Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978 film)
|Invasion of the Body Snatchers|
Theatrical release poster by Bill Gold
|Directed by||Philip Kaufman|
|Produced by||Robert H. Solo|
|Screenplay by||W. D. Richter|
|Based on||The Body Snatchers|
by Jack Finney
|Music by||Denny Zeitlin|
|Edited by||Douglas Stewart|
|Distributed by||United Artists|
|Box office||US$24.9 million(North America)|
Invasion of the Body Snatchers is a 1978 American science fiction horror film directed by Philip Kaufman, and starring Donald Sutherland, Brooke Adams, Veronica Cartwright, Jeff Goldblum and Leonard Nimoy. Released on December 22, 1978, it is a remake of Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956), which is based on the novel The Body Snatchers by Jack Finney. The plot involves a San Francisco health inspector and his colleague who discover that humans are being replaced by alien duplicates; each is a perfect copy of the person replaced, only devoid of human emotion.
Released in the United States over the Christmas weekend 1978, Invasion of the Body Snatchers grossed nearly US$25 million at the box office. It initially received varied reviews from critics, though its critical reception has significantly improved in subsequent years, receiving a 95% on Rotten Tomatoes, and also being hailed as one of the greatest remakes ever as well as one of the best science-fiction horror films of all time.
Gelatinous space aliens abandon their dying world. They make their way to Earth and land in San Francisco. They fall on plant leaves, assimilating them and forming small pods with pretty pink flowers.
Elizabeth Driscoll, a laboratory employee at the Sacramento Health Department, is one of several people who bring the flowers home. The next morning, Elizabeth's husband Geoffrey Howell is cold and distant, ignoring her as he empties a trash bin into a waiting truck. When she confides in her colleague, health inspector Dr. Matthew Bennell, he suggests that she talk with his friend, psychiatrist Dr. David Kibner.
While driving to Kibner's book party, a running man hits their car and shouts "They're coming!", before being chased off by a crowd, then struck and killed just around the corner, where his body is surrounded by emotionless onlookers. At the party, Matthew introduces Elizabeth to his friend Jack Bellicec, a struggling writer who considers Kibner a fraud. Matthew calls the police about the running man, and finds them strangely indifferent. A woman at the party causes a scene by claiming her husband is not really her husband, and Kibner makes a show of calming her and persuading her to go home with him. Elizabeth tries to validate the woman's experience and Kibner intervenes, suggesting Elizabeth's fears are rooted in a desire to be free of Geoffrey, and he tells Matthew to take her home.
Jack goes to the mudbath parlour he owns with his wife Nancy, where another pod plant is growing, a gift from the rather sinister Mr. Gianni, soaking nearby. Nancy discovers a transforming body on one of the massage tables after he leaves, as Jack soaks in the mud. After Jack wakes up, the body opens its eyes. Nancy calls Matthew for help, and he notes the increasing resemblance in size and weight to Jack; Jack's nose bleeds, then the body's nose bleeds. Matthew suddenly suspects Elizabeth is in trouble and goes to get her, calling Kibner to the bathhouse, where the body disappears.
Matthew breaks into Elizabeth's home and finds a semi-formed double of her in the garden. He takes Elizabeth to safety then calls the police from the bathhouse, but the duplicate body has disappeared by the time he returns with the police, and Kibner tries to persuade them that they are all crazy.
After Kibner leaves, they realize that the flowers are involved and Matthew tries calling all sorts of government agencies to no avail.
That night, the four friends are nearly duplicated by the pods while they sleep. They realize the pods emit tendrils that grasp victims in their sleep creating alien facsimiles devoid of human emotion; the victims die and disintegrate as the alien facsimiles awaken. Pod people try to raid Matthew's house while the police barricade the street, but the four manage to escape. Pod people they encounter on the street emit a loud shriek when they recognize them as still human. Jack and Nancy create a diversion to give Matthew and Elizabeth time to escape.
Matthew and Elizabeth are chased across San Francisco. They hide out in a Health Department building, and witness pods being distributed to people gathered in the square outside. They are eventually trapped by Jack and Kibner, who tell them that the alien species simply wants to survive and it is beneficial for humans. They are injected with a sedative but having already taken a large dose of speed, the couple overpower them and escape.
