James Tenney (August 10, 1934 – August 24, 2006) was an American composer and music theorist. He made significant early musical contributions to plunderphonics, sound synthesis, algorithmic composition, process music, spectral music, microtonal music, and tuning systems including extended just intonation. His theoretical writings variously concern musical form, texture, timbre, consonance and dissonance, and harmonic perception.
James Tenney was born in Silver City, New Mexico, and grew up in Arizona and Colorado. He attended the University of Denver, the Juilliard School of Music, Bennington College (B.A., 1958) and the University of Illinois (M.A., 1961). He studied piano with Eduard Steuermann and composition with Chou Wen-chung, Lionel Nowak, Paul Boepple, Henry Brant, Carl Ruggles, Kenneth Gaburo, John Cage, Harry Partch, and Edgard Varèse. He also studied acoustics, information theory and tape music composition under Lejaren Hiller. In 1961, Tenney completed an influential master's thesis entitled Meta (+) Hodos that made one of the earliest applications, if not the earliest application, of gestalt theory and cognitive science to music. His later writings include "Temporal gestalt perception in music" in the Journal of Music Theory, the chapter "John Cage and the Theory of Harmony" in Writings about John Cage, and the book A History of Consonance and Dissonance, among others.
Tenney's earliest works show the influence of Webern, Ruggles and Varèse, while a gradual assimilation of the ideas of John Cage influenced the development of his music in the 1960s. In 1961 he composed the early plunderphonic composition Collage No.1 (Blue Suede) (for tape) by sampling and manipulating a recording of Elvis Presley. His music from 1961 to 1964 was largely computer music completed at Bell Labs in New Jersey with Max Mathews. As such it constitutes one of the earliest significant bodies of algorithmically composed and computer synthesized music. Examples include Analog #1 (Noise Study) (1961) for tape using computer synthesized noise, and Phases (1963).<ref">Paul Doornbusch, A Chronology / History of Electronic and Computer Music and Related Events 1906–2011[dead link]</ref>
Tenney lived in or near New York City throughout the 1960s, where he was actively involved with Fluxus, the Judson Dance Theater, and the ensemble Tone Roads, which he co-founded with Malcolm Goldstein and Philip Corner. He was exceptionally dedicated to the music of American composer Charles Ives, many of whose compositions he conducted (including the first performance of "in re, con moto"); his interpretation of Ives' "Concord" Sonata for piano was much praised. Tenney collaborated closely as both musician and actor with his then-partner, kinetic-theater artist Carolee Schneemann, until their separation in 1968. With Schneemann he co-starred in Fuses, a 1965 silent film of collaged and painted sequences of lovemaking. (Haug 2007, 20 & 25–26). In 1967 he gave an influential FORTRAN workshop for a group of composers and Fluxus artists that included Steve Reich, Nam June Paik, Dick Higgins, Jackson Mac Low, Joseph Byrd, Phil Corner, Alison Knowles and Max Neuhaus. Tenney was one of four performers of Steve Reich's Pendulum Music (1967) on May 27, 1969, at the Whitney Museum of American Art, alongside Michael Snow, Richard Serra and Bruce Nauman. Tenney also performed with Harry Partch (in a production of Partch's The Bewitched in 1959), John Cage (in the mid-1960s), Steve Reich, and Philip Glass (the latter two in the late 1960s).
All of Tenney's compositions after 1970 are instrumental music (occasionally with tape-delay), and most since 1972 reflect an interest in harmonic perception and unconventional tuning systems. Significant works include Clang (1972) for orchestra, Quintext (1972) for string quintet, Spectral CANON for CONLON Nancarrow (1974) for player piano, Glissade (1982) for viola, cello, double bass and tape delay system, Bridge (1982–84) for two pianos eight hands in a microtonal tuning system, Changes (1985) for six harps tuned a sixth of a semitone apart, Critical Band (1988) for variable instrumentation and In a Large Open Space (1994) for variable instrumentation. His pieces are often tributes to other composers or colleagues and subtitled as such.
Tenney taught at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Yale University, the California Institute of the Arts, the University of California, and York University in Toronto. His students include John Luther Adams, John Bischoff, Michael Byron, Allison Cameron, Raven Chacon, Eric de Visscher, Miguel Frasconi, Peter Garland, Douglas Kahn, Carson Kievman, Ingram Marshall, Andra McCartney, Larry Polansky, Carl Stone, Charlemagne Palestine, Marc Sabat, Chiyoko Slavnics, Catherine Lamb, Michael Winter, and Daniel Corral. (See: List of music students by teacher: T to Z#James Tenney.)
As sole composer
- The Music Of James Tenney: Selected Works 1963–1984 (1984, Musicworks)
- Selected Works 1961–1969 (1992, Frog Peak Music)
- Bridge and Flocking (1996, hat ART)
- The Solo Works for Percussion (1998, Matthias Kaul, hat ART)
- Music for Violin and Piano (1999, hat ART)
- Forms 1–4: In Memoriam Edgar Varèse, John Cage, Stefan Wolpe, Morton Feldman (2002, Ensemble Musikfabrik, hat ART)
- Pika-Don (2004, hat ART)
- Postal Pieces (2004, The Barton Workshop, New World Records)
- Melody, Ergodicity And Indeterminacy (2007, The Barton Workshop, Mode Records)
- Arbor Vitæ: Quatuors + Quintettes (2008, Quatuor Bozzini)
- Spectrum Pieces (2009, The Barton Workshop, New World Records)
- Old School: James Tenney (2010, Zeitkratzer)
- Having Never Written a Note for Percussion (2015, Rrose, Further Records)
- Bass Works (2016, Dario Calderone, hat ART)
- Harmonium (2018, Scordatura Ensemble, New World Records)
- Ergodos I For John Cage
- James Tenney, A Chance Operation: The John Cage Tribute, Koch International Classics) 1993
- Koan: Having Never Written a Note for Percussion
- Anon. (August 28, 2006). "Obituary: Composer James Tenney, 72". NewMusicBox.
- Barbiero, Daniel (2014). "Fifty Years After the Way: James Tenney's Meta+Hodos". Percorsi Musicali.[dead link]
- Kahn, Douglas (2012). "James Tenney at Bell Labs". In Hannah Higgins; Douglas Kahn (eds.). Mainframe Experimentalism: Early Digital Computing in the Experimental Arts. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 131–146.
- Tenney, J