Logo as it appears in The Original Series
|Created by||Gene Roddenberry|
|Original work||Star Trek: The Original Series|
|Novel(s)||List of novels|
|Comics||List of comics|
|Films and television|
|Film(s)||The Original Series films
The Next Generation films
Reboot (Kelvin Timeline) films
|Television series||Broadcast television series
|Television short(s)||Short Treks (2018–present)|
|Traditional||List of games|
|Theme park attraction(s)||
Star Trek is an American media franchise originating from the 1960s science fiction television series Star Trek, created by Gene Roddenberry. That series, now often known as "The Original Series", debuted on September 8, 1966, and aired for three seasons on NBC. It followed the voyages of the starship USS Enterprise, a space exploration vessel built by the United Federation of Planets in the 23rd century, on a mission "to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no man has gone before". In creating Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower series of novels, Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, and television westerns such as Wagon Train.
The Star Trek canon includes the Original Series, nine spin-off television series, and a film franchise; further adaptations also exist in several media. After the conclusion of the Original Series, the adventures of its characters continued in the 22-episode Star Trek: The Animated Series and six feature films. A television revival beginning in the 1980s saw three sequel series and a prequel: Star Trek: The Next Generation, following the crew of a new starship Enterprise a century after the original series; Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: Voyager, set in the same era as the Next Generation; and Enterprise, set before the original series in the early days of human interstellar travel. The adventures of the Next Generation crew continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a reboot, creating an alternate continuity known as the Kelvin timeline; three films have been set in this continuity. The newest Star Trek television revival, beginning in 2017, includes the series Star Trek: Discovery, Picard, Short Treks, and Lower Decks, streaming exclusively on digital platforms. At least two additional television series are in development: Star Trek: Strange New Worlds and Star Trek: Prodigy.
Star Trek has been a cult phenomenon for decades. Fans of the franchise are called "Trekkies" or "Trekkers". The franchise spans a wide range of spin-offs including games, figurines, novels, toys, and comics. From 1998 to 2008, there was a Star Trek–themed attraction in Las Vegas. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world. The constructed language Klingon was created for the franchise. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions. As of December 1998, the franchise had generated $7.8 billion in revenue, making Star Trek one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time. Star Trek is noted for its cultural influence beyond works of science fiction. The franchise is also noted for its progressive civil rights stances. The Original Series included one of television's first multiracial casts.
Conception and setting
As early as 1964, Gene Roddenberry drafted a proposal for the science fiction series that would become Star Trek. Although he publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space—a so-called "Wagon Train to the Stars"—he privately told friends that he was modeling it on Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, intending each episode to act on two levels: as a suspenseful adventure story and as a morality tale.
Most Star Trek stories depict the adventures of humans and aliens who serve in Starfleet, the space-borne humanitarian and peacekeeping armada of the United Federation of Planets. The protagonists have altruistic values, and must apply these ideals to difficult dilemmas.
Many of the conflicts and political dimensions of Star Trek are allegories of contemporary cultural realities. The Original Series addressed issues of the 1960s, just as later spin-offs have tackled issues of their respective decades. Issues depicted in the various series include war and peace, the value of personal loyalty, authoritarianism, imperialism, class warfare, economics, racism, religion, human rights, sexism, feminism, and the role of technology.:57 Roddenberry stated: "[By creating] a new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, religion, Vietnam, politics, and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek: we were sending messages and fortunately they all got by the network.":79 "If you talked about purple people on a far off planet, they (the television network) never really caught on. They were more concerned about cleavage. They actually would send a censor down to the set to measure a woman's cleavage to make sure too much of her breast wasn't showing"
Roddenberry intended the show to have a progressive political agenda reflective of the emerging counter-culture of the youth movement, though he was not fully forthcoming to the networks about this. He wanted Star Trek to show what humanity might develop into, if it would learn from the lessons of the past, most specifically by ending violence. An extreme example is the alien species known as the Vulcans, who had a violent past but learned to control their emotions. Roddenberry also gave Star Trek an anti-war message and depicted the United Federation of Planets as an ideal, optimistic version of the United Nations. His efforts were opposed by the network because of concerns over marketability, e.g., they opposed Roddenberry's insistence that Enterprise have a racially diverse crew.
History and production
The Original Series era (1965–1969)
In early 1964, Roddenberry presented a brief treatment for a television series to Desilu Productions, calling it "a Wagon Train to the stars." Desilu worked with Roddenberry to develop the treatment into a script, which was then pitched to NBC.
NBC paid to make a pilot, "The Cage", starring Jeffrey Hunter as Enterprise Captain Christopher Pike. NBC rejected The Cage, but the executives were still impressed with the concept, and made the unusual decision to commission a second pilot: "Where No Man Has Gone Before".
While the show initially enjoyed high ratings, the average rating of the show at the end of its first season dropped to 52nd out of 94 programs. Unhappy with the show's ratings, NBC threatened to cancel the show during its second season. The show's fan base, led by Bjo Trimble, conducted an unprecedented letter-writing campaign, petitioning the network to keep the show on the air. NBC renewed the show, but moved it from primetime to the "Friday night death slot", and substantially reduced its budget. In protest, Roddenberry resigned as producer and reduced his direct involvement in Star Trek, which led to Fred Freiberger becoming producer for the show's third and final season.[b] Despite another letter-writing campaign, NBC canceled the series after three seasons and 79 episodes.
Post–Original Series rebirth (1969–1991)
After the original series was canceled, Desilu, which by then had been renamed Paramount Television, licensed the broadcast syndication rights to help recoup the production losses. Reruns began in late 1969, and by the late 1970s the series aired in over 150 domestic and 60 international markets. This helped Star Trek develop a cult following greater than its popularity during its original run.
One sign of the series' growing popularity was the first Star Trek convention, which occurred on January 21–23, 1972 in New York City. Although the original expectation was that only a few hundred fans would attend, several thousand turned up. Star Trek fans continue to attend similar conventions worldwide.
The series' newfound success led to the idea of reviving the franchise. Filmation with Paramount Television produced the first post–original series show, Star Trek: The Animated Series, featuring the cast of the original series reprising their roles. It ran on NBC for 22 half-hour episodes over two seasons on Saturday mornings from 1973 to 1974.:208 Although short-lived, typical for animated productions in that time slot during that period, the series garnered the franchise's only Emmy Award in a "Best Series" category—specifically Outstanding Entertainment Children's Series; later Emmy awards for the franchise would be in technical categories. Paramount Pictures and Roddenberry began developing a new series, Star Trek: Phase II, in May 1975 in response to the franchise's newfound popularity. Work on the series ended when the proposed Paramount Television Service folded.
Following the success of the science fiction movies Star Wars and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Paramount adapted the planned pilot episode of Phase II into the feature film Star Trek: The Motion Picture. The film opened in North America on December 7, 1979, with mixed reviews from critics. The film earned $139 million worldwide, below expectations but enough for Paramount to create a sequel. The studio forced Roddenberry to relinquish creative control of future sequels.
The success of the sequel, Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, reversed the fortunes of the franchise. While the sequel grossed less than the first movie, The Wrath of Khan's lower production costs made it net more profit. Paramount produced six Star Trek feature films between 1979 and 1991, each featuring the Original Series cast in their original roles.
In response to the popularity of Star Trek feature films, the franchise returned to television with Star Trek: The Next Generation in 1987. Paramount chose to distribute it as a first-run syndication show rather than a network show.:545 The Next Generation was set a century after the original series, following the adventures of a new starship Enterprise with a new crew.
Post-Roddenberry television era (1991–2005)
Following Star Trek: The Motion Picture, Roddenberry's role was changed from producer to creative consultant with minimal input to the films while being heavily involved with the creation of The Next Generation. Roddenberry died on October 24, 1991, giving executive producer Rick Berman control of the franchise.:268:591–593 Star Trek had become known to those within Paramount as "the franchise", because of its great success and recurring role as a tent pole for the studio when other projects failed. The Next Generation had the highest ratings of any Star Trek series and became the most syndicated show during the last years of its original seven-season run. In response to the Next Generation's success, Paramount released a spin-off series Deep Space Nine in 1993. While never as popular as the Next Generation, the series had sufficient ratings for it to last seven seasons.
In January 1995, a few months after the Next Generation ended, Paramount released a fourth television series, Voyager. Star Trek saturation reached a peak in the mid-1990s with Deep Space Nine and Voyager airing concurrently and three of the four Next Generation-based feature films released in 1994, 1996, and 1998. By 1998, Star Trek was Paramount's most important property; the enormous profits of "the franchise" funded much of the rest of the studio's operations. Voyager became the flagship show of the new United Paramount Network (UPN) and thus the first major network Star Trek series since the original.
