Logo as it appears in The Original Series
|Created by||Gene Roddenberry|
|Original work||Star Trek: The Original Series|
|Novel(s)||List of novels|
|Comics||List of comics|
|Films and television|
|Film(s)||The Original Series films
The Next Generation films
Reboot (Kelvin Timeline) films
|Television series||Premiere series
Sequels to The Original Series
Prequels to The Original Series
|Television short(s)||Short Treks (2018–present)|
|Traditional||List of games|
|Theme park attractions||
Star Trek is an American media franchise based on the science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. The first television series, simply called Star Trek and now referred to as "The Original Series", debuted in 1966 and aired for three seasons on NBC. It followed the interstellar adventures of Captain James T. Kirk (William Shatner) and his crew aboard the starship USS Enterprise, a space exploration vessel built by the United Federation of Planets in the 23rd century. The Star Trek canon includes The Original Series, an animated series, five spin-off television series, the film franchise, and further adaptations in several media.
In creating Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by the Horatio Hornblower novels, the satirical book Gulliver's Travels, and Westerns such as the television series Wagon Train. These adventures continued in the 22-episode Star Trek: The Animated Series and six feature films. Five other television series were eventually produced: Star Trek: The Next Generation follows the crew of a new starship Enterprise, set a century after the original series; Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: Voyager are set contemporaneously with The Next Generation, and Enterprise is set before the original series in the early days of human interstellar travel. The most recent Star Trek television series, Star Trek: Discovery, airs exclusively on the digital platform CBS All Access. The adventures of The Next Generation crew continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a reboot with the creation in an alternate timeline, or the Kelvin Timeline, named after a starship featured in the film Star Trek. This film featured a new cast portraying younger versions of the crew from the original show; their adventures were continued in Star Trek Into Darkness (2013). Its sequel, Star Trek Beyond (2016), was released to coincide with the franchise's 50th anniversary.
Star Trek has been a cult phenomenon for decades. Fans of the franchise are called Trekkies or Trekkers. The franchise spans a wide range of spin-offs including games, figurines, novels, toys, and comics. Star Trek had a themed attraction in Las Vegas that opened in 1998 and closed in September 2008. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world. The series has its own full-fledged constructed language, Klingon. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions. As of July 2016, the franchise had generated $10 billion in revenue, making Star Trek one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.
Star Trek is noted for its cultural influence beyond works of science fiction. The franchise is also noted for its progressive civil rights stances. The Original Series included one of television's first multiracial casts. Star Trek references may be found throughout popular culture from movies such as the submarine thriller Crimson Tide to the animated series South Park.
- 1 Background
- 2 History and production
- 3 Television
- 4 Film
- 5 Television cast
- 6 Merchandise
- 7 Cultural impact
- 8 Awards and honors
- 9 Corporate ownership
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Conception and setting
As early as 1964, Gene Roddenberry drafted a proposal for the science-fiction series that would become Star Trek. Although he publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space—a so-called "Wagon Train to the Stars"—he privately told friends that he was modeling it on Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, intending each episode to act on two levels: as a suspenseful adventure story and as a morality tale.
Most Star Trek stories depict the adventures of humans[a] and aliens who serve in Starfleet, the space-borne humanitarian and peacekeeping armada of the United Federation of Planets. The protagonists have altruistic values, and must apply these ideals to difficult dilemmas.
Many of the conflicts and political dimensions of Star Trek represent allegories of contemporary cultural realities. Star Trek: The Original Series addressed issues of the 1960s, just as later spin-offs have reflected issues of their respective decades. Issues depicted in the various series include war and peace, the value of personal loyalty, authoritarianism, imperialism, class warfare, economics, racism, religion, human rights, sexism, feminism, and the role of technology.:57 Roddenberry stated: "[By creating] a new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, religion, Vietnam, politics, and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek: we were sending messages and fortunately they all got by the network.":79 "If you talked about purple people on a far off planet, they (the television network) never really caught on. They were more concerned about cleavage. They actually would send a censor down to the set to measure a woman's cleavage to make sure too much of her breast wasn't showing"
Roddenberry intended the show to have a progressive political agenda reflective of the emerging counter-culture of the youth movement, though he was not fully forthcoming to the networks about this. He wanted Star Trek to show what humanity might develop into, if it would learn from the lessons of the past, most specifically by ending violence. An extreme example is the alien species, the Vulcans, who had a violent past but learned to control their emotions. Roddenberry also gave Star Trek an anti-war message and depicted the United Federation of Planets as an ideal, optimistic version of the United Nations. His efforts were opposed by the network because of concerns over marketability, e.g., they opposed Roddenberry's insistence that Enterprise have a racially diverse crew.
There is a mythological component [to pop culture], especially with science fiction. It's people looking for answers – and science fiction offers to explain the inexplicable, the same as religion tends to do... If we accept the premise that it has a mythological element, then all the stuff about going out into space and meeting new life – trying to explain it and put a human element to it – it's a hopeful vision. All these things offer hope and imaginative solutions for the future.
History and production
In early 1964, Roddenberry presented a brief treatment for a television series to Desilu Productions, calling it "a Wagon Train to the stars." Desilu worked with Roddenberry to develop the treatment into a script, which was then pitched to NBC.
NBC paid to make a pilot, "The Cage", starring Jeffrey Hunter as Enterprise Captain Christopher Pike. NBC rejected The Cage, but the executives were still impressed with the concept, and made the unusual decision to commission a second pilot: "Where No Man Has Gone Before".
While the show initially enjoyed high ratings, the average rating of the show at the end of its first season dropped to 52nd out of 94 programs. Unhappy with the show's ratings, NBC threatened to cancel the show during its second season. The show's fan base, led by Bjo Trimble, conducted an unprecedented letter-writing campaign, petitioning the network to keep the show on the air. NBC renewed the show, but moved it from primetime to the "Friday night death slot", and substantially reduced its budget. In protest Roddenberry, resigned as producer and reduced his direct involvement in Star Trek, which led to Fred Freiberger becoming producer for the show's third and final season.[b] Despite another letter-writing campaign, NBC canceled the series after three seasons and 79 episodes.
After the original series was canceled, Paramount Studios, which had bought the series from Desilu, licensed the broadcast syndication rights to help recoup the production losses. Reruns began in the fall of 1969 and by the late 1970s the series aired in over 150 domestic and 60 international markets. This helped Star Trek develop a cult following greater than its popularity during its original run.
One sign of the series' growing popularity was the first Star Trek convention which occurred on January 21–23, 1972 in New York City. Although the original estimate of attendees was only a few hundred, several thousand fans turned up. Star Trek fans continue to attend similar conventions worldwide.
The series' newfound success led to the idea of reviving the franchise. Filmation with Paramount Television produced the first post original series show, Star Trek: The Animated Series. It ran on NBC for 22 half-hour episodes over two seasons on Saturday mornings from 1973 to 1974.:208 Although short-lived, typical for animated productions in that time slot during that period, the series garnered the franchise's only "Best Series" Emmy Award as opposed to the franchise's later technical ones. Paramount Pictures and Roddenberry began developing a new series, Star Trek: Phase II, in May 1975 in response to the franchise's newfound popularity. Work on the series ended, however, when the proposed Paramount Television Service folded.
Following the success of the science fiction movies Star Wars [c] and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Paramount adapted the planned pilot episode of Phase II into the feature film Star Trek: The Motion Picture. The film opened in North America on December 7, 1979, with mixed reviews from critics. The film earned $139 million worldwide, below expectations but enough for Paramount to create a sequel. The studio forced Roddenberry to relinquish creative control of future sequels.