They find Nancy, who has learned to evade the pod people by hiding all emotion. Outside, Matthew and Elizabeth are exposed when Elizabeth screams at seeing a mutant dog with a human face, an alien facsimile of a local busker and his dog.
Matthew and Elizabeth flee aboard a truck delivering pods, and discover a giant warehouse at the docks where the pods are cultivated then shipped to other cities. Matthew leaves Elizabeth to find a way out of town, following music to a cargo ship being loaded with pods. Matthew returns to find Elizabeth asleep and her body crumbles after he tries to wake her. When he rejects her duplicate's pleas to sleep she shrieks and Matthew flees. He goes to the warehouse and sets it on fire, destroying many pods, then hides alone.
The next morning, Matthew walks to the office and sees schoolchildren led into a theater to be replaced, while pods are loaded into the theater from a truck in an alley. An intercom directs pod people to other West Coast cities. At the end of the day, he stops by the crowded laboratory where Elizabeth and her coworkers idly wait to go home, ignoring him. As he walks along a street lined with barren trees near City Hall, he is approached by Nancy. When she calls out to him, he shrieks and Nancy realizes Matthew has become one of them.
- Donald Sutherland as Dr. Matthew Bennell
- Brooke Adams as Elizabeth Driscoll
- Leonard Nimoy as Dr. David Kibner
- Jeff Goldblum as Jack Bellicec
- Veronica Cartwright as Nancy Bellicec
- Art Hindle as Dr. Geoffrey Howell
- Lelia Goldoni as Katherine Hendley
- Kevin McCarthy as Running Man, who played Dr. Miles Bennell in the original Invasion of the Body Snatchers
- Don Siegel as Taxi Driver. Siegel was director of the 1956 film version
- Tom Luddy as Ted Hendley
- Jerry Walter as Restaurant Owner, Henri
- Philip Kaufman (the film's director) as the man wearing a hat who bothers Dr. Matthew Bennell in a phone booth; also the voice of one of the officials whom Bennell contacts
- Rose Kaufman (wife of Philip Kaufman) as the woman who argues with Jack at the book party
- Joe Bellan as Harry, the busker
Director Philip Kaufman had been a fan of the 1956 film, which he likened to "great radio", although he had not read the novel until after he agreed to direct the remake. "I thought, 'Well this doesn't have to be a remake as such. It can be a new envisioning that was a variation on a theme,' he said on the film's 40th anniversary. The first change he anticipated was filming in color; the second was changing the location to San Francisco. "Could it happen in the city I love the most? The city with the most advanced, progressive therapies, politics and so forth? What would happen in a place like that if the pods landed there and that element of 'poddiness' was spread?"
Cinematographer Michael Chapman worked with Kaufman to try to capture the film noir feel of the original in color, reviewing some classics of that genre before production. Some of the things they borrowed were scenes with light giving way to shadow and shooting from unusual angles. They used certain color tinges to indicate that some characters were now pod people. "When they're running along the Embarcadero and the huge shadows appear first, those are sort of classic film noir images", the director said.
Sound editor Ben Burtt, who had helped create many of the signature sounds from Star Wars the year before, also added to the film's ambience. Natural sounds that mix with the city's more industrial noises give way to just the latter as the film progresses. Among them are the grinding noises of garbage trucks, a common urban sound that slowly becomes horrific as it becomes clear that most of what they are processing is the discarded husks that remain of pre-pod human bodies. Burtt also designed the iconic shriek when pod people see a surviving human, a sound Kaufman said was composed of many elements, including a pig's squeal.
All the special effects were created live for the camera. The scene at the beginning where the pods travel through space from their dead homeworld to San Francisco was one of the simplest. "I found some viscous material in an art store, I think we paid $12 for a big vat of it, and then [we dropped it] into solutions and reversed the film", Kaufman recalled. The dog with the banjo player's face, another effective moment later in the film, included a mechanism whereby the creature appeared to lick itself.
The film features a number of cameo appearances. Kevin McCarthy, who played Dr. Miles Bennell in the original Invasion of the Body Snatchers, makes a brief appearance as an old man frantically screaming "They're coming!" to passing cars on the street. Kaufman meant his cameo to link the two movies, as if he had been "metaphorically" running around the country since the original film shouting out his warnings. While they were filming the scene, in the Tenderloin, Kaufman recalls that a naked man lying on the street awoke and recognized McCarthy. After learning that they were filming the remake of the original Invasion of the Body Snatchers, he told McCarthy that that film was better. "We were in the middle of shooting the film and we got our first review!"