After Voyager ended, UPN produced Enterprise, a prequel series. Enterprise did not enjoy the high ratings of its predecessors and UPN threatened to cancel it after the series' third season. Fans launched a campaign reminiscent of the one that saved the third season of the Original Series. Paramount renewed Enterprise for a fourth season, but moved it to the Friday night death slot. Like the Original Series, Enterprise ratings dropped during this time slot, and UPN cancelled Enterprise at the end of its fourth season. Enterprise aired its final episode on May 13, 2005. A fan group, "Save Enterprise", attempted to save the series and tried to raise $30 million to privately finance a fifth season of Enterprise. Though the effort garnered considerable press, the fan drive failed to save the series. The cancellation of Enterprise ended an eighteen-year continuous production run of Star Trek programming on television. The poor box office performance in 2002 of the film Nemesis cast an uncertain light upon the future of the franchise. Paramount relieved Berman, the franchise producer, of control of Star Trek.
Film reboots (Kelvin Timeline) (2005–2016)
In 2005, Paramount's parent company Viacom split into two companies, the CBS Corporation owner of CBS Television Studios, and Viacom owner of Paramount Pictures. CBS owned the film brand while Paramount owned the film library and would continue the film franchise. Paramount was the first company to try to revive the franchise by hiring a new creative team to reinvigorate in 2007. Writers Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman and producer J. J. Abrams had the freedom to reinvent the feel of the franchise.
The team created the franchise's eleventh film, Star Trek, releasing it in May 2009. The film featured a new cast portraying the crew of the original show. Star Trek was a prequel of the original series set in an alternate timeline, later named the Kelvin Timeline. This gave the film and sequels freedom from the need to conform to the franchise's canonical timeline. The eleventh Star Trek film's marketing campaign targeted non-fans, even stating in the film's advertisements that "this is not your father's Star Trek". It also would not interfere with CBS's franchise.
The film earned considerable critical and financial success, grossing (in inflation-adjusted dollars) more box office sales than any previous Star Trek film. The plaudits include the franchise's first Academy Award (for makeup). The film's major cast members are contracted for two sequels. Paramount's sequel to the 2009 film, Star Trek Into Darkness, premiered in Sydney, Australia, on April 23, 2013, but the film did not release in the United States until May 17, 2013. While the film was not as successful in the North American box office as its predecessor, internationally, in terms of box office receipts, Into Darkness was the most successful of the franchise. The thirteenth film, Star Trek Beyond, was released on July 22, 2016. The film had many pre-production problems and its script went through several rewrites. While receiving positive reviews, Star Trek Beyond disappointed in the box office.
Streaming originals (2017–present)
CBS turned down several proposals in the mid-2000s to restart the franchise. These included pitches from film director Bryan Singer, Babylon 5 creator J. Michael Straczynski, and Trek actors Jonathan Frakes and William Shatner. The company also turned down an animated web series.
Despite the franchise's absence from network television, the Star Trek film library would become highly accessible to the average viewer due to the rise of streaming services such as Netflix and Amazon Prime Video. To capitalize on this trend, CBS brought the franchise back to the small screen with the series Star Trek: Discovery to help launch and draw subscribers to its streaming service CBS All Access. The first season premiered on September 24, 2017 and a second season premiered in January 2019. A third Discovery season was announced on February 27, 2019. While Discovery is shown in the United States exclusively on CBS All Access, Netflix, in exchange for funding the production costs of the show, owns the international screening rights for the show.
A second All Access series, Star Trek: Picard, features Patrick Stewart reprising the show's namesake character. Picard premiered on January 23, 2020. Unlike Discovery, Amazon Prime Video will stream Picard internationally. CBS has also released two seasons of Star Trek: Short Treks, a series of standalone mini-episodes which air between Discovery and Picard seasons.
Star Trek has also returned in an animated form. Lower Decks, an animated adult comedy series created by the Rick and Morty writer Mike McMahan was released on August 6, 2020, on CBS All Access. Another animated series, Star Trek: Prodigy, is under development for the channel Nickelodeon, and set to be released in 2021.
An additional, live-action, streaming series following the crew of the Enterprise under the command of Captain Pike featured in Discovery's second season, Star Trek: Strange New Worlds, was announced on May 15, 2020. Furthermore, an additional live-action show is under development centered around the Discovery character Philippa Georgiou. CBS's long-term goal is to have new Star Trek content year-round on All Access.
Nine television series and one short-form companion series make up the bulk of the Star Trek mythos: Original Series, Animated Series, Next Generation, Deep Space Nine, Voyager, Enterprise, Discovery, Short Treks, Picard and Lower Decks. All the series in total amount to 786 episodes across 37 seasons of television.[c]
The Original Series (1966–1969)
Star Trek: The Original Series, frequently abbreviated as TOS,[d] debuted on NBC on September 8, 1966. The show tells the tale of the crew of the starship USS Enterprise and its five-year mission "to boldly go where no man has gone before". During the series initial run, it was nominated for Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation multiple times, and won twice.:231 Cast included:
NBC canceled the show after three seasons; the last original episode aired on June 3, 1969. A petition near the end of the second season to save the show signed by many Caltech students and its multiple Hugo nominations would, however, indicate that despite low Nielsen ratings, it was highly popular with science fiction fans and engineering students. The series later became popular in reruns and found a cult following.
The Animated Series (1973–1974)
Star Trek: The Animated Series, produced by Filmation, ran for two seasons from 1973 to 1974. Most of the original cast performed the voices of their characters from the Original Series, and some of the writers who worked on the Original Series returned. While the animated format allowed the producers to create more exotic alien landscapes and life forms, animation errors and liberal reuse of shots and musical cues have tarnished the series' reputation. Gene Roddenberry often spoke of it as non-canon, though more recent productions have treated it as canonical.:232 The cast included:
The Animated Series won Star Trek's first Emmy Award on May 15, 1975. The series briefly returned to television in the mid-1980s on the children's cable network Nickelodeon, and again on Sci-Fi Channel in the mid-90s. The complete series was released on LaserDisc during the 1980s. The complete series was first released in the U.S. on eleven volumes of VHS tapes in 1989. All 22 episodes were released on DVD in 2006.
The Next Generation (1987–1994)
Star Trek: The Next Generation, frequently abbreviated as TNG, takes place about a century after the Original Series (2364–2370). It features a new starship, Enterprise (NCC-1701-D), and a new crew:
- Patrick Stewart as Jean-Luc Picard
- Jonathan Frakes as William Riker
- LeVar Burton as Geordi La Forge
- Denise Crosby as Tasha Yar
- Michael Dorn as Worf
- Gates McFadden as Beverly Crusher (Season 1, 3–7)
- Diana Muldaur as Katherine Pulaski (Season 2)
- Marina Sirtis as Deanna Troi
- Brent Spiner as Data
- Wil Wheaton as Wesley Crusher
The series premiered on September 28, 1987, and ran for seven seasons. It had the highest ratings of any of the Star Trek series and became the highest rated syndicated show near the end of its run, allowing it to act as a springboard for other series. Many relationships and races introduced in the Next Generation became the basis for episodes in Deep Space Nine and Voyager. The series earned several Emmy awards and nominations—including Best Dramatic Series for its final season—two Hugo Awards, and a Peabody Award for Outstanding Television Programming for one episode.
Deep Space Nine (1993–1999)
Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, frequently abbreviated as DS9, takes place during the last years of and immediately after the Next Generation (2369–2375). It debuted the week of January 3, 1993, and ran for seven seasons. Unlike the other Star Trek series, Deep Space Nine was set primarily on a space station of the same name rather than aboard a starship. The cast included:
- Avery Brooks as Benjamin Sisko
- René Auberjonois as Constable Odo
- Nicole de Boer as Ezri Dax (Season 7)
- Michael Dorn as Worf (Seasons 4–7, reprising his role from the Next Generation)
- Terry Farrell as Jadzia Dax (Seasons 1–6)
- Cirroc Lofton as Jake Sisko
- Colm Meaney as Miles O'Brien (reprising his role from the Next Generation)
- Armin Shimerman as Quark
- Alexander Siddig as Julian Bashir (Credited as Siddig El Fadil seasons 1–3)
- Nana Visitor as Kira Nerys
The show begins after the conclusion of the brutal Cardassian occupation of the planet Bajor, introduced in The Next Generation. The liberated Bajoran people ask the United Federation of Planets to help run a space station near Bajor. After the Federation takes control of the station, the protagonists of the show discover a uniquely stable wormhole that provides immediate access to the distant Gamma Quadrant, making Bajor and the station a strategically important location. The show chronicles the events of the station's crew, led by Commander Benjamin Sisko (Avery Brooks), and Major Kira Nerys (Nana Visitor).