The success of the critically acclaimed sequel, Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, reversed the fortunes of the franchise. While the sequel grossed less than the first movie, The Wrath of Khan's lower production costs made it net more profit. Paramount produced six Star Trek feature films between 1979 and 1991.
In response to the popularity of Star Trek feature films, the franchise returned to television with Star Trek: The Next Generation (TNG) in 1987. Paramount chose to distribute it as a first-run syndication show rather than a network show.:545
Following Star Trek: The Motion Picture, Roddenberry's role was changed from producer to creative consultant with minimal input to the films while being heavily involved with the creation of Star Trek: The Next Generation. Roddenberry died on October 24, 1991, giving executive producer Rick Berman control of the franchise.:268:591–593 Star Trek had become known to those within Paramount as "the franchise", because of its great success and recurring role as a tent pole for the studio when other projects failed. TNG had the highest ratings of any Star Trek series and became the most syndicated show during the last years of its original seven-season run. In response to TNG's success, Paramount released a spin-off series Deep Space Nine in 1993. While never as popular as TNG, the series had sufficient ratings for it to last seven seasons.
In January 1995, a few months after TNG ended, Paramount released a fourth television series, Voyager. Star Trek saturation reached a peak in the mid-1990s with DS9 and Voyager airing concurrently and three of the four TNG-based feature films released in 1994, 1996, and 1998. By 1998, Star Trek was Paramount's most important property; the enormous profits of "the franchise" funded much of the rest of the studio's operations. Voyager became the flagship show of the new United Paramount Network (UPN) and thus the first major network Star Trek series since the original.
After Voyager ended, UPN produced Enterprise, a prequel series. Enterprise did not enjoy the high ratings of its predecessors and UPN threatened to cancel it after the series' third season. Fans launched a campaign reminiscent of the one that saved the third season of the Original Series. Paramount renewed Enterprise for a fourth season, but moved it to the Friday night death slot. Like the Original Series, Enterprise ratings dropped during this time slot, and UPN cancelled Enterprise at the end of its fourth season. Enterprise aired its final episode on May 13, 2005. Fan groups, "Save Enterprise", attempted to save the series and tried to raise $30 million to privately finance a fifth season of Enterprise. Though the effort garnered considerable press, the fan drive failed to save the series. The cancellation of Enterprise ended an eighteen-year continuous production run of Star Trek programming on television. The poor box office performance in 2002 of the film Nemesis cast an uncertain light upon the future of the franchise. Paramount relieved Berman, the franchise producer, of control of Star Trek.
Film reboots (Kelvin Timeline)
In 2005, Paramount's parent company Viacom split into two companies, the CBS Corporation owner of CBS Television Studios, and Viacom owner of Paramount Pictures. CBS owns the film brand while Paramount owns the film library and would continue the film franchise. Paramount was the first company to try to revive the franchise. Paramount hired a new creative team to reinvigorate the franchise in 2007. Writers Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman and Lost producer, J. J. Abrams, had the freedom to reinvent the feel of Trek.
The team created the franchise's eleventh film, Star Trek, releasing it in May 2009. The film featured a new cast portraying the crew of the original show. Star Trek was a prequel of the original series set in an alternate timeline, later named the Kelvin Timeline. This gave the film and sequels freedom from the need to conform to the franchise's canonical timeline. The eleventh Star Trek film's marketing campaign targeted non-fans, even stating in the film's advertisements that "this is not your father's Star Trek". It also would not interfere with CBS's franchise.
The film earned considerable critical and financial success, grossing (in inflation-adjusted dollars) more box office sales than any previous Star Trek film. The plaudits include the franchise's first Academy Award (for makeup). The film's major cast members are contracted for two sequels. Paramount's sequel to the 2009 film, Star Trek Into Darkness, premiered in Sydney, Australia, on April 23, 2013, but the film did not release in the United States until May 17, 2013. While the film was not as successful in the North American box office as its predecessor, internationally, in terms of box office receipts, Into Darkness was the most successful of the franchise. The thirteenth film, Star Trek Beyond, was released on July 22, 2016. The film had many pre-production problems and its script went through several rewrites. While receiving positive reviews, Star Trek Beyond disappointed in the box office. Plans for future films remain nebulous.
CBS turned down several proposals in the mid-2000s to restart the franchise. These included pitches from film director Bryan Singer, Babylon 5 creator J. Michael Straczynski, and Trek actors Jonathan Frakes and William Shatner. The company also turned down an animated web series.
Despite the franchise's absence from network television, the Star Trek film library would become highly accessible to the average viewer due to the rise of streaming services such as Netflix and Amazon Prime Video. To capitalize on this trend, CBS brought the franchise back to the small screen with the show Star Trek: Discovery to help launch and draw subscribers to its streaming service CBS All Access. The first season premiered in September 24, 2017 and second season that premiered in January 2019. A third Discovery season was announced on February 27, 2019. Additional All Access series are under development including one featuring Patrick Stewart reprising his role as Jean-Luc Picard, a Lower Decks adult animated series, and a show centered around the Discovery character Philippa Georgiou. CBS's goal is to have new Star Trek content year-round on All-Access.
Seven television series make up the bulk of the Star Trek mythos: The Original Series, The Animated Series, The Next Generation, Deep Space Nine, Voyager, Enterprise, and Discovery (which includes the short-form companion series Short Treks). All the series in total amount to 759 episodes across 33 seasons of television.[d]
The Original Series (1966–1969)
Star Trek: The Original Series, frequently abbreviated as TOS,[e] debuted on NBC on September 8, 1966. The show tells the tale of the crew of the starship USS Enterprise and its five-year mission "to boldly go where no man has gone before." The original 1966–69 series featured William Shatner as Captain James T. Kirk, Leonard Nimoy as Spock, DeForest Kelley as Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy, James Doohan as Montgomery "Scotty" Scott, Nichelle Nichols as Uhura, George Takei as Hikaru Sulu, and Walter Koenig as Pavel Chekov.:210 During the series' first run, it earned several nominations for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, and won twice.:231
NBC canceled the show after three seasons; the last original episode aired on June 3, 1969. A petition near the end of the second season to save the show signed by many Caltech students and its multiple Hugo nominations would, however, indicate that despite low Nielsen ratings, it was highly popular with science fiction fans and engineering students. The series later became popular in reruns and found a cult following.
The Animated Series (1973–1974)
Star Trek: The Animated Series, produced by Filmation, ran for two seasons from 1973 to 1974. Most of the original cast performed the voices of their characters from The Original Series, and some of the writers who worked on The Original Series returned. While the animated format allowed the producers to create more exotic alien landscapes and life forms, animation errors and liberal reuse of shots and musical cues have tarnished the series' reputation. Gene Roddenberry often spoke of it as non-canon.:232
The Animated Series won Star Trek's first Emmy Award on May 15, 1975. The series briefly returned to television in the mid-1980s on the children's cable network Nickelodeon, and again on Sci-Fi Channel in the mid-90s. The complete series was released on LaserDisc during the 1980s. The complete series was first released in the U.S. on eleven volumes of VHS tapes in 1989. All 22 episodes were released on DVD in 2006.
The Next Generation (1987–1994)
Star Trek: The Next Generation, frequently abbreviated as TNG, takes place about a century after The Original Series (2364–2370). It features a new starship, Enterprise (NCC-1701-D), and a new crew led by Captain Jean-Luc Picard (Patrick Stewart) and Commander William Riker (Jonathan Frakes). Some crew members represent new alien races, including Deanna Troi, a half-Betazoid counselor played by Marina Sirtis. Michael Dorn plays Worf, the first Klingon officer in Starfleet, alongside Gates McFadden as Dr. Beverly Crusher, LeVar Burton as chief engineer Geordi La Forge, the android Data portrayed by Brent Spiner, and Dr. Crusher's son Wesley Crusher played by Wil Wheaton. The show premiered on September 28, 1987, and ran for seven seasons. It had the highest ratings of any of the Star Trek series and became the #1 syndicated show during the last few years of its original run, allowing it to act as a springboard for ideas in other series. Many relationships and races introduced in TNG became the basis of episodes in Deep Space Nine and Voyager. During its run it earned several Emmy awards and nominations—including a nomination for Best Dramatic Series during its final season—two Hugo Awards and a Peabody Award for Outstanding Television Programming for one episode.