The original film's director, Don Siegel, appears as a taxi driver who alerts the police to Matthew and Elizabeth's attempt to flee the city. Robert Duvall is also seen briefly as a silent priest sitting on a swing set in the opening scene.[a] Kaufman appears in dual roles both as a man wearing a hat who bothers Sutherland's character in a phone booth, and the voice of one of the officials Sutherland's character speaks to on the phone. His wife, Rose Kaufman, has a small role at the book party as the woman who argues with Jeff Goldblum's character. Chapman appears twice as a janitor in the health department.
McCarthy and Siegel played a role in shaping the film's twist ending. Before filming, Kaufman had sought out Siegel for advice, and while the two were talking in the latter's office, McCarthy happened to come in. The topic eventually came around to the original film's ending, which they regarded as "pat". After coming up with the ending he used, he kept it a secret from everyone involved in the filming except screenwriter W.D. Richter and producer Robert Solo. Sutherland was only informed of the scene the night before shooting; Kaufman is not sure Cartwright even knew until Sutherland turned around to point and shriek at her. The studio executives only learned of it when a cut was screened for them at George Lucas's house.
Kaufman said of the casting of Nimoy, "Leonard had got typecast and this [film] was an attempt to break him out of that," referring to the similar quirks that Dr. Kibner and his pod double had in common with Spock, the Star Trek character that Nimoy was most well known for. According to Kaufman, it was Mike Medavoy, then head of production at United Artists, who suggested the casting of Donald Sutherland. Sutherland's character had a similar curly hairstyle as that of another character he portrayed in Don't Look Now (1973). "They would have to set his hair with pink rollers every day", recalled co-star Veronica Cartwright. According to Zeitlin, Sutherland's character was originally written as an "avocational jazz player" early in development.
The director encouraged his actors to fill the spaces between dialogue with facial expressions. "Often people on the set or at the studio are so worried about just getting content, and content is not necessarily going to make the scene full of humanity or feel compassion and amusement and humor", Kaufman told The Hollywood Reporter. He particularly singled out the way Adams rolls her eyes in opposite directions while she and Sutherland have dinner as something that a pod person could and would never do.
Invasion of the Body Snatchers premiered in the United States on December 22, 1978, showing on 445 screens nationally. Between its premiere and December 25, the film had earned a total of $1,298,129 in box office sales. It would go on to gross a total of nearly $25 million in the United States.
On the film's 40th anniversary, Kaufman believes the film may have seemed timely when it came out since the Jonestown mass suicide had occurred a month earlier and still dominated the news. "[T]hat was a case of a lot of people from San Francisco were looking for a better world and suddenly found themselves in pod-dom, and it was fatal. It could not have been a more pointed reason for watching the movie."
The New Yorker's Pauline Kael was a particular fan of the film, writing that it "may be the best film of its kind ever made". Variety wrote that it "validates the entire concept of remakes. This new version of Don Siegel's 1956 cult classic not only matches the original in horrific tone and effect, but exceeds it in both conception and execution." Gene Siskel gave the film three stars out of four and said it was "one of the more entertaining films in what has turned out to be a dismal Christmas movie season." Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times called it "a thoroughly scary success in its own right. Not literally a remake—it's more of a sequel, actually—this handsome, highly imaginative film generates its own implications from Finney's sturdy allegory of dehumanization and manages even to have some fun in the process."
The film was not without negative criticism. The New York Times' Janet Maslin wrote that the "creepiness [Kaufman] generates is so crazily ubiquitous it becomes funny." Roger Ebert wrote that it "was said to have something to do with Watergate and keeping tabs on those who are not like you”, and called Kael's praise for the film "inexplicable", while Time magazine's Richard Schickel labeled its screenplay "laughably literal". Phil Hardy's Aurum Film Encyclopedia called Kaufman's direction "less sure" than the screenplay.
The film received a nomination from the Writers Guild of America for Best Drama Adapted from Another Medium. The film was also nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. It was also recognized by the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films. Philip Kaufman won Best Director, and the film was nominated Best Science Fiction Film. Donald Sutherland, Brooke Adams, and Leonard Nimoy received additional nominations for their performances.