Deep Space Nine stands apart from earlier Trek series for its lengthy serialized storytelling, character conflicts, and religious themes—all elements praised by critics and audiences, but which Roddenberry had forbidden as a producer of the original series and the Next Generation.
Star Trek: Voyager ran for seven seasons, airing from January 16, 1995 to May 23, 2001. It features Kate Mulgrew as Captain Kathryn Janeway, the first female commanding officer in a leading role of a Star Trek series. Cast included:
Voyager takes place during the same time period as Deep Space Nine and the years immediately following (2371–2378). The militant renegade movement known as the Maquis, introduced on Deep Space Nine, is part of the premise of Voyager. The premiere episode has the USS Voyager and its crew pursuing a Maquis ship; both ships become stranded in the Delta Quadrant about 70,000 light-years from Earth. Faced with a 75-year voyage to Earth, the crews must work together to overcome challenges and shorten the voyage on their long and perilous journey home.
Like Deep Space Nine, early seasons of Voyager feature more conflict between its crew members than seen in The Next Generation. Such conflict often arose from friction between "by-the-book" Starfleet crew and rebellious Maquis fugitives forced by circumstance to work together. The starship Voyager, isolated from its home, faced new cultures and dilemmas not possible in shows based in the Alpha Quadrant. Later seasons brought in an influx of characters and cultures from prior shows, such as the Borg, Q, the Ferengi, Romulans, Klingons, Cardassians and cast members of the Next Generation.
Star Trek: Enterprise, originally titled Enterprise, is a prequel to the original Star Trek series. It aired from September 26, 2001 to May 13, 2005 on UPN. Enterprise is set about a century earlier than The Original Series, early in the fictional history of humanity's space exploration and shortly before the creation of the United Federation of Planets. The show follows the crew of an earlier starship Enterprise (NX-01) on Earth's first deep-space exploration mission. Cast included:
Initially, Enterprise featured self-contained episodes, much like the Original Series, Next Generation and Voyager. The third season comprised a single narrative arc. The fourth and final season consisted of several three- and four-episode arcs, which explored the origins of some elements of previous series, and resolved some continuity errors with The Original Series.
Ratings for Enterprise started strong but declined rapidly. Although critics received the fourth season well, both fans and the cast reviled the series finale, partly because of the episode's focus on the guest appearance of members of the Next Generation cast. The cancellation of Enterprise ended an 18-year run of new Star Trek series, which began with the Next Generation in 1987.
Star Trek: Discovery is the first series of the streaming television Star Trek revival; it begins as a prequel to the Original Series, set roughly ten years prior. It premiered September 24, 2017 in the United States and Canada on CBS. The series is shown on CBS All Access in the United States; Netflix distributes the series worldwide, except for Canada.
Discovery is a serialized drama in which each season follows a single overarching narrative. In a departure from previous Star Trek series, the primary protagonist, Michael Burnham (portrayed by Martin-Green), is not the captain of the titular ship. The first season follows a war between the United Federation of Planets and the Klingon Empire, instigated by Burnham, who is court-martialed, demoted, and assigned to the starship Discovery; later seasons follow the crew of Discovery on other adventures.
Short Treks (2018–present)
Star Trek: Short Treks is a short film anthology companion series initially exploring settings and characters from Discovery. More recent episodes feature the crew of the Enterprise under the command of Christopher Pike. The final episode of the second season serves as a teaser for Picard.
Star Trek: Picard, like Discovery, is a serialized drama created for CBS All Access; it premiered on January 23, 2020. Set about 30 years after The Next Generation, the series sees Patrick Stewart reprise his TNG role of Jean-Luc Picard. The first season follows Picard in his retirement, seeking redemption for what he sees as his past failings, as he goes on an adventure to save the daughter of his late crewmate Data.
Lower Decks (2020–present)
Star Trek: Lower Decks, is an animated adult comedy series created by the Rick and Morty writer Mike McMahan. The series follows the support crew of "one of Starfleet's least important ships." The series premiered on August 6, 2020 on CBS All Access.
CBS All Access further animated series' and live-action television series' currently in development.
Nickelodeon has commissioned an animated children's series, titled Prodigy and set for a premiere in 2021. A series titled Star Trek: Strange New Worlds has been announced, starring Ethan Peck, Anson Mount and Rebecca Romijn reprising their Star Trek: Discovery season 2 roles as Spock, Captain Pike and Number One respectively. Michelle Yeoh will reprise her role as the mirror universe's Philippa Georgiou of Section 31 from Discovery in a separate series.
The expanded franchise also includes several series, including a planned series being developed by Stephanie Savage and Josh Schwartz and set at Starfleet Academy, as well as Ceti Alpha V, a limited series based on the character Khan Noonien Singh and his The Wrath of Khan storyline, written by Nicholas Meyer.
Paramount Pictures has produced thirteen Star Trek feature films, the most recent being released in July 2016. The first six films continue the adventures of the cast of the Original Series; the seventh film, Generations was intended as a transition from original cast to the cast of the Next Generation; the next three films, focused completely on the Next Generation cast.[e]
The eleventh film and its sequels occur in an alternate timeline with a new cast portraying the Original Series characters. Leonard Nimoy portrayed an elderly Spock in the films, providing a narrative link to what became known as the Prime Timeline. The alternate reality was christened the Kelvin Timeline by Michael and Denise Okuda, in honor of the starship USS Kelvin which was first seen in the 2009 film.
In December 2017, an R-rated Star Trek film, was announced as in-development with a script written by Mark L. Smith, from an original story pitch by Quentin Tarantino and J. J. Abrams. Though the studio was courting Tarantino to serve as director, the filmmaker decided to pass on the project. The plot takes place primarily on Earth during the '30s in a mobster setting, and was based on an episode from the original Star Trek television series. The studio however, may adapt the script with another director.
A separate film, was announced as being in-development with Noah Hawley signed onto the project as director, with a script of his own.. Though initially reported as being placed on hold, Paramount confirmed in September 2020 that they haven't cancelled any of the Star Trek films that are in development. This includes Star Trek 4 with the "Kelvin Timeline" cast, Noah Hawley's film, and the Tarantino film.
|Title||U.S. release date||Director|
|The Original Series|
|Star Trek: The Motion Picture||December 7, 1979||Robert Wise|
|Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan||June 4, 1982||Nicholas Meyer|
|Star Trek III: The Search for Spock||June 1, 1984||Leonard Nimoy|
|Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home||November 26, 1986|
|Star Trek V: The Final Frontier||June 9, 1989||William Shatner|
|Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country||December 6, 1991||Nicholas Meyer|
|The Next Generation|
|Star Trek Generations||November 18, 1994||David Carson|
|Star Trek: First Contact||November 22, 1996||Jonathan Frakes|
|Star Trek: Insurrection||December 11, 1998|
|Star Trek: Nemesis||December 13, 2002||Stuart Baird|
|Reboot (Kelvin Timeline)|
|Star Trek||May 8, 2009||J. J. Abrams|
|Star Trek Into Darkness||May 16, 2013|
|Star Trek Beyond||July 22, 2016||Justin Lin|
|Untitled Star Trek film||TBA||Noah Hawley|
Star Trek has an on-going tradition of actors returning to reprise their roles in other spin-off series. In some instances, actors have portrayed potential ancestors, descendants, or relatives of characters they originated. Characters have also been recast for later appearances.
Below is an incomplete list:
- Star Trek: Short Treks is a series of short films which do not form a cohesive story. There is no main cast.
- Appeared in "Trials and Tribble-ations" via archive footage
- Appeared in "These Are the Voyages..." via archive voice over
- Appeared in "Ephraim and Dot" via animation and archive voice footage
- Jeffrey Hunter was billed as a starring cast member in pilot episode "The Cage". Appeared in "The Menagerie", Parts I and II, via archive footage.
- Appeared in "If Memory Serves" via archive footage
- Sean Kenny appeared in "The Menagerie", Parts I and II.
- Anson Mount appeared in Season 2 of Star Trek: Discovery as a main cast member.