Deep Space Nine (1993–1999)
Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, frequently abbreviated as DS9, takes place during the last years and immediately after The Next Generation (2369–2375). It debuted the week of January 3, 1993 and ran for seven seasons. Unlike the other Star Trek series, DS9 takes place primarily on a space station rather than aboard a starship.
The show begins after the brutal Cardassian occupation of the planet Bajor. The liberated Bajoran people ask the United Federation of Planets to help run a space station near Bajor. After the Federation takes control of the station, the protagonists of the show discover a uniquely stable wormhole that provides immediate access to the distant Gamma Quadrant, making Bajor and the station a strategically important location. The show chronicles the events of the station's crew, led by Commander Benjamin Sisko (Avery Brooks), and Major Kira Nerys (Nana Visitor).
Deep Space Nine stands apart from earlier Trek series for its lengthy serialized storytelling, conflict within the crew, and religious themes—all elements that critics and audiences praised but Roddenberry had forbidden in the original series and The Next Generation.
Star Trek: Voyager ran for seven seasons, airing from January 16, 1995 to May 23, 2001. It features Kate Mulgrew as Captain Kathryn Janeway, the first female commanding officer in a leading role of a Star Trek series, and Commander Chakotay, played by Robert Beltran.
Voyager takes place at about the same time period as Deep Space Nine and the years following that show's end (2371–2378). The premiere episode has the USS Voyager and its crew pursue a Maquis (Federation rebels) ship. Both ships become stranded in the Delta Quadrant about 70,000 light-years from Earth. Faced with a 75-year voyage to Earth, the crew must learn to work together to overcome challenges on their long and perilous journey home while also seeking ways to shorten the voyage. Like Deep Space Nine, early seasons of Voyager feature more conflict between its crew members than seen in later episodes. Such conflict often arises from friction between "by-the-book" Starfleet crew and rebellious Maquis fugitives forced by circumstance to work together. The starship Voyager, isolated from its home, faces new cultures and dilemmas not possible in shows based in the Alpha Quadrant. Later seasons brought in an influx of characters and cultures from prior shows, such as the Borg, Q, the Ferengi, Romulans, Klingons, Cardassians and cast members of The Next Generation.
Star Trek: Enterprise, originally titled Enterprise, is a prequel to the original Star Trek series. It aired from September 26, 2001 to May 13, 2005. Enterprise takes place in the 2150s, some 90 years after the events of Zefram Cochrane's first warp flight and about a decade before the founding of the Federation. The show centers on the voyages of Earth's first warp-5 capable starship, Enterprise, commanded by Captain Jonathan Archer (played by Scott Bakula), and the Vulcan Sub-Commander T'Pol (played by Jolene Blalock). The show originally did not include "Star Trek" in its name and logo, adding it later on in the show's run.
During the show's first two seasons, Enterprise featured self-contained episodes, like The Original Series, The Next Generation and Voyager. The entire third season consisted of one arc. The fourth and final season consisted of several mini-arcs, explored the origins of some elements of previous series, and resolved some of their continuity problems. Ratings for Enterprise started strong but declined rapidly. Although critics received the fourth season well, both fans and the cast reviled the series finale, partly because of the episode's focus on the guest appearance of members of The Next Generation cast. The cancellation of Enterprise ended an 18-year run of back-to-back new Star Trek series that began with The Next Generation in 1987.
Star Trek: Discovery is a direct prequel to Star Trek: The Original Series, set roughly ten years beforehand. It premiered September 24, 2017 in the United States and Canada on CBS before moving to CBS All Access, while Netflix streams the show outside the United States and also provides most of the show's funding.
The show centers on the voyages of the Discovery, commanded by Captain Gabriel Lorca (played by Jason Isaacs), and Lieutenant Commander Michael Burnham (played by Sonequa Martin-Green), upon whom the series focuses. This marks the first Star Trek series to feature a First Officer as the lead character. The show features the Klingon T'Kuvma attempting to unite the 24 great Klingon houses, leading to a war between his race and the United Federation of Planets.
CBS All Access has three upcoming series announced to be in development, two live action and one animated. Patrick Stewart will reprise his role as Jean-Luc Picard in the live-action series Star Trek: Picard, and Michelle Yeoh will reprise her role as the mirror universe's Philippa Georgiou of Section 31 from Discovery in another live-action series. Two seasons have been ordered of an animated adult comedy series created by the head writer of Rick and Morty, titled Lower Decks, which will focus on the support crew of "one of Starfleet's least important ships." Additionally, an animated children's series will air on Nickelodeon as a joint-venture with CBS.
Paramount Pictures has produced thirteen Star Trek feature films, the most recent being released in July 2016. The first six films continue the adventures of the cast of The Original Series; the seventh film, Generations was designed as a transition from that cast to The Next Generation television series; the next three films, focused completely on the Next Generation cast.[f] Starting with the eleventh film, the movies take place in an alternate timeline with a new cast playing the original series characters. Leonard Nimoy portrays an elderly Spock in these films, providing a physical link to the original timeline. This alternate timeline has been named by CBS, for the computer game Star Trek Online, the Kelvin Timeline.
|Title||U.S. release date||Director|
|The Original Series|
|Star Trek: The Motion Picture||December 7, 1979||Robert Wise|
|Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan||June 4, 1982||Nicholas Meyer|
|Star Trek III: The Search for Spock||June 1, 1984||Leonard Nimoy|
|Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home||November 26, 1986|
|Star Trek V: The Final Frontier||June 9, 1989||William Shatner|
|Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country||December 6, 1991||Nicholas Meyer|
|The Next Generation|
|Star Trek Generations||November 18, 1994||David Carson|
|Star Trek: First Contact||November 22, 1996||Jonathan Frakes|
|Star Trek: Insurrection||December 11, 1998|
|Star Trek: Nemesis||December 13, 2002||Stuart Baird|
|Reboot (Kelvin Timeline)[g]|
|Star Trek||May 8, 2009||J. J. Abrams|
|Star Trek Into Darkness||May 16, 2013|
|Star Trek Beyond||July 22, 2016||Justin Lin|
|Untitled Star Trek film||TBA||Quentin Tarantino|
- Appears in "Trials and Tribble-ations" via archive footage
- Appears in "These Are the Voyages..." via archive sound
- Appears in "The Cage" and in "The Menagerie" via archive footage
- Appears in "The Menagerie"
- Appears in Star Trek: Discovery Season 2
- Main cast member in pilot episode "The Cage" only.
- Guest star in two-episode story "The Menagerie".
- Appears in Star Trek: Discovery Season 2 and in Star Trek: Short Treks
- DeForest Kelley was billed as a co-star for the first season of the original series.
- Walter Koenig became a co-star in season two of the original series.
- Jonathan Frakes appears in "Defiant" as Lieutenant Thomas Riker.
- Denise Crosby left The Next Generation in "Skin of Evil", but made guest appearances in "Yesterday's Enterprise" and "All Good Things...".
- Michael Dorn joined the cast of Deep Space Nine in "The Way of the Warrior".
- During season two of The Next Generation, Gates McFadden was replaced by Diana Muldaur, who was billed as a "special guest star".
- Brent Spiner makes an uncredited voice cameo in "These Are the Voyages...".
