Ih having nearly identical densities and the same lattice constant along the hexagonal puckered-planes.[2] It forms at temperatures between 130 and 220 K (−140 and −50 °C) upon cooling, and can exist up to 240 K upon warming,[3][4] when it transforms into ice Ih. Apart from forming from supercooled water,[5] ice Ic has also been reported to form from amorphous ice[6] as well as from the high pressure ices II, III and V.[7] It may occasionally be present in the upper atmosphere[8] and is believed to be responsible for the observation of Scheiner's halo, a rare ring that occurs near 28 degrees from the Sun or the Moon.[9]

Ordinary water ice is known as ice Ih, (in the Bridgman nomenclature). Different types of ice, from ice II to ice XVI, have been created in the laboratory at different temperatures and pressures.

Presence in atmosphere[edit]

This type of ice can appear in Earth's atmosphere.[10]

See also[edit]

  • Ice I for the other crystalline form of ice


  • Chaplin, Martin (2007-07-16). "Cubic ice". Water Structure and Science. Retrieved 2008-01-02. 
  1. ^ König, H. (1943). "Eine kubische Eismodifikation". Z. Kristallog. 105 (1): 279–286. doi:10.1524/zkri.1943.105.1.279. 
  2. ^ Dowell, L. G.; Rinfre, A. P. (1960). "Low-temperature forms of ice as studied by x-ray diffraction". Nature 189: 1144–1148. doi:10.1038/1881144a0. 
  3. ^ Murray, B.J.; Bertram, A. K. (2006). "Formation and stability of cubic ice in water droplets". Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8 (1): 186–192. Bibcode:2006PCCP....8..186M. doi:10.1039/b513480c. PMID 16482260. 
  4. ^ Murray, B.J. (2008). "The Enhanced formation of cubic ice in aqueous organic acid droplets". Env. Res. Lett. 3 (2): 025008. Bibcode:2008ERL.....3b5008M. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/2/025008. 
  5. ^ Mayer, E.; Hallbrucker, A. (1987). "Cubic ice from liquid water". Nature 325 (12): 601–602. doi:10.1038/325601a0. 
  6. ^ Dowell, L. G.; Rinfre, A. P. (1960). "Low-temperature forms of ice as studied by x-ray diffraction". Nature 189: 1144–1148. doi:10.1038/1881144a0. 
  7. ^ Bertie, J. E.; Calvert, L. D., Whalley, E. (1963). "Transformations of Ice II, Ice III, and Ice V at Atmospheric Pressure". J. Chem. Phys. 38: 840–846. doi:10.1063/1.1733772. 
  8. ^ Murray, B.J.; et al. (2005). "The formation of cubic ice under conditions relevant to Earth's atmosphere". Nature 434 (7030): 202–205. Bibcode:2005Natur.434..202M. doi:10.1038/nature03403. PMID 15758996. 
  9. ^ Whalley, E. (1981). "Scheiner's Halo: Evidence for Ice Ic in the Atmosphere". Science 211: 389–390. doi:10.1126/science.211.4480.389. 
  10. ^