- Leonard Nimoy appeared in Unification, parts I and II
- Ethan Peck appeared in appeared in Season 2 of Star Trek: Discovery, and Star Trek: Short Treks
- DeForest Kelley was billed as a co-star for the first season of the Original Series.
- Appeared as Admiral McCoy in "Encounter at Farpoint".
- Appeared in "Ephraim and Dot" via animation
- James Doohan appeared in "Relics"
- Walter Koenig was billed as a co-star in season 2 of the Original Series.
- Susan Oliver was billed as a guest star in "The Cage", and appeared in "The Menagerie", Parts I and II, via archive footage.
- Appeared in "Children of Mars" via archive footage from "Remembrance" (Picard)
- Jonathan Frakes appeared in "Defiant" as Lt. Thomas Riker.
- Denise Crosby left the cast of the Next Generation in "Skin of Evil". She appearanced as Tasha Yar in "Yesterday's Enterprise" and "All Good Things...".
- Michael Dorn joined the cast of Deep Space Nine in "The Way of the Warrior".
- Gates McFadden was replaced by Diana Muldaur as the ship's doctor for Season 2 of the Next Generation.
- Brent Spiner made an uncredited voice cameo in "These Are the Voyages...".
- Brent Spiner portrayed an ancestor of Data's creator, Noonian Soong, in episodes "Borderland", "Cold Station 12", and "The Augments"
- Wil Wheaton's left the cast of the Next Generation in "Final Mission". He appeared in "The Game", "The First Duty", "Parallels" and "Journey's End" as a guest.
- For each of her Season 2 appearances, Diana Muldaur was billed Special Guest.
- Jon Paul Steuer appeared in "Reunion".
- Brian Bonsall appeared in "New Ground", "Ethics", "Cost of Living", "Imaginary Friend", "Rascals", "A Fistful of Datas", and "Firstborn".
- James Sloyan appeared as a future Alexander Rozhenko in "Firstborn".
- Marc Worden appeared in "Sons and Daughters" and "You Are Cordially Invited".
- Terry Farrell left Deep Space Nine in "Tears of the Prophets".
- Nicole de Boer joined the cast of Deep Space Nine in "Image in the Sand".
- Alexander Siddig was billed Siddig el Fadil from 1993 to 1995, and for his guest appearance on the Next Generation.
- Jennifer Lien left the cast of Voyager in "The Gift", but made a guest appearance in "Fury"
- Robert Picardo appeared in Deep Space Nine Emergency Medical Hologram in "Doctor Bashir, I Presume?".
- Tim Russ appeared in "Through the Looking Glass" as the Mirror Universe analogue of Tuvok.
- Jeri Ryan joined the cast of Voyager in "Scorpion, Part II".
Many licensed products are based on the Star Trek franchise. Merchandising is very lucrative for both studio and actors; by 1986 Nimoy had earned more than $500,000 from royalties. Products include novels, comic books, video games, and other materials, which are generally considered non-canon. Star Trek merchandise generated $4 billion for Paramount by 2002.
Since 1967, hundreds of original novels, short stories, and television and movie adaptations have been published. The first original Star Trek novel was Mission to Horatius by Mack Reynolds, which was published in hardcover by Whitman Books in 1968.:131
Among the most recent is the Star Trek Collection of Little Golden Books. Three titles were published by Random House in 2019, a fourth is scheduled for July 2020.
The first publisher of Star Trek fiction aimed at adult readers was Bantam Books. James Blish wrote adaptations of episodes of the original series in twelve volumes from 1967 to 1977; in 1970, he wrote the first original Star Trek novel published by Bantam, Spock Must Die!.:xi
Pocket Books published subsequent Star Trek novels. Prolific Star Trek novelists include Peter David, Diane Carey, Keith DeCandido, J.M. Dillard, Diane Duane, Michael Jan Friedman, and Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens. Several actors from the television series have also written or co-written books featuring their respective characters: William Shatner, John de Lancie, Andrew J. Robinson, J. G. Hertzler and Armin Shimerman. Voyager producer Jeri Taylor wrote two novels detailing the personal histories of Voyager characters. Screenplay writers David Gerrold, D. C. Fontana, and Melinda Snodgrass have also penned books.:213
Star Trek-based comics have been issued almost continuously since 1967, published by Marvel, DC, Malibu, Wildstorm, and Gold Key, among others. In 2009, Tokyopop produced an anthology of Next Generation-based stories presented in the style of Japanese manga. In 2006, IDW Publishing secured publishing rights to Star Trek comics and issued a prequel to the 2009 film, Star Trek: Countdown. In 2012, IDW published the first volume of Star Trek – The Newspaper Strip, featuring the work of Thomas Warkentin. As of 2020, IDS continues to produce new titles. 
The Star Trek franchise has numerous games in many formats. Beginning in 1967 with a board game based on the original series and continuing through today with online and DVD games, Star Trek games continue to be popular among fans.
Video games based on the series include Star Trek: Legacy and Star Trek: Conquest. An MMORPG based on Star Trek called Star Trek Online was developed by Cryptic Studios and published by Perfect World. It is set during the Next Generation era, about 30 years after the events of Star Trek: Nemesis. The most recent video game was set in the alternate timeline from Abrams's Star Trek.
Star Trek has led directly or indirectly to the creation of a number of magazines which focus either on science fiction or specifically on Star Trek. Starlog was a magazine which was founded in the 1970s.:13 Initially, its focus was on Star Trek actors, but then it expanded its scope.:80 Star Trek: The Magazine was a magazine published in the U.S. that ceased publication in 2003. Star Trek Magazine, originally published as Star Trek Monthly by Titan Magazines for the United Kingdom market, began in February 1995. The magazine has since expanded to worldwide distribution.
Other magazines through the years included professional, as well as magazines published by fans, or fanzines.
The Star Trek media franchise is a multibillion-dollar industry, owned by ViacomCBS. Gene Roddenberry sold Star Trek to NBC as a classic adventure drama; he pitched the show as "Wagon Train to the Stars" and as Horatio Hornblower in Space. The opening line, "to boldly go where no man has gone before," was taken almost verbatim from a U.S. White House booklet on space produced after the Sputnik flight in 1957.
Star Trek and its spin-offs have proven highly popular in syndication and was broadcast worldwide. The show's cultural impact goes far beyond its longevity and profitability. Star Trek conventions have become popular among its fans, who call themselves "trekkie" or "trekkers". An entire subculture has grown up around the franchise, which was documented in the film Trekkies. Star Trek was ranked most popular cult show by TV Guide. The franchise has also garnered many comparisons of the Star Wars franchise being rivals in the science fiction genre with many fans and scholars.
The Star Trek franchise inspired some designers of technologies, the Palm PDA and the handheld mobile phone. Michael Jones, Chief technologist of Google Earth, has cited the tricorder's mapping capability as one inspiration in the development of Keyhole/Google Earth. The Tricorder X Prize, a contest to build a medical tricorder device was announced in 2012. Ten finalists were selected in 2014, and the winner was to be selected in January 2016. However, no team managed to reach the required criteria. Star Trek also brought teleportation to popular attention with its depiction of "matter-energy transport", with the famously misquoted phrase "Beam me up, Scotty" entering the vernacular. The Star Trek replicator is credited in the scientific literature with inspiring the field of diatom nanotechnology. In 1976, following a letter-writing campaign, NASA named its prototype space shuttle Enterprise, after the fictional starship. Later, the introductory sequence to Star Trek: Enterprise included footage of this shuttle which, along with images of a naval sailing vessel called Enterprise, depicted the advancement of human transportation technology. Additionally, some contend that the Star Trek society resembles communism.
Beyond Star Trek's fictional innovations, its contributions to television history included a multicultural and multiracial cast. While more common in subsequent years, in the 1960s it was controversial to feature an Enterprise crew that included a Japanese helmsman, a Russian navigator, a black female communications officer, and a human–Vulcan first officer. Captain Kirk's and Lt. Uhura's kiss, in the episode "Plato's Stepchildren", was also daring, and is often mis-cited as being American television's first scripted, interracial kiss, even though several other interracial kisses predated this one. Nichelle Nichols, who played the communications officer, said that the day after she told Roddenberry of her plan to leave the series, she was told a big fan wanted to meet her while attending a NAACP dinner party:
I thought it was a Trekkie, and so I said, 'Sure.' I looked across the room, and there was Dr. Martin Luther King walking towards me with this big grin on his face. He reached out to me and said, 'Yes, Ms. Nichols, I am your greatest fan.' He said that Star Trek was the only show that he, and his wife Coretta, would allow their three little children to stay up and watch. [She told King about her plans to leave the series.] I never got to tell him why, because he said, 'You can't. You're part of history.'