- Wil Wheaton left The Next Generation in "Final Mission", but made guest appearances in "The Game", "The First Duty", "Parallels" and "Journey's End".
- Nicole de Boer joined Deep Space Nine in "Image in the Sand".
- Terry Farrell left Deep Space Nine in "Tears of the Prophets".
- Alexander Siddig was credited Siddig El Fadil for the first three seasons of Deep Space Nine and his guest appearance on The Next Generation.
- Jennifer Lien left Voyager in "The Gift", but made a guest appearance in "Fury"
- Robert Picardo appears in "Doctor Bashir, I Presume?" as the Deep Space Nine Emergency Medical Hologram.
- Tim Russ appears in "Through the Looking Glass" as the mirror version of Tuvok.
- Jeri Ryan joined Voyager in "Scorpion, Part II".
- Appears in Star Trek: Discovery and Star Trek: Short Treks
Many licensed products are based on the Star Trek franchise. Merchandising is very lucrative for both studio and actors; by 1986 Nimoy had earned more than $500,000 from royalties. Products include novels, comic books, video games, and other materials, which are generally considered non-canon. Star Trek merchandise generated $4 billion for Paramount by 2002.
Since 1967, hundreds of original novels, short stories, and television and movie adaptations have been published. The first original Star Trek novel was Mission to Horatius by Mack Reynolds, which was published in hardcover by Whitman Books in 1968.:131
The first publisher of Star Trek fiction aimed at adult readers was Bantam Books. James Blish wrote adaptations of episodes of the original series in twelve volumes from 1967 to 1977; in 1970, he wrote the first original Star Trek novel published by Bantam, Spock Must Die!.:xi
Pocket Books published subsequent Star Trek novels. Prolific Star Trek novelists include Peter David, Diane Carey, Keith DeCandido, J.M. Dillard, Diane Duane, Michael Jan Friedman, and Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens. Several actors from the television series have also written or co-written books featuring their respective characters: William Shatner, John de Lancie, Andrew J. Robinson, J. G. Hertzler and Armin Shimerman. Voyager producer Jeri Taylor wrote two novels detailing the personal histories of Voyager characters. Screenplay writers David Gerrold, D. C. Fontana, and Melinda Snodgrass have also penned books.:213
Star Trek-based comics have been almost continuously published since 1967. They have been offered by several companies, including Marvel, DC, Malibu, Wildstorm, and Gold Key. Tokyopop is publishing an anthology of Next Generation-based stories presented in the style of Japanese manga. As of 2006[update], IDW Publishing secured publishing rights to Star Trek comics and published a prequel to the 2009 film, Star Trek: Countdown. In 2012, IDW published the first volume of Star Trek – The Newspaper Strip featuring the work of Thomas Warkentin.
The Star Trek franchise has numerous games in many formats. Beginning in 1967 with a board game based on the original series and continuing through today with online and DVD games, Star Trek games continue to be popular among fans.
Video games of the series include Star Trek: Legacy and Star Trek: Conquest. An MMORPG based on Star Trek called Star Trek Online was developed by Cryptic Studios and published by Perfect World. It is set in the TNG universe about 30 years after the events of Star Trek: Nemesis. The most recent video game was set in the alternate timeline from Abram's Star Trek.
Star Trek has led directly or indirectly to the creation of a number of magazines which focus either on science fiction or specifically on Star Trek. Starlog was a magazine which was founded in the 1970s.:13 Initially, its focus was on Star Trek actors, but then it began to expand its scope.:80 Star Trek: The Magazine was a magazine published in the U.S. which ceased publication in 2003. Star Trek Magazine, originally published as Star Trek Monthly by Titan Magazines for the United Kingdom market, began in February 1995. The magazine has since expanded to worldwide distribution.
Other magazines through the years included professional, as well well as magazines published by fans, or fanzines.
The Star Trek media franchise is a multibillion-dollar industry, owned by CBS. Gene Roddenberry sold Star Trek to NBC as a classic adventure drama; he pitched the show as "Wagon Train to the Stars" and as Horatio Hornblower in Space. The opening line, "to boldly go where no man has gone before," was taken almost verbatim from a U.S. White House booklet on space produced after the Sputnik flight in 1957. The central trio of Kirk, Spock, and McCoy was modeled on classical mythological storytelling.
Star Trek and its spin-offs have proven highly popular in syndication and was broadcast worldwide. The show's cultural impact goes far beyond its longevity and profitability. Star Trek conventions have become popular among its fans, who call themselves "trekkies or "trekkers". An entire subculture has grown up around the show which was documented in the film Trekkies. Star Trek was the highest-ranked cult show by TV Guide. The franchise has also garnered many comparisons of the Star Wars franchise being rivals in the science fiction genre with many fans and scholars.
The Star Trek franchise inspired some designers of technologies, the Palm PDA and the handheld mobile phone. Michael Jones, Chief technologist of Google Earth, has cited the tricorder's mapping capability as one inspiration in the development of Keyhole/Google Earth. The Tricorder X Prize, a contest to build a medical tricorder device was announced in 2012. Ten finalists were selected in 2014, and the winner was to be selected in January 2016. However, no team managed to reach the required criteria. Star Trek also brought teleportation to popular attention with its depiction of "matter-energy transport", with the famously misquoted phrase "Beam me up, Scotty" entering the vernacular. The Star Trek replicator is credited in the scientific literature with inspiring the field of diatom nanotechnology. In 1976, following a letter-writing campaign, NASA named its prototype space shuttle Enterprise, after the fictional starship. Later, the introductory sequence to Star Trek: Enterprise included footage of this shuttle which, along with images of a naval sailing vessel called Enterprise, depicted the advancement of human transportation technology. Additionally, some contend that the Star Trek society resembles communism.
Beyond Star Trek's fictional innovations, its contributions to television history included a multicultural and multiracial cast. While more common in subsequent years, in the 1960s it was controversial to feature an Enterprise crew that included a Japanese helmsman, a Russian navigator, a black female communications officer, and a human–Vulcan first officer. Captain Kirk's and Lt. Uhura's kiss, in the episode "Plato's Stepchildren", was also daring, and is often mis-cited as being American television's first scripted, interracial kiss, even though several other interracial kisses predated this one. Nichelle Nichols, who played the communications officer, said that the day after she told Roddenberry of her plan to leave the series she was a big fan who wanted to meet her while attending a NAACP dinner party:
I thought it was a Trekkie, and so I said, 'Sure.' I looked across the room, and there was Dr. Martin Luther King walking towards me with this big grin on his face. He reached out to me and said, 'Yes, Ms. Nichols, I am your greatest fan.' He said that Star Trek was the only show that he, and his wife Coretta, would allow their three little children to stay up and watch. [She told King about her plans to leave the series.] I never got to tell him why, because he said, 'You can't. You're part of history.'
Computer engineer and entrepreneur Steve Wozniak credited watching Star Trek and attending Star Trek conventions in his youth as a source of inspiration for co-founding Apple Inc. in 1976. Apple later became the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer.
Early parodies of Star Trek included a famous sketch on Saturday Night Live titled "The Last Voyage of the Starship Enterprise", with John Belushi as Kirk, Chevy Chase as Spock and Dan Aykroyd as McCoy. In the 1980s, Saturday Night Live did a sketch with William Shatner reprising his Captain Kirk role in The Restaurant Enterprise, preceded by a sketch in which he played himself at a Trek convention angrily telling fans to "Get a Life", a phrase that has become part of Trek folklore. In Living Color continued the tradition in a sketch where Captain Kirk is played by a fellow Canadian Jim Carrey.
