|Chair of the Senate Indian Affairs Committee|
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 1979
|Preceded by||Joseph C. O'Mahoney (1947)|
|Succeeded by||John Melcher|
|United States Senator|
from South Dakota
January 3, 1973 – January 3, 1979
|Preceded by||Karl E. Mundt|
|Succeeded by||Larry Pressler|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from South Dakota's 2nd district
January 3, 1971 – January 3, 1973
|Preceded by||Ellis Yarnal Berry|
|Succeeded by||James Abdnor|
James George Abourezk
February 24, 1931
Wood, South Dakota, U.S.
|Education||South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BS)|
University of South Dakota (JD)
|Branch/service||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1948–1952|
James George Abourezk (born February 24, 1931) is an American attorney and Democratic politician who served as a United States senator and United States representative from South Dakota. He did not seek re-election to the US Senate in 1978. He was the first Greek Orthodox Christian of Lebanese-Antiochite descent to serve in the US Senate. He was generally viewed as critical of US foreign policy in the Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) area, particularly regarding Palestine and Israel.
Abourezk represented South Dakota in the United States Senate from 1973 until 1979. He was the author of the Indian Child Welfare Act, passed by Congress in 1978 to try to preserve Indian families and tribal culture, by arranging for the placement of Indian children in homes of their cultures, as well as to reunite them with families. It gives preference to tribal courts with custody of Indian children domiciled on reservations and concurrent but presumptive jurisdiction in cases of children outside the reservation.
Early life and education
James George Abourezk was born in Wood, South Dakota, the son of Lena (née Mickel), a homemaker, and Charles Abourezk, an owner of two general stores. Both of his parents were Lebanese immigrants. He grew up near Wood on the Rosebud Reservation and has lived in South Dakota most of his life.
Between 1948 and 1952, Abourezk served in the United States Navy during the Korean War. After his military service, he earned a degree in civil engineering from the South Dakota School of Mines in Rapid City in 1961 and a J.D. degree from University of South Dakota School of Law in Vermillion in 1966. He began a legal practice in Rapid City, South Dakota.
Abourezk continued to seek opportunities. He was elected in 1970 as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives and served from 1971 to 1973.
In 1972 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, where he served from 1973 to 1979. He declined to run for another term. In 1974, TIME magazine named Senator Abourezk as one of the "200 Faces for the Future".
As a senator, Abourezk criticized the Office of Public Safety (OPS), a U.S. agency linked to the USAID and the CIA, and which provided training to foreign police forces. Officers they trained were used to suppress civilians in several countries in Central and South America during a period of military governments, dirty wars, and social disruption.
Abourezk also was instrumental in the creation of both the American Indian Policy Review Commission and the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. Deeply interested in representing the tribes in Congress to work toward better federal relations, he chaired the Policy Review Commission the entire time it existed. He took the gavel as chair of the Indian Affairs Committee from its creation in 1977 to 1979, when he retired.
His signature legislation was the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA, 1978), designed to protect Indian children and families from being torn apart. Indian children have been removed by state social agencies from their families and placed in foster care or adoption at a disproportionately high rate, and usually placed with non-Indian families. This both deprived the children of their culture and threatened the very survival of the tribes. This legislation was intended to provide a federal standard that emphasized the needs of Indian children to be raised in their own cultures, and gave precedence to tribal courts for decisions about children domiciled on the reservation, as well as concurrent but presumptive jurisdiction with state courts for Indian children off the reservation. He also authored and passed the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, which provided Indian tribes with greater autonomy. The BIA made grants to the tribes but they could manage contracts and funds to control their own destiny. That legislation also reduced the direct influence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs on the tribes.
|Booknotes interview with Abourezk on Advise and Dissent, March 25, 1990, C-SPAN|
Following his retirement in 1980, Abourezk founded the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, a grassroots civil rights organization. In 1989, he published his Advise and Dissent: Memoirs of South Dakota and the U.S. Senate (ISBN 1-55652-066-2). He is the co-author, along with Hyman Bookbinder, of Through Different Eyes: Two Leading Americans — a Jew and an Arab — Debate U. S. Policy in the Middle East (1987), (ISBN 0917561392).
In 2007, Abourezk gave an interview to the Hezbollah funded news channel Al-Manar TV. In this interview Abourezk says that he believes that Zionists used the terrorists that perpetrated the 9/11 terrorist attacks as a way to sow Islamophobia, that Zionists control the United States Congress, and that Hezbollah and Hamas are resistance fighters.
Since his retirement from the Senate, Abourezk has worked as a lawyer and writer in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. He has continued to be active in supporting tribal sovereignty and culture. In July 2015 he spoke out against a suit filed against the ICWA by the Goldwater Institute; it was one of three suits seeking to overturn the act. Some states and adoption groups, who make money off adoptions, have opposed any prohibitions on their placements of Indian children. Abourezk has considered this his signature legislation and the new rules instrumental in protecting Indian children and preserving tribal families. He noted that the late Senator Barry Goldwater, his friend and colleague, had voted for the legislation in 1977 and had often consulted with him in tribal matters.
- Arab American biography – Loretta Hall – Google Books
- Richard, Richie (July 20, 2016). "Former Senator Jim Abourezk honored". Native Sun News. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
'I was born and grew up on the Rosebud Indian Reservation in South Dakota. I was the son of Lebanese immigrants who settled in Mellette County. My father came to South Dakota in the year of 1898, returned to Lebanon and married my mother ... my mother was finally able to leave Lebanon and come to South Dakota in 1920, to make South Dakota their home,' the senator said in his statement.
- "Champion of Excellence: James Abourezk". South Dakota Hall of Fame. c. 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
He was the youngest child of Charles T. and Lena Mickel Abourezk, immigrants from a small farming village in Lebanon.
- Johansen and Grinde, Jr., Bruce E. and Donald A. (1997). The Encyclopedia of Native American Biography. New York, New York: Henry Holt. p. 1.
- "Official Election Returns" (PDF). sdsos.gov. November 5, 1968. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- "200 Faces for the Future", TIME
- Suzette Brewer, "War of Words: ICWA Faces Multiple Assaults From Adoption Industry", Indian Country Today, 8 July 2015; accessed 9 June 2016
- "Lawrence: Abourezk's contempt for Pressler remains strong?". Aberdeen News. October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "Abourezk v. ProBush.com". Digital Media Law Project. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
- "Web site won't oppose adding Jane Fonda to 'traitor list' lawsuit | First Amendment Center – news, commentary, analysis on free speech, press, religion, assembly, petition". Stanford Web Archive Portal. Archived from the original on 2014-03-31. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
- "Former U.S. senator James Abourezk to Hizbullah TV: The Arabs who were involved in 9/11 cooperated with the Zionists. Alan Dershowitz is a real snake". Memri Tv. 30 August 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
- Zogby, James (4 January 2014). "What American Hustle Doesn't Tell You About ABSCAM". Huffington Post. Retrieved 13 October 2014.