Computer engineer and entrepreneur Steve Wozniak credited watching Star Trek and attending Star Trek conventions in his youth as a source of inspiration for co-founding Apple Inc. in 1976. Apple later became the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer.
In 2020 the US effort to develop a vaccine to protect against COVID-19 was named Operation Warp Speed, which is the brainchild of a Star Trek fan, Dr. Peter Marks. Dr. Peters leads the unit at the Food and Drug Administration which approves vaccines and therapies.
Early parodies of Star Trek included a famous sketch on Saturday Night Live titled "The Last Voyage of the Starship Enterprise", with John Belushi as Kirk, Chevy Chase as Spock and Dan Aykroyd as McCoy. In the 1980s, Saturday Night Live did a sketch with William Shatner reprising his Captain Kirk role in The Restaurant Enterprise, preceded by a sketch in which he played himself at a Trek convention angrily telling fans to "Get a Life", a phrase that has become part of Trek folklore. In Living Color continued the tradition in a sketch where Captain Kirk is played by a fellow Canadian Jim Carrey.
A feature-length film that indirectly parodies Star Trek is Galaxy Quest. This film is based on the premise that aliens monitoring the broadcast of an Earth-based television series called Galaxy Quest, modeled heavily on Star Trek, believe that what they are seeing is real. Many Star Trek actors have been quoted saying that Galaxy Quest was a brilliant parody.
Star Trek has been blended with Gilbert and Sullivan at least twice. The North Toronto Players presented a Star Trek adaptation of Gilbert & Sullivan titled H.M.S. Starship Pinafore: The Next Generation in 1991 and an adaptation by Jon Mullich of Gilbert and Sullivan's H.M.S. Pinafore that sets the operetta in the world of Star Trek has played in Los Angeles and was attended by series luminaries Nichelle Nichols, D.C. Fontana and David Gerrold. A similar blend of Gilbert and Sullivan and Star Trek was presented as a benefit concert in San Francisco by the Lamplighters in 2009. The show was titled Star Drek: The Generation After That. It presented an original story with Gilbert and Sullivan melodies.
The Simpsons and Futurama television series and others have had many individual episodes parodying Star Trek or with Trek allusions. Black Mirror's Star Trek parody episode, "USS Callister", won four Emmy Awards, including the Outstanding Television Movie and Writing for a Limited Series, Movie or Drama, and was nominated for three more.
In August 2010, the members of the Internal Revenue Service created a Star Trek themed training video for a conference. Revealed to the public in 2013, the spoof along with parodies of other media franchises was cited as an example of the misuse of taxpayer funds in a congressional investigation.
Star Trek has been parodied in several non-English movies, including the German Traumschiff Surprise – Periode 1 which features a gay version of the Original Series bridge crew and a Turkish film that spoofs that same series' episode "The Man Trap" in one of the series of films based on the character Turist Ömer. An entire series of films and novel parodies titled Star Wreck has been created in Finnish.
The Orville is a comedy-drama science fiction television series created by Seth MacFarlane that premiered on September 10, 2017, on Fox. MacFarlane, a longtime fan of the franchise who previously guest-starred on an episode of Enterprise, created the series with a similar look and feel as the Star Trek series. MacFarlane has made references to Star Trek on his animated series Family Guy, where the Next Generation cast guest-starred in the episode "Not All Dogs Go to Heaven".
Until 2016, Paramount Pictures and CBS permitted fan-produced films and episode-like clips to be produced. Several veteran Star Trek actors and writers participated in many of these productions. Several producers turned to crowdfunding, such as Kickstarter, to help with production and other costs.
Popular productions include: New Voyages (2004–2016) and Star Trek Continues (2013–2017). Additional productions include: Of Gods and Men (2008), originally released as a three-part web series, and Prelude to Axanar. Audio dramatizations such as The Continuing Mission (2007–2016) have also been published by fans.
In 2016, CBS published guidelines which restricted the scope of fan productions, such as limiting the length of episodes or films to fifteen minutes, limiting production budgets to $50,000, and preventing actors and technicians from previous Star Trek productions from participating. A number of highly publicized productions have since been cancelled or have gone abeyant.
Awards and honors
Of the various science fiction awards for drama, only the Hugo Award dates back as far as the original series.[f] In 1968, all five nominees for a Hugo Award were individual episodes of Star Trek, as were three of the five nominees in 1967.[g]:231 The only Star Trek series not to receive a Hugo Award nomination are the Animated Series and Voyager, though only the Original Series and Next Generation won in any nominated category. No Star Trek feature film has ever won a Hugo Award. In 2008, the fan-made Star Trek: New Voyages episode "World Enough and Time" was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Short Drama.
Star Trek (2009) won the Academy Award for Best Makeup and Hairstyling, the franchise's first Academy Award. In 2016, the franchise was listed in the Guinness World Records as the most successful science fiction television franchise in the world.
TV Guide (1996)
- "The City on the Edge of Forever" (The Original Series)
- "Amok Time" (The Original Series)
- "Mirror, Mirror" (The Original Series)
- "The Doomsday Machine" (The Original Series)
- "Journey to Babel" (The Original Series)
- "11001001" (The Next Generation)
- "Yesterday's Enterprise" (The Next Generation)
- "The Best of Both Worlds" (Part I) (The Next Generation)
- "Tapestry" (The Next Generation)
- "The Visitor" (Deep Space Nine)
50th Anniversary Convention (2016)
At the 50th Anniversary Star Trek Las Vegas (STLV) convention, in 2016, the following were voted by fans as the best episodes: 
- "The City on the Edge of Forever" (The Original Series)
- "In the Pale Moonlight" (Deep Space Nine)
- "The Inner Light" (The Next Generation)
- "Amok Time" (The Original Series)
- "Yesterday's Enterprise" (The Next Generation)
- "The Visitor" (Deep Space Nine)
- "Chain of Command" (The Next Generation)
- "Balance of Terror" (The Original Series)
- "In a Mirror, Darkly" (Enterprise)
- "The Magnificent Ferengi" (Deep Space Nine)
Additionally, fans voted the following as the worst episodes: 
- "These Are the Voyages..." (Enterprise)
- "Code of Honor" (The Next Generation)
- "Threshold" (Voyager)
- "Turnabout Intruder" (The Original Series)
- "Shades of Gray" (The Next Generation)
- "Sub Rosa" (The Next Generation)
- "And the Children Shall Lead" (The Original Series)
- "Move Along Home" (Deep Space Nine)
- "The Alternative Factor" (The Original Series)
- "Precious Cargo" (Enterprise)
Star Trek began as a joint-production of Norway Productions, owned by Roddenberry, and Desilu, owned by Desi Arnaz. The profit-sharing agreement for the series split proceeds between Norway, Desilu—later Paramount Television, William Shatner's production company, and the broadcast network, NBC. However, Star Trek lost money during its initial broadcast, and NBC did not expect to recoup its losses by selling the series into syndication, nor did Paramount. With NBC's approval, Paramount offered its share of the series to Roddenberry sometime in 1970. However, Roddenberry could not raise the $150,000 (equivalent to $987,532 in 2019) offered by the studio. Paramount would go on to license the series to television syndicators worldwide. NBC's remaining broadcast and distribution rights eventually returned to Paramount and Roddenberry sometime before 1986, which coincided with the development of what would become The Next Generation.
As for Desilu, the studio was acquired by Gulf+Western. It was then reorganized as the television production division of Paramount Pictures, which Gulf+Western had acquired in 1966. Gulf+Western sold its remaining industrial assets in 1989, renaming itself Paramount Communications. Sometime before 1986, Sumner Redstone had acquired a controlling stake of Viacom via his family's theater chain, National Amusements. Viacom was established in 1952 as a division of CBS responsible for syndicating the network's in-house productions, originally called CBS Films. In 1994, Viacom and Paramount Communications were merged. Viacom then merged with its former parent, CBS Corporation, in 1999. National Amusements and the Redstone family increased their stake in the combined company between 1999 and 2005.
Split ownership (2005–2019)
In 2005, the Redstone family reorganized Viacom, spinning off the conglomerate's assets as two independent groups: the new Viacom, and the new CBS Corporation. National Amusements and the Redstone family retained approximately 80% ownership of both CBS and Viacom. Star Trek was split between the two entities. The terms of this split were not known. However, CBS held all copyrights, marks, production assets, and film negatives, to all Star Trek television series. CBS also retained the rights to all likenesses, characters, names and settings, and stories, and the right to license Star Trek, and its spin-offs, to merchandisers, and publishers, etc. The rights were exercised via the new CBS Television Studios, which was carved out of the former Paramount Television.