A feature-length film that indirectly parodies Star Trek is Galaxy Quest. This film is based on the premise that aliens monitoring the broadcast of an Earth-based television series called Galaxy Quest, modeled heavily on Star Trek, believe that what they are seeing is real. Many Star Trek actors have been quoted saying that Galaxy Quest was a brilliant parody.
Star Trek has been blended with Gilbert and Sullivan at least twice. The North Toronto Players presented a Star Trek adaptation of Gilbert & Sullivan titled H.M.S. Starship Pinafore: The Next Generation in 1991 and an adaptation by Jon Mullich of Gilbert and Sullivan's H.M.S. Pinafore that sets the operetta in the world of Star Trek has played in Los Angeles and was attended by series luminaries Nichelle Nichols, D.C. Fontana and David Gerrold. A similar blend of Gilbert and Sullivan and Star Trek was presented as a benefit concert in San Francisco by the Lamplighters in 2009. The show was titled Star Drek: The Generation After That. It presented an original story with Gilbert and Sullivan melodies.
Both The Simpsons and Futurama television series and others have had many individual episodes parodying Star Trek or with Trek allusions. An entire series of films and novels from Finland titled Star Wreck, also parodies Star Trek.
In August 2010, the members of the Internal Revenue Service created a Star Trek themed training video for a conference. Revealed to the public in 2013, the spoof along with parodies of other media franchises was cited as an example of the misuse of taxpayer funds in a congressional investigation.
Star Trek has been parodied in several non-English movies, including the German Traumschiff Surprise – Periode 1 which features a gay version of The Original Series bridge crew and a Turkish film that spoofs that same series' episode "The Man Trap" in one of the series of films based on the character Turist Ömer.
The Orville is a comedy-drama science fiction television series created by Seth MacFarlane that premiered on September 10, 2017, on Fox . MacFarlane, a longtime fan of the franchise who previously guest starred on an episode of Enterprise, created the series with a similar look and feel as the Star Trek series. MacFarlane has made references to Star Trek on his animated series Family Guy, where the Next Generation cast guest-starred in the episode "Not All Dogs Go to Heaven".
The original Star Trek series is also notable for giving rise to slash fiction, a genre of fan-produced in-universe fiction where normally non-romantic same-sex characters are portrayed as being a romantic couple, notably "Kirk/Spock" stories. These began appearing in the early 1970s, generally written by female fans of the show.:799
Until 2016, Paramount Pictures and CBS permitted fan-produced films and episode-like clips to be produced. Several veteran Star Trek actors and writers participated in many of these productions. Several producers turned to crowdfunding, such as Kickstarter, to help with production and other costs.
Popular productions include: New Voyages (2004–2016) and Star Trek Continues (2013–2017). Feature-length productions include: Of Gods and Men (2008), originally released as a three-part web series, and Prelude to Axanar, whose production resulted in a lawsuit from CBS. Audio dramatizations such as The Continuing Mission (2007–2016) have also been published by fans.
In 2016, CBS published guidelines which restricted the scope of fan productions, such as limiting the length of episodes or films to fifteen minutes, limiting production budgets to $50,000, and preventing actors and technicians from previous Star Trek productions from participating. A number of highly publicized productions have since been cancelled or have gone abeyant.
Awards and honors
Of the various science fiction awards for drama, only the Hugo Award dates back as far as the original series.[h] In 1968, all five nominees for a Hugo Award were individual episodes of Star Trek, as were three of the five nominees in 1967.[i]:231 The only Star Trek series not to receive a Hugo Award nomination are The Animated Series and Voyager, though The Original Series and Next Generation never won in any nominated category. No Star Trek feature film has ever won a Hugo Award. In 2008, the fan-made Star Trek: New Voyages episode "World Enough and Time" was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Short Drama.
- "The City on the Edge of Forever" (The Original Series, April 6, 1967)
- "Amok Time" (The Original Series, September 15, 1967)
- "Mirror, Mirror" (The Original Series, October 6, 1967)
- "The Doomsday Machine" (The Original Series, October 20, 1967)
- "Journey to Babel" (The Original Series, November 17, 1967)
- "11001001" (The Next Generation, February 1, 1988)
- "Yesterday's Enterprise" (The Next Generation, February 19, 1990)
- "The Best of Both Worlds" (Part I) (The Next Generation, June 18, 1990)
- "Tapestry" (The Next Generation, February 15, 1993)
- "The Visitor" (Deep Space Nine, October 9, 1995)
The two Star Trek series to win multiple Saturn awards during their run were The Next Generation (twice winning for best television series) and Voyager (twice winning for best actress – Kate Mulgrew and Jeri Ryan).[j] The original series retroactively won a Saturn Award for best DVD release. Several Star Trek films have won Saturns including categories best actor, actress, director, costume design, and special effects.
As for non science fiction specific awards, the Star Trek series have won 31 Emmy Awards. The eleventh Star Trek film won the 2009 Academy Award for Best Makeup and Hairstyling, the franchise's first Academy Award.
Star Trek was originally a joint-production of Norway Productions, owned by Roddenberry, and Desilu Productions, prior to its acquisition by Gulf+Western. The profit sharing agreement for the series split proceeds between Norway, Paramount, William Shatner, and NBC. However, Star Trek lost money during its first run, and NBC did not expect to recoup any losses by selling the series into syndication.
With NBC's approval, Paramount offered its Star Trek stake to Roddenberry sometime in early 1970. However, Roddenberry could not raise the $150,000 (equivalent to $967,738 in 2018) offered by the studio. NBC's remaining broadcast and distribution rights eventually returned to Paramount sometime before 1986, which coincided with the development of what would eventually become The Next Generation.
In 1967, Desilu was acquired by Gulf+Western. Desilu was reorganized as the television division of Paramount Pictures, which Gulf+Western had acquired in 1966. Gulf+Western sold its remaining industrial assets in 1989, renaming itself as Paramount Communications.
Sometime in 1986, Sumner Redstone acquired a controlling interest in Viacom via his family's theater chain, National Amusements. Viacom was established in 1952 as a division of the former CBS Corporation, then called CBS Films. Paramount Communications later merged with Viacom in 1994. Viacom then merged with its former parent, CBS Corporation, in 1999. CBS became a subsidiary of Viacom, but maintained its independence.
Beginning in 2005, Redstone and his family reorganized Viacom, spinning off the conglomerate's assets as two independent entities: the new Viacom, and the new CBS Corporation. National Amusements retained approximately 80% ownership of both CBS and Viacom, either directly or via its subsidiaries. CBS and Viacom later became publicly listed companies.
The exact terms of the rights exchange between CBS and Viacom are not known, however, CBS holds all copyrights, marks, production assets, and film negatives to all television productions, and retains the rights to all likenesses, characters, names and settings, and stories. CBS also appears to maintain the right to license Star Trek, and its spin-offs, to merchandisers, and publishers, etc.
According to several sources, CBS retained all Star Trek rights via its television production division, which had been carved out of the former Paramount Television, which itself was the remnant of the former Desilu. Viacom, which now housed Paramount Pictures, retained the feature film library, and exclusive rights to produce new feature films for a limited time. Viacom also retained video distribution rights for the television series produced before 2005. However, home video editions released since 2006, as well as streaming video versions of episodes available worldwide, carry variants of the new CBS Television Studios livery, in addition to the original Paramount livery. It is unclear if CBS retained some, if not all, synchronization or streaming media rights.
The fraught relationship between the leadership at CBS, Viacom, and National Amusements since the reorganization, has resulted in a number of delayed and or cancelled Star Trek productions. Additionally, the production of Star Trek (2009) was met with resistance by executives at CBS, as was Into Darkness (2013) and Beyond (2016).