Film scholar M. Keith Booker posited that the film's "paranoid atmosphere" links it to other films outside the science fiction genre, and that it "bears a clear family resemblance to paranoid conspiracy thrillers like Alan J. Pakula's The Parallax View (1974)." Chris Barsanti, in The Sci-Fi Movie Guide (2014), praised the performances of Adams and Sutherland, but criticized some elements of the film, writing: "The subtlety of Donald Siegel's original gives way to gaudy f/x and self-consciously artsy camerawork ... the film is overindulgently long, too, though it certainly has its shocking moments."
On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has received an approval rating of 95% based on 52 reviews, with an average rating of 8.2/10. The site's consensus reads, "Employing gritty camerawork and evocative sound effects, Invasion of the Body Snatchers is a powerful remake that expands upon themes and ideas only lightly explored in the original." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 75 out of 100 based on 15 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews."
In a 2018 review published by Complex, the film was ranked among the greatest science fiction films of all time: "Invasion of the Body Snatchers is doubly impressive; it both improves upon the '56 film and Jack Finney's literary source material with a scarier disposition and more layered character development."
Invasion of the Body Snatchers was released on DVD in the United States, Australia and many European countries. The film was released on Blu-ray Disc in the United States in 2010 and in the United Kingdom in 2013 by MGM Home Entertainment. Then released once more on Blu-ray by Shout! Factory in the United States and Canada in 2016. This release contains a 2K scan of the interpositive.
- List of science fiction horror films
- List of science fiction films of the 1970s
- List of American films of 1978
- In the director's commentary on the DVD release, Kaufman states that Duvall, who had worked with him in The Great Northfield, Minnesota Raid, happened to be in San Francisco at the time of filming and did the scene for free. Kaufman states that Duvall's character is the first "pod person" to be seen in the film. He was reportedly paid with an Eddie Bauer coat.
- Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978) on IMDb
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- Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978) at AllMovie
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- Booker 2006, p. 72.
- Weiner, David (December 20, 2018). "Why 'Invasion of the Body Snatchers' Still Haunts Its Director". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- Knowles, Harry (March 26, 1998). "Invasion of the Body Snatchers ..." aintitcool.com. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
- Zeitlin, Denny (2002). "Denny Zeitlin: Invasion of the Body Snatchers" (Interview). Interviewed by Monk Rowe. Hamilton College Jazz Archive Jazz Archive.
- "Invasion of the Body Snatchers". Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- "Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978)". American Film Institute Catalog. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
- Menand, Louis (March 23, 1995). "Finding It at the Movies". nybooks.com. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
- Hurtley, Stella (December 31, 1977). "Invasion of the Body Snatchers". Variety. 332: 147. Bibcode:2011Sci...332U.147H. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
- Siskel, Gene (December 22, 1978). "Sci-fi, romance, comedy fill the holiday bill". Chicago Tribune. Section 3, p. 1, 2.
- Thomas, Kevin (December 21, 1978). "A 'Body Snatchers' That Tells All". Los Angeles Times. Part IV, p. 1.
- Maslin, Janet (December 22, 1978). "Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978): Screen: 'Body Snatchers' Return in All Their Creepy Glory". The New York Times. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
- Ebert, Roger (2009). Roger Ebert's Movie Yearbook 2010. Andrews McMeel. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-740-79218-2.
- Schickel, Richard (December 25, 1978). "Cinema: Twice-Told Tale". Time. Time Inc.
- Hardy, Phil (1991). The Aurum Film Encyclopedia – Science Fiction. Aurum Press.
- Murray, Noel; et al. (January 14, 2015). "Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978)". Rolling Stone. 50 Best Sci-Fi Movies of the 1970s. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
- "Best Remakes: 50 Years, 50 Movies". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
- Booker 2006, pp. 72–3.
- Barsanti 2014, p. 197.
- "Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- "Invasion of the Body Snatchers Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- Pimentel, Julia; et al. (January 7, 2018). "The Best Sci-Fi Movies". Complex. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
- Invasion of the Body Snatchers (Blu-ray)
|url=(help). Scream Factory. 2016.
- "Chicago Critics' Scariest Films". Alt Film Guide. October 26, 2006. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
- Barsanti, Chris (2014). The Sci-Fi Movie Guide: The Universe of Film from Alien to Zardoz. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 978-1-578-59533-4.
- Booker, M. Keith (2006). Alternate Americas: Science Fiction Film and American Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-98395-6.
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