Viacom, which housed Paramount Pictures, retained the feature film library, and exclusive rights to produce new feature films for a limited time. Viacom also retained home video distribution rights for all television series produced before 2005. However, home video editions of the various television series released after the split, as well as streaming video versions of episodes available worldwide, carried variants of the new CBS Television Studios livery in addition to the original Paramount Television Studios livery. It was unclear who retained the synchronization or streaming rights.
Rights and distribution issues, and the fraught relationship between the leadership at CBS, Viacom, and the National Amusements' board of directors, resulted in a number of delayed and or cancelled Star Trek productions between 2005 and 2019. Additionally, the development and release of the new Star Trek film, in 2009, was met with resistance by executives at CBS, as was Into Darkness (2013) and Beyond (2016), which affected merchandising, tie-in media, and promotion for the new films. During this period, both CBS and Viacom continued to list Star Trek as an important asset in their prospectus to investors, and in corporate filings made to the Securities and Exchange Commission.
The competitive nature of the entertainment industry led to negotiations between Viacom and CBS on a potential merger, with CBS as the acquiring party, which would realign the stakeholders of the franchise under one corporate umbrella. After several failed attempts at a merger between 2009 and 2014, negotiations restarted between CBS and Viacom in 2019, led by Shari Redstone, chairman of National Amusements, and Joe Ianniello, then CEO of Viacom. On August 13, 2019, CBS and Viacom boards of directors reached an agreement to reunite the conglomerates as a single entity called ViacomCBS. National Amusements' board of directors approved the merger on October 28, 2019, which was finalized on December 4.
- Published as Star Trek Monthly from 1995 until 2003
- Roddenberry did co-author two scripts for the third season.
- The episode count includes all completed episodes of Star Trek: Discovery through season 2. The count also includes episodes of the Animated Series, and the unaired pilot, "The Cage". Multi-part episodes not originally broadcast as one presentation are counted individually. Ten feature-length episodes are counted as two episodes each, as they were split for foreign broadcast and syndication.
- Originally broadcast as Star Trek. The series was dubbed The Original Series by fans to distinguish it from its many spinoffs and films. Paramount and CBS have since used the title Star Trek: The Original Series in promotional materials and tie-in media.
- Film titles of the North American and UK releases of the films no longer contained the number of the film following the sixth film (the sixth was Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country but the seventh was Star Trek Generations). However, European releases continued using numbers in the film titles until Nemesis.
- Although the Hugo Award is mainly given for print-media science fiction, its "best drama" award is usually given to film or television presentations. The Hugo does not give out awards for best actor, director, or other aspects of film production. Before 2002, films and television series competed for the same Hugo, before the split of the drama award into short drama and long drama.
- Other nominees for the 1967 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation were Fahrenheit 451 and Fantastic Voyage.
- "Star Trek: Strange New Worlds – New Star Trek Series To Follow Captain Pike, Spock, and Number One – YouTube". CBS All Access. May 15, 2020. Retrieved July 4, 2020 – via YouTube.
- Patten, Dominic (May 15, 2020). "'Star Trek: Strange New Worlds' Series Continuing Spock's Saga At CBS All Access". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- "Nickelodeon and CBS Television Studios Announce Title of Original Animated Series, Star Trek: Prodigy" (Press release). Nickelodeon. July 23, 2020. Retrieved July 23, 2020 – via The Futon Critic.
- Italie, Hillel (July 2, 2007). "Like 'Star Wars' and 'Star Trek,' Potter is a modern phenomenon". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Eller, Claudia (December 11, 1998). "Lower Costs Energize 'Trek' Film Profit". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 12, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
- Saadia, Manu (January 13, 2017). "Why Peter Thiel Fears "Star Trek"". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
- Reagin, Nancy R (March 5, 2013). Star Trek and History. Wiley Pop Culture and History. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118167632.
- Gibberman, Susan. "RODDENBERRY, GENE". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Keonig, Rachel (August 29, 1986). "Roddenberry, Eugene Wesley 1921– (Gene Roddenberry)". In Commire, Anna (ed.). Something about the Author. 45. Detroit: Gale Research. pp. 168–179. ISBN 9780810322554. ISSN 0276-816X.
- Alexander, David (June 1994). Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry. New York: Roc. ISBN 9780451454188.
- Simon, Richard Keller (November 23, 1999). "Star Trek, Gulliver's Travels, and the Problem of History". Trash Culture: Popular Culture and the Great Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 139–154. ISBN 9780520222236.
- Snyder, J. William, Jr (1995). "Star Trek: A Phenomenon and Social Statement on the 1960s". ibiblio.org. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Johnson-Smith, Jan (January 10, 2005). American Science Fiction TV: Star Trek, Stargate and Beyond. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 9780819567383.
- Grothe, DJ (May 29, 2009). "Susan Sackett – The Secular Humanism of Star Trek". pointofinquiry.org. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- Goulart, Woody. "Gene Roddenberry". woodygoulart.com. Archived from the original on October 31, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
- Whitfield, Stephen E; Roddenberry, Gene (May 1973). The Making of Star Trek. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 9780345234018.
- Roddenberry, Gene (March 11, 1964). "Star Trek is…" (PDF). ex-astris-scientia.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2006. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
- Davies, Máire Messenger; Pearson, Roberta (August 2007). "The Little Program That Could: The Relationship between NBC and Star Trek". In Hilmes, Michele (ed.). NBC: America's network. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 209–223. ISBN 9780520250796.
- Solow, Herbert F; Justman, Robert H (June 1996). Inside Star Trek: The Real Story. New York: Pocket Books. pp. 377–394. ISBN 9780671896287.
- "Bjo Trimble: The Woman Who Saved Star Trek – Part 1". StarTrek.com. August 31, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
- Shatner, William; Kreski, Chris (October 1993). Star Trek Memories. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 290–291. ISBN 9780060177348.
- Shult, Doug (July 5, 1972). "Cult Fans, Reruns Give Star Trek an out of This World Popularity". Green Sheets. The Milwaukee Journal. 90 (230). Los Angeles Times New Service. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Celebrating 40 Years since Trek's 1st Convention". StarTrek.com. January 20, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Sackett, Susan (May 15, 2002). Inside Trek: My Secret Life with Star Trek Creator Gene Roddenberry. Tulsa, Oklahoma: HAWK Publishing Group. ISBN 9781930709423.
- Turnbull, Gerry, ed. (October 1979). A Star Trek Catalog. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. ISBN 9780441784776.
- Teitelbaum, Sheldon (May 5, 1991). "How Gene Roddenberry and his Brain Trust Have Boldly Taken 'Star Trek' Where No TV Series Has Gone Before : Trekking to the Top". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "Star Trek – A Short History". ee.surrey.ac.uk. Transcribed press release originally distributed by Paramount Pictures. May 9, 1994. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 21, 2006.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Poe, Stephen Edward (April 1998). A Vision of the Future. New York: Pocket Books. pp. 49–54. ISBN 9780671534813.
- Levesque, John (January 6, 2001). "UPN in search of post-'Voyager' flagship". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- "Fan Groups, Sites Rally on Behalf of Enterprise (UPDATE)". StarTrek.com. January 17, 2010. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- "Star Trek: Enterprise Cancelled!". StarTrek.com. February 3, 2005. Archived from the original on January 11, 2010. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Uniting Star Trek Fans". trekunited.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
- Adler, Margo (May 6, 2009). "Some Older 'Star Trek' Fans May Skip This Voyage". NPR. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Hinman, Michael (June 23, 2009). "'Star Trek' Becomes Highest Grossing Franchise Film". Airlock Alpha. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Pascale, Anthony (April 6, 2008). "Paramount Already Thinking About Sequel To Abrams Star Trek". TrekMovie.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Pascale, Anthony (November 23, 2011). "Star Trek Sequel To Be Released May 17, 2013 – In 3D". TrekMovie.com. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- "Box Office History for Star Trek Movies". the-numbers.com. The Numbers. Archived from the original on December 30, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- McNary, Dave (December 13, 2014). "'Star Trek 3' Sets July 8, 2016, Release Date". Variety. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- Holmes, Brad (March 26, 2018). "Why Star Trek Beyond Wasn't A Box Office Hit, According To Simon Pegg". cinemablend.com. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- Fitzpatrick, Kevin (April 12, 2011). "Bryan Singer's TV Star Trek Details Emerge". UGO. Archived from the original on April 16, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2012.