However, the competitive nature of the entertainment industry has led to negotiations between Viacom and CBS on a potential merger, which would realign the stakeholders of the franchise under one corporate umbrella. As of July 2019[update], CBS and Viacom remain separate corporations.
- Outline of Star Trek
- Timeline of science fiction
- List of space science fiction franchises
- Lists of Star Trek planets
- Members of the human species are occasionally called "Terrans" in Star Trek, although usage has been inconsistent.
- Roddenberry did, however, co-author two scripts for the third season.
- Star Wars has become the name of the franchise, while the first film, released in 1977, was officially re-titled Episode IV: A New Hope by Lucasfilm in 1981.
- The episode count includes all completed episodes of Star Trek: Discovery through season 2. The count also includes episodes of The Animated Series, and the unaired pilot, "The Cage". Multi-part episodes not originally broadcast as one presentation are counted individually. Ten feature-length episodes are counted as two episodes each, as they were split for foreign broadcast and syndication.
- Originally broadcast as Star Trek. The series was dubbed The Original Series by fans to distinguish it from its many spinoffs and films. Paramount and CBS have since used the title Star Trek: The Original Series in promotional materials and tie-in media.
- Film titles of the North American and UK releases of the films no longer contained the number of the film following the sixth film (the sixth was Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country but the seventh was Star Trek Generations). However, European releases continued using numbers in the film titles until Nemesis.
- New Star Trek films are considered to be, and referred to as, a "reboots". They are also a continuation of the franchise that establishes an alternate reality from the previous films. This was done to free the new films from the restrictions of continuity without completely discarding it. This new reality was informally referred to by several names, including the Abramsverse, JJ Trek, the "alternate timeline" and NuTrek, by fans. The series was named the Kelvin Timeline, as opposed to the Prime Timeline of the original series and films, by Michael and Denise Okuda for use in reference guides and encyclopedias. The timeline is named after the USS Kelvin, a starship involved in the event that creates the new reality in Star Trek (2009).
- Although the Hugo Award is mainly given for print-media science fiction, its "best drama" award is usually given to film or television presentations. The Hugo does not give out awards for best actor, director, or other aspects of film production. Before 2002, films and television series competed for the same Hugo, before the split of the drama award into short drama and long drama.
- Other nominees for the 1967 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation were Fahrenheit 451 and Fantastic Voyage.
- The science fiction Saturn Awards did not exist during broadcasting of the original series. Unlike the Hugo, the Saturn Award gives out prizes for best actor, special effects and music, and also unlike the Hugo (until 2002) movies and television shows have never competed against each other for Saturns.
- Italie, Hillel (July 2, 2007). "Entertainment | Like "Star Wars" and "Star Trek," Potter is a modern phenomenon". Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Business of 'Star Trek': Franchise celebrates 50th anniversary". CGTN. July 26, 2016. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
- Saadia, Manu (January 13, 2017). "Why Peter Thiel Fears "Star Trek"". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
- Reagin, Nancy R (March 5, 2013). Star Trek and History. Wiley Pop Culture and History. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-16763-2.
- Gibberman, Susan. "RODDENBERRY, GENE". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Keonig, Rachel (August 29, 1986). "Roddenberry, Eugene Wesley 1921– (Gene Roddenberry)". In Commire, Anna (ed.). Something about the Author. 45. Detroit: Gale Research. pp. 168–179. ISBN 978-0-8103-2255-4. ISSN 0276-816X.
- Alexander, David (June 1994). Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry. New York: Roc. ISBN 978-0-451-45418-8.
- Simon, Richard Keller (November 23, 1999). "Star Trek, Gulliver's Travels, and the Problem of History". Trash Culture: Popular Culture and the Great Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 139–154. ISBN 978-0-520-22223-6.
- Snyder, J. William, Jr (1995). "Star Trek: A Phenomenon and Social Statement on the 1960s". www.ibiblio.org. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Johnson-Smith, Jan (January 10, 2005). American Science Fiction TV: Star Trek, Stargate and Beyond. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6738-3.
- Grothe, DJ (May 29, 2009). "Susan Sackett - The Secular Humanism of Star Trek". www.pointofinquiry.org. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- Goulart, Woody. "Gene Roddenberry". woodygoulart.com. Archived from the original on October 31, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
- Whitfield, Stephen E; Roddenberry, Gene (May 1973). The Making of Star Trek. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-23401-8.
- Day, Dwayne. "Social History: Star Trek as a Cultural Phenomenon". Centennial of Flight Commission. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- McDonald, Glen (March 12, 2015). "William Shatner talks 'Star Trek,' sci-fi and fans". The News & Observer. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- Roddenberry, Gene (March 11, 1964). "Star Trek is…" (PDF). www.ex-astris-scientia.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2006. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
- Davies, Máire Messenger; Pearson, Roberta (August 2007). "The Little Program That Could: The Relationship between NBC and Star Trek". In Hilmes, Michele (ed.). NBC: America's network. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 209–223. ISBN 978-0-520-25079-6.
- Solow, Herbert F; Justman, Robert H (June 1996). Inside Star Trek: The Real Story. New York: Pocket Books. pp. 377–394. ISBN 978-0-671-89628-7.
- "Bjo Trimble: The Woman Who Saved Star Trek - Part 1". www.startrek.com. August 31, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
- Shatner, William; Kreski, Chris (October 1993). Star Trek Memories. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 290–291. ISBN 978-0-06-017734-8.
- Shult, Doug (July 5, 1972). "Cult Fans, Reruns Give Star Trek an out of This World Popularity". Green Sheets. The Milwaukee Journal. 90 (230). Los Angeles Times New Service. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Celebrating 40 Years since Trek's 1st Convention". www.startrek.com. January 20, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Sackett, Susan (May 15, 2002). Inside Trek: My Secret Life with Star Trek Creator Gene Roddenberry. Tulsa, Oklahoma: HAWK Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-930709-42-3.
- Turnbull, Gerry, ed. (October 1979). A Star Trek Catalog. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. ISBN 0-441-78477-1.
- Teitelbaum, Sheldon (May 5, 1991). "How Gene Roddenberry and his Brain Trust Have Boldly Taken 'Star Trek' Where No TV Series Has Gone Before : Trekking to the Top". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "Star Trek - A Short History". www.ee.surrey.ac.uk. Transcribed press release originally distributed by Paramount Pictures. May 9, 1994. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 21, 2006.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Poe, Stephen Edward (April 1998). A Vision of the Future. New York: Pocket Books. pp. 49–54. ISBN 978-0-671-53481-3.
- Levesque, John (January 6, 2001). "UPN in search of post-'Voyager' flagship". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- "Fan Groups, Sites Rally on Behalf of Enterprise (UPDATE)". www.startrek.com. January 17, 2010. Archived from the original on October 19, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- "Star Trek: Enterprise Cancelled!". www.startrek.com. February 3, 2005. Archived from the original on January 11, 2010. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Uniting Star Trek Fans". www.trekunited.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
- Adler, Margo (May 6, 2009). "Some Older 'Star Trek' Fans May Skip This Voyage". NPR. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Hinman, Michael (June 23, 2009). "'Star Trek' Becomes Highest Grossing Franchise Film". Airlock Alpha. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Pascale, Anthony (April 6, 2008). "Paramount Already Thinking About Sequel To Abrams Star Trek". trekmovie.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Pascale, Anthony (November 23, 2011). "Star Trek Sequel To Be Released May 17, 2013 – In 3D". trekmovie.com. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- "Box Office History for Star Trek Movies". the-numbers.com. The Numbers. Archived from the original on December 30, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- McNary, Dave (December 13, 2014). "'Star Trek 3' Sets July 8, 2016, Release Date". Variety. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- Holmes, Brad (March 26, 2018). "Why Star Trek Beyond Wasn't A Box Office Hit, According To Simon Pegg". www.cinemablend.com. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- Fitzpatrick, Kevin (April 12, 2011). "Bryan Singer's TV Star Trek Details Emerge". www.ugo.com. Archived from the original on April 16, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2012.
- Straczynski, J. Michael; Zabel, Bryce. "Star Trek, Reboot, 2004" (PDF). bztv.typepad.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 6, 2010. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Fitzpatrick, Kevin (April 7, 2011). "Jonathan Frakes Talks Bar Karma, Star Trek, and Yes, Gargoyles". www.ugo.com. Archived from the original on April 11, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
- Pascale, Anthony (May 3, 2010). "Update on Star Trek: Final Frontier – The New Star Trek Animated Series That Never Was". trekmovie.com. Retrieved January 18, 2012.
- Goldberg, Lesley (November 2, 2015). "'Star Trek' TV Series in the Works". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Andreeva, Nellie (June 19, 2017). "'Star Trek: Discovery' Gets September Premiere Date On CBS". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
- "Discovery Renewed for Season Three". www.startrek.com. startrek.com. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
- Jackson, Matthew (August 7, 2018). "New Star Trek Could Eventually be on All Access Year-Round, According to CBS execs". SYFY WIRE. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
- Staff, TrekMovie com (August 6, 2018). "CBS Wants New Star Trek Shows All Year Round On All Access". TrekMovie.com. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
- Lovett, Jamie. "CBS All Access Plans to Have Something 'Star Trek' on at All Times". Star Trek. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
- Lee, Luaine (August 18, 2006). "KRT Wire | 08/18/2006 | 'Star Trek' turns 40". San Jose Mercury News. McClatchy News. Tribune News Service. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- Rioux, Terry Lee (February 28, 2005). From Sawdust to Stardust: The Biography of Deforest Kelley, Star Trek's Dr. Mccoy. New York: Gallery Books. pp. 194–196. ISBN 978-0-7434-5762-0.
- Trimble, Bjo (October 1986). Stine, Hank (ed.). On the Good Ship Enterprise: My 15 Years with Star Trek (Reprint ed.). Norfolk, Virginia: The Donning Company. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-89865-253-6.
- Dursin, Andre (November 14, 2006). "The Aisle Seat by Andy Dursin". www.andyfilm.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Ayers, Jeff (November 14, 2006). Voyages of the Imagination: The Star Trek Fiction Companion. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-1-4165-0349-1.
- "Star Trek". IMDb. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- "Star Trek Animated - The Series that ran from 1973 - 1974". www.sciencefictionbuzz.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Cult - Star Trek - Next Generation - Trivia". BBC. Archived from the original on December 31, 2006. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- "Emissary, Part I". www.startrek.com. Retrieved August 21, 2006.
- Lense. "Review of "Inter Arma Enim Silent Leges" - Star Trek Fans". scifi.about.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2003. Retrieved October 29, 2006.
- Sturgis, Amy H. "Star Trek Voyager : Final Episode : Review". www.revolutionsf.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2004. Retrieved August 24, 2006.
- "Star Trek: Voyager [TV Series] Synopsis - Plot Summary". Fandango. Archived from the original on January 30, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Star Trek: Enterprise Summary". www.starpulse.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Lee, Patrick (May 14, 2005). "Star Trek: Enterprise Series Finale | Movie and TV Reviews | SCI FI Weekly". www.scifi.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2007. Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- Leao, Gustavo (December 17, 2005). "Anthony Montgomery Says "These Are The Voyages..." Not an Effective Finale". trekweb.com. Archived from the original on March 7, 2006. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Slotek, Jim (May 13, 2005). "Star Trek: E lamely goes away". Toronto Sun. p. E4.
- Ausiello, Michael; Roots, Kimberly (August 10, 2016). "'Star Trek: Discovery' Spoilers: Amanda Grayson Role in CBS Reboot". TVLine. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Frankel, Daniel (December 7, 2016). "Moonves: Netflix international sales pay for entire 'Star Trek' production cost". www.fiercevideo.com. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- Andreeva, Nellie (May 17, 2017). "'Star Trek: Discovery' Order Increase &; Companion Show CBS All Access". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Stanhope, Katie (May 17, 2017). "'Star Trek Discovery' Official Trailer". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Hibberd, James (July 17, 2017). "Star Trek: Discovery producer explains why the Klingons changed". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
- Anderton, Ethan (July 21, 2017). "Star Trek Discovery Comic-Con Exhibit Reveals Starfleet, Klingon and Vulcan Props, Costumes & Ships". /Film. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
- Goldberg, Lesley (August 4, 2018). "Patrick Stewart to Reprise 'Star Trek' Role in New CBS All Access Series". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Patten, Dominic (January 14, 2019). "Michelle Yeoh 'Star Trek' Spinoff In Development At CBS All Access". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
- Andreeva, Nellie (October 25, 2018). "'Star Trek: Lower Decks' Animated Series Ordered By CBS All Access". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Otterson, Joe (February 13, 2019). "'Star Trek' Animated Kids Show in the Works at Nickelodeon – Variety". Variety. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
- "Star Trek Beyond (2016) - Release Info". IMDb. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- "Exclusive: Quentin Tarantino Tells Us How and Why He Created 'The Hateful Eight' Miniseries for Netflix". /Film. May 1, 2019.
- Jr, Mike Fleming; Jr, Mike Fleming (December 5, 2017). "Quentin Tarantino Hatches 'Star Trek' Movie Idea; Paramount, JJ Abrams To Assemble Writers Room".
- Pascale, Anthony (July 22, 2018). "Exclusive: Anson Mount Talks Playing Pike, Reveals How Many Episodes He's In Of 'Star Trek: Discovery'". TrekMovie.com. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Ulster, Laurie (August 14, 2018). "Ethan Peck Cast As Spock On 'Star Trek: Discovery' Season 2". TrekMovie.com. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
- Pascale, Anthony (July 23, 2018). "Exclusive: Wilson Cruz Talks About Dr. Culber's Mysterious Return In 'Star Trek: Discovery' Season 2". TrekMovie.com. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Harmetz, Aljean (November 2, 1986). "New 'Star Trek' Plan Reflects Symbiosis of Tv and Movies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- Cloud, John (January 25, 2002). "Star Trek Inc". Time. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Lee, Newton (August 2, 2014). "From a Pin-up Girl to Star Trek's Holodeck: Artificial Intelligence and Cyborgs". In Lee, Newton (ed.). Digital da Vinci: Computers in the Arts and Sciences. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 1–22. ISBN 978-1-4939-0964-3.
- Marshall, Rick (April 14, 2009). "'Star Trek: The Next Generation' Goes Manga, But Will Picard Lose The Captain's Chair? » Splash Page". MTV. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Star Trek: The Next Generation". IDW Publishing. October 6, 2006. Archived from the original on October 25, 2006. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
- Warkentin, Thomas (December 25, 2012). Star Trek: The Newspaper Strip, Vol. 1. San Diego: IDW Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61377-494-6.
- "FAQ". www.startrekonline.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Announcing Star Trek Based Games from WizKids". WizKids. June 8, 2010. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- "Great Animated Adventures Episodes". www.startrek.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2006. Retrieved August 24, 2006.
- "Introduction to Outer Space (1958)". Federation of American Scientists. March 26, 1958. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- "TREK NATION — Rich Text Format". eugene.roddenberry.com. Archived from the original (RTF) on February 5, 2005. Retrieved August 24, 2006.
- "Trekkies (1997)". IMDb. Retrieved August 24, 2006.
- "TV Guide Names the Top Cult Shows Ever". TV Guide. June 29, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Ewalt, David M (May 18, 2005). "Star Wars Vs. Star Trek". Forbes. Retrieved September 13, 2007.