- Straczynski, J. Michael; Zabel, Bryce. "Star Trek, Reboot, 2004" (PDF). bztv.typepad.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 6, 2010. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Fitzpatrick, Kevin (April 7, 2011). "Jonathan Frakes Talks Bar Karma, Star Trek, and Yes, Gargoyles". UGO. Archived from the original on April 11, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
- Pascale, Anthony (May 3, 2010). "Update on Star Trek: Final Frontier – The New Star Trek Animated Series That Never Was". TrekMovie.com. Retrieved January 18, 2012.
- Goldberg, Lesley (November 2, 2015). "'Star Trek' TV Series in the Works". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Andreeva, Nellie (June 19, 2017). "'Star Trek: Discovery' Gets September Premiere Date On CBS". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
- "Discovery Renewed for Season Three". startrek.com. February 27, 2019. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
- Bacon, Thomas (November 6, 2018). "Star Trek: Discovery's Budget Reportedly Paid For By Netflix". ScreenRant. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- Littleton, Cynthia (May 13, 2019). "Amazon Nabs International Rights to CBS' Jean-Luc Picard 'Star Trek' Series". Variety. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- Jackson, Matthew (August 7, 2018). "New Star Trek Could Eventually be on All Access Year-Round, According to CBS execs". SYFY WIRE. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
- "CBS Wants New Star Trek Shows All Year Round On All Access". TrekMovie.com. August 6, 2018. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
- Lovett, Jamie (August 6, 2018). "CBS All Access Plans to Have Something 'Star Trek' on at All Times". ComicBook.com. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
- Lee, Luaine (August 18, 2006). "KRT Wire | 08/18/2006 | 'Star Trek' turns 40". San Jose Mercury News. McClatchy News. Tribune News Service. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- Rioux, Terry Lee (February 28, 2005). From Sawdust to Stardust: The Biography of Deforest Kelley, Star Trek's Dr. Mccoy. New York: Gallery Books. pp. 194–196. ISBN 9780743457620.
- Trimble, Bjo (October 1986). Stine, Hank (ed.). On the Good Ship Enterprise: My 15 Years with Star Trek (Reprint ed.). Norfolk, Virginia: The Donning Company. p. 33. ISBN 9780898652536.
- Dursin, Andre (November 14, 2006). "The Aisle Seat by Andy Dursin". andyfilm.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Ayers, Jeff (November 14, 2006). Voyages of the Imagination: The Star Trek Fiction Companion. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 9781416503491.
- "Star Trek". IMDb. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- "Star Trek Animated – The Series that ran from 1973 – 1974". sciencefictionbuzz.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Cult – Star Trek – Next Generation – Trivia". BBC. Archived from the original on December 31, 2006. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- "Emissary, Part I". StarTrek.com. Retrieved August 21, 2006.
- Lense. "Review of "Inter Arma Enim Silent Leges" – Star Trek Fans". scifi.about.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2003. Retrieved October 29, 2006.
- Sturgis, Amy H. "Star Trek Voyager : Final Episode : Review". revolutionsf.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2004. Retrieved August 24, 2006.
- "Star Trek: Voyager [TV Series] Synopsis – Plot Summary". Fandango. Archived from the original on January 30, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Star Trek: Enterprise Summary". starpulse.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Lee, Patrick (May 14, 2005). "Star Trek: Enterprise Series Finale". scifi.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2007. Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- Leao, Gustavo (December 17, 2005). "Anthony Montgomery Says "These Are The Voyages..." Not an Effective Finale". trekweb.com. Archived from the original on March 7, 2006. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Slotek, Jim (May 13, 2005). "Star Trek: E lamely goes away". Toronto Sun. p. E4.
- Ausiello, Michael; Roots, Kimberly (August 10, 2016). "'Star Trek: Discovery' Spoilers: Amanda Grayson Role in CBS Reboot". TVLine. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Frankel, Daniel (December 7, 2016). "Moonves: Netflix international sales pay for entire 'Star Trek' production cost". fiercevideo.com. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- Goldberg, Lesley (January 8, 2019). "'Star Trek': Second Animated Series, More 'Short Treks' Coming to CBS All Access (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
- "Short Treks – How Children of Mars Sets Up Star Trek: Picard". Den of Geek. January 19, 2020. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- Spencer, Samuel (January 23, 2020). "'Star Trek: Picard' Timeline: Where Does the New Series Fit in the World of 'Star Trek'?". Newsweek. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- Andreeva, Nellie (October 25, 2018). "'Star Trek: Lower Decks' Animated Series Ordered By CBS All Access". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Petski, Denise (July 1, 2020). "'Star Trek: Lower Decks' Gets August Premiere Date On CBS All Access; Teaser Art Unveiled". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- Labonte, Rachel (January 13, 2020). "2 More Unannounced Star Trek TV Shows in the Works After Picard". Screen Rant. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
- Otterson, Joe (February 13, 2019). "'Star Trek' Animated Kids Show in the Works at Nickelodeon – Variety". Variety. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
- Otterson, Joe; Otterson, Joe (May 15, 2020). "'Star Trek' Series Starring Ethan Peck as Spock, Anson Mount a Capt. Pike Set at CBS All Access". Variety. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- Goldberg, Lesley (August 4, 2018). "Patrick Stewart to Reprise 'Star Trek' Role in New CBS All Access Series". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Patten, Dominic (January 14, 2019). "Michelle Yeoh 'Star Trek' Spinoff In Development At CBS All Access". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
- Otterson, Joe (June 19, 2018). "Alex Kurtzman Sets Five-Year CBS TV Studios Pact, Will Oversee Expanded 'Star Trek' Universe". Variety. Archived from the original on July 21, 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- "Nicholas Meyer Gives Update On Khan Mini-Series And Talks 'Star Trek: Discovery'". TrekMovie.com. November 21, 2018. Archived from the original on April 1, 2019. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- "Star Trek Beyond (2016) – Release Info". IMDb. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Agar, Chris (June 28, 2016). "J.J. Abrams Star Trek Universe Is The Kelvin Timeline". ScreenRant. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- Roffman, Michael (December 16, 2019). "Filmmaker of the Year Quentin Tarantino on What's Next | Interview | Page 2". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- Kit, Borys (August 7, 2020). "Noah Hawley's 'Star Trek' on the Back Burner at Paramount". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
- Fleming, Mike (January 14, 2020). "Quentin Tarantino Oscar Once Upon A Time No Star Trek, Bounty Law series". Deadline. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- Fleming, Mike (November 19, 2019). "'Star Trek' Movie: 'Fargo's Noah Hawley In Talks To Write & Direct For Paramount". Deadline. Retrieved November 19, 2019.
- Schedeen, Jesse (August 8, 2019). "Star Trek Film Future Up in the Air as Paramount Shelves Fargo Creator's Version". IGN. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
- Harmetz, Aljean (November 2, 1986). "New 'Star Trek' Plan Reflects Symbiosis of Tv and Movies". Section 2. The New York Times. p. 31. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- Cloud, John (January 25, 2002). "Star Trek Inc". Time. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Lee, Newton (August 2, 2014). "From a Pin-up Girl to Star Trek's Holodeck: Artificial Intelligence and Cyborgs". In Lee, Newton (ed.). Digital da Vinci: Computers in the Arts and Sciences. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 1–22. ISBN 9781493909643.
- Marshall, Rick (April 14, 2009). "'Star Trek: The Next Generation' Goes Manga, But Will Picard Lose The Captain's Chair? » Splash Page". MTV. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Star Trek: The Next Generation". IDW Publishing. October 6, 2006. Archived from the original on October 25, 2006. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
- Warkentin, Thomas (December 25, 2012). Star Trek: The Newspaper Strip, Vol. 1. San Diego: IDW Publishing. ISBN 9781613774946.
- "Star Trek Comics Checklist". startrekcomics.info. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
- "FAQ". Star Trek Online. Archived from the original on October 12, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Announcing Star Trek Based Games from WizKids". WizKids. June 8, 2010. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- "Great Animated Adventures Episodes". StarTrek.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2006. Retrieved August 24, 2006.
- Day, Dwayne. "Social History: Star Trek as a Cultural Phenomenon". Centennial of Flight Commission. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- "Introduction to Outer Space (1958)". Federation of American Scientists. March 26, 1958. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- "TREK NATION — Rich Text Format". eugene.roddenberry.com. Archived from the original (RTF) on February 5, 2005. Retrieved August 24, 2006.