- Ho, Richard (May 14, 1995). "Trekkers VS Lucasites". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- Kelly, Heather (September 3, 2014). "Qualcomm Tricorder X Prize: Race to create a tricorder". CNN. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Laytner, Lance (2009). "Star Trek Tech". editinternational.com. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Evangelista, Benny (March 15, 2004). "TREK TECH / 40 years since the Enterprise's inception, some of its science fiction gadgets are part of everyday life". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
- Parsons, Ed (March 27, 2006). "Google Earth inspiration was Star Treks tricorder !!". edparsons.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Quinion, Michael (August 6, 1996). "World Wide Words: Beam me up, Scotty!". worldwidewords.org. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Drum, Ryan W; Gordon, Richard (August 1, 2003). "Star Trek replicators and diatom nanotechnology". Trends in Biotechnology. Cell Press. 21 (8): 325–328. doi:10.1016/S0167-7799(03)00169-0. PMID 12902165.
- Dumoulin, Jim (March 18, 1994). "Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise (OV-101)". Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Ermak, Gennady (April 22, 2019). Communism: The Great Misunderstanding. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-79795-738-8.
- Worstall, Tim (October 5, 2015). "Star Trek Economics Is Just True Communism Arriving". Forbes. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- Bently, Rick (September 5, 2016). "5-year mission became 50-year journey for 'Star Trek'". Detroit Free Press. Tribune News Service. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- Hasan, Zaki (April 19, 2017). "INTERVIEW: Steve Wozniak on Sci-Fi, Comic Books, and How Star Trek Shaped the Future". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- Chaires, Robert; Chilton, Bradley (September 10, 2004). Star Trek Visions of Law and Justice. Dallas: University of North Texas Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-9668080-2-5.
- Porter, Jennifer E; McLaren, Darcee L (January 1999). Star Trek and Sacred Ground: Explorations of Star Trek, Religion, and American Culture. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-585-29190-1.
- Bernardi, Daniel Leonard (February 1998). Star Trek and History: Race-ing Toward a White Future. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8135-2465-8.
- Duncan, Jody; Shay, Estelle (April 2000). "Trekking into the Klaatu Nebula". Cinefex. No. 81. ISSN 0198-1056.
- "STAR TREK: George Takei Is Ready To Beam Up". Sci-Fi Channel. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- "Cult - Star Trek - Patrick Stewart - Galaxy Quest". BBC. Archived from the original on January 13, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- Mullich, Jon. "Welcome to madbeast.com - The Jon Mullich site". www.madbeast.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Lamplighters Music Theatre presents Our Annual Champagne Gala & Auction STAR DREK: THE GENERATION AFTER THAT" (PDF) (Press release). Lamplighters Music Theatre. October 6, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 12, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- Geraghty, Lincoln (March 30, 2007). Living with Star Trek: American Culture and the Star Trek Universe. London: I.B.Tauris. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-1-84511-421-3.
- Whitmore, Linda (November 10, 2009). "'Star Wreck,' from Finland with love". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 27, 2016. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- Friedman, Dan (June 6, 2013). "IRS official apologizes for wasting funds on 'Star Trek' spoof video". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- Grier, Peter (June 4, 2013). "How much did IRS spend filming 'Star Trek' spoof?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- Opam, Kwame (May 16, 2017). "The first trailer for The Orville promises Star Trek crossed with Family Guy's humor". The Verge. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Luckhurst, Roger (January 6, 2005). "Ending the Century: Literature and Digital Technology". In Marcus, Laura; Nicholls, Peter (eds.). The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82077-6.
- Bacon-Smith, Camille (November 16, 1986). "Spock Among Women". The New York Times Book Review. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- Kustritz, Anne (January 13, 2004). "Slashing the Romance Narrative". The Journal of American Culture. 26 (3): 371–384. doi:10.1111/1542-734X.00098. eISSN 1542-734X.
- Howell, Elizabeth (August 14, 2014). "'Star Trek: Axanar' Fan Film Warps Beyond Crowdfunding Goal". Space.com. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- Axanar Productions (March 2, 2014). "Star Trek: Prelude to Axanar by Axanar Productions". Kickstarter. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "Fan Films". www.startrek.com. June 23, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- Martinelli, Marissa (July 13, 2016). "Crowdfunding gave us a golden age of amateur Star Trek—and then led to its downfall". Slate. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- "Most successful sci-fi TV franchise". Guinness World Records. October 7, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Logan, Michael (August 24, 1996). "10 Truly Stellar Episodes". TV Guide. Vol. 44 no. 34. pp. 22–25. ISSN 0039-8543.
- Popkin, Helen A S (March 7, 2010). "Oscar blog: A blow-by-blow of the night's action". MSNBC. Archived from the original on November 19, 2011. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- Sumner, Redstone; Redstone, Shari (September 26, 2016). "National Amusements, Inc. Proposes Combination of CBS and Viacom" (PDF) (Press release). National Amusements.
- Lang, Brent (May 15, 2013). "How the Battle Over 'Star Trek' Rights Killed J.J. Abrams' Grand Ambitions". TheWrap. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Pascale, Anthony (February 11, 2010). "Star Trek Helps Bring Big Profits To Viacom & Paramount". trekmovie.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Carmon, Irin (July 9, 2019). "Shari Redstone's $30 Billion Triumph". Intelligencer. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Baker-Whitelaw, Gavia (May 17, 2018). "New Star Trek trilogy delayed over legal battle". The Daily Dot. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Pascale, Anthony (January 24, 2019). "Paramount President Talks Up Tarantino Star Trek + Viacom/CBS Merger Buzz Returns". TrekMovie.com. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Littleton, Cynthia (June 19, 2019). "Shari Redstone, Joe Ianniello in Spotlight as CBS and Viacom Pursue Merger Talks Again". Variety. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Asherman, Allan (March 20, 1981). The Star Trek Compendium. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-79145-1.
- Barad, Judith; Robertson, Ed (December 5, 2000). The Ethics of Star Trek. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-019530-4.
- Ellison, Harlan (January 1996). The City on the Edge of Forever. Benson, Maryland: Borderlands Press. ISBN 1-880325-02-0.
- Greenwald, Jeff (June 1998). Future Perfect: How Star Trek Conquered Planet Earth. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-87399-3.
- Gerrold, David (April 12, 1973). Trouble with Tribbles. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-23402-2.
- Gerrold, David (May 1984). The World of Star Trek (Revised ed.). New York: Bluejay Books. ISBN 0-312-94463-2.
- Krauss, Lawrence M (September 1995). The Physics of Star Trek. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00559-4.
- Lichtenberg, Jacqueline; Marshak, Sondra; Winston, Joan (July 1975). Star Trek Lives!. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-02151-6.
- McIntee, David (March 9, 2000). Delta Quadrant: The Unofficial Guide to Star Trek Voyager. London: Virgin Books. ISBN 0-7535-0436-7.
- Nichols, Nichelle (October 19, 1994). Beyond Uhura. New York: Putnam Adult. ISBN 0-399-13993-1.
- Projansky, Sarah; Helford, Elyce Rae; Ono, Kent (August 8, 1996). Harrison, Taylor (ed.). Enterprise Zones: Critical Positions on Star Trek. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-2899-3.
- Shatner, William; Kreski, Chris (October 1993). Star Trek Memories. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-017734-9.
- Shatner, William; Kreski, Chris (May 1999). Get a Life!. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-02131-1.
- Shatner, William; Walter, Chip (July 30, 2002). I'm Working on That: A Trek from Science Fiction to Science Fact. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-04737-X.
- Winston, Joan (November 1977). The Making of the Trek Conventions. New York: Knopf Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13112-7.