- "Trekkies (1997)". IMDb. Retrieved August 24, 2006.
- "TV Guide Names the Top Cult Shows Ever". TV Guide. June 29, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Ewalt, David M (May 18, 2005). "Star Wars Vs. Star Trek". Forbes. Retrieved September 13, 2007.
- Ho, Richard (May 14, 1995). "Trekkers VS Lucasites". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- Kelly, Heather (September 3, 2014). "Qualcomm Tricorder X Prize: Race to create a tricorder". CNN. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Laytner, Lance (2009). "Star Trek Tech". editinternational.com. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Evangelista, Benny (March 15, 2004). "TREK TECH / 40 years since the Enterprise's inception, some of its science fiction gadgets are part of everyday life". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
- Parsons, Ed (March 27, 2006). "Google Earth inspiration was Star Treks tricorder !!". edparsons.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Quinion, Michael (August 6, 1996). "World Wide Words: Beam me up, Scotty!". worldwidewords.org. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Drum, Ryan W; Gordon, Richard (August 1, 2003). "Star Trek replicators and diatom nanotechnology". Trends in Biotechnology. Cell Press. 21 (8): 325–328. doi:10.1016/S0167-7799(03)00169-0. PMID 12902165.
- Dumoulin, Jim (March 18, 1994). "Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise (OV-101)". Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Ermak, Gennady (April 22, 2019). Communism: The Great Misunderstanding. p. 8. ISBN 9781797957388.
- Worstall, Tim (October 5, 2015). "Star Trek Economics Is Just True Communism Arriving". Forbes. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- Bently, Rick (September 5, 2016). "5-year mission became 50-year journey for 'Star Trek'". Detroit Free Press. Tribune News Service. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- Hasan, Zaki (April 19, 2017). "INTERVIEW: Steve Wozniak on Sci-Fi, Comic Books, and How Star Trek Shaped the Future". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- LaFraniere, Sharon; Thomas, Katie; Weiland, Noah; Baker, Peter; Karni, Annie (August 2, 2020). "Scientists Worry About Political Influence Over Coronavirus Vaccine Project". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- Chaires, Robert; Chilton, Bradley (September 10, 2004). Star Trek Visions of Law and Justice. Dallas: University of North Texas Press. p. 61. ISBN 9780966808025.
- Porter, Jennifer E; McLaren, Darcee L (January 1999). Star Trek and Sacred Ground: Explorations of Star Trek, Religion, and American Culture. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 268. ISBN 9780585291901.
- Bernardi, Daniel Leonard (February 1998). Star Trek and History: Race-ing Toward a White Future. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780813524658.
- Duncan, Jody; Shay, Estelle (April 2000). "Trekking into the Klaatu Nebula". Cinefex. No. 81. ISSN 0198-1056.
- "STAR TREK: George Takei Is Ready To Beam Up". Sci-Fi Channel. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- "Cult – Star Trek – Patrick Stewart – Galaxy Quest". BBC. Archived from the original on January 13, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- Mullich, Jon. "Welcome to madbeast.com – The Jon Mullich site". madbeast.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- "Lamplighters Music Theatre presents Our Annual Champagne Gala & Auction STAR DREK: THE GENERATION AFTER THAT" (PDF) (Press release). Lamplighters Music Theatre. October 6, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 12, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- Geraghty, Lincoln (March 30, 2007). Living with Star Trek: American Culture and the Star Trek Universe. London: I.B. Tauris. pp. 51–52. ISBN 9781845114213.
- "USS Callister (Black Mirror) – Television Academy". Television Academy. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- Friedman, Dan (June 6, 2013). "IRS official apologizes for wasting funds on 'Star Trek' spoof video". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- Grier, Peter (June 4, 2013). "How much did IRS spend filming 'Star Trek' spoof?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- Whitmore, Linda (November 10, 2009). "'Star Wreck,' from Finland with love". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 27, 2016. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- Opam, Kwame (May 16, 2017). "The first trailer for The Orville promises Star Trek crossed with Family Guy's humor". The Verge. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Howell, Elizabeth (August 14, 2014). "'Star Trek: Axanar' Fan Film Warps Beyond Crowdfunding Goal". Space.com. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- Axanar Productions (March 2, 2014). "Star Trek: Prelude to Axanar by Axanar Productions". Kickstarter. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "Fan Films". StarTrek.com. June 23, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- Martinelli, Marissa (July 13, 2016). "Crowdfunding gave us a golden age of amateur Star Trek—and then led to its downfall". Slate. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- "Most successful sci-fi TV franchise". Guinness World Records. October 7, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Logan, Michael (August 24, 1996). "10 Truly Stellar Episodes". TV Guide. Vol. 44 no. 34. pp. 22–25. ISSN 0039-8543.
- Kooser, Amanda (August 6, 2016). "10 best Star Trek episodes, according to the fans". CNET. Retrieved August 8, 2019.
- Kooser, Amanda (August 5, 2016). "10 worst Star Trek episodes, according to the fans". CNET. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
- Sumner, Redstone; Redstone, Shari (September 26, 2016). "National Amusements, Inc. Proposes Combination of CBS and Viacom" (PDF) (Press release). National Amusements.
- Lang, Brent (May 15, 2013). "How the Battle Over 'Star Trek' Rights Killed J.J. Abrams' Grand Ambitions". TheWrap. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Pascale, Anthony (February 11, 2010). "Star Trek Helps Bring Big Profits To Viacom & Paramount". TrekMovie.com. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Carmon, Irin (July 9, 2019). "Shari Redstone's $30 Billion Triumph". Intelligencer. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Baker-Whitelaw, Gavia (May 17, 2018). "New Star Trek trilogy delayed over legal battle". The Daily Dot. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Pascale, Anthony (January 24, 2019). "Paramount President Talks Up Tarantino Star Trek + Viacom/CBS Merger Buzz Returns". TrekMovie.com. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Littleton, Cynthia (June 19, 2019). "Shari Redstone, Joe Ianniello in Spotlight as CBS and Viacom Pursue Merger Talks Again". Variety. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
- Lee, Edmund (August 13, 2019). "CBS and Viacom to Reunite in Victory for Shari Redstone". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
- Weprin, Alex (October 28, 2019). "Viacom-CBS Merger Now Expected to Close in "Early December"". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 5, 2019.
- Szalai, Georg (November 25, 2019). "Viacom, CBS Set Date to Close Merger". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
- "Viacom and CBS Corp. are officially back together again". CBS News. December 4, 2019. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
- Asherman, Allan (March 20, 1981). The Star Trek Compendium. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-79145-1.
- Barad, Judith; Robertson, Ed (December 5, 2000). The Ethics of Star Trek. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-019530-4.
- Ellison, Harlan (January 1996). The City on the Edge of Forever. Benson, Maryland: Borderlands Press. ISBN 1-880325-02-0.
- Greenwald, Jeff (June 1998). Future Perfect: How Star Trek Conquered Planet Earth. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-87399-3.
- Gerrold, David (April 12, 1973). Trouble with Tribbles. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-23402-2.
- Gerrold, David (May 1984). The World of Star Trek (Revised ed.). New York: Bluejay Books. ISBN 0-312-94463-2.
- Krauss, Lawrence M (September 1995). The Physics of Star Trek. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00559-4.
- Lichtenberg, Jacqueline; Marshak, Sondra; Winston, Joan (July 1975). Star Trek Lives!. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-02151-6.
- McIntee, David (March 9, 2000). Delta Quadrant: The Unofficial Guide to Star Trek Voyager. London: Virgin Books. ISBN 0-7535-0436-7.
- Nichols, Nichelle (October 19, 1994). Beyond Uhura. New York: Putnam Adult. ISBN 0-399-13993-1.
- Projansky, Sarah; Helford, Elyce Rae; Ono, Kent (August 8, 1996). Harrison, Taylor (ed.). Enterprise Zones: Critical Positions on Star Trek. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-2899-3.
- Shatner, William; Kreski, Chris (October 1993). Star Trek Memories. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-017734-9.
- Shatner, William; Kreski, Chris (May 1999). Get a Life!. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-02131-1.
- Shatner, William; Walter, Chip (July 30, 2002). I'm Working on That: A Trek from Science Fiction to Science Fact. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-04737-X.
- Winston, Joan (November 1977). The Making of the Trek Conventions. New York: Knopf Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13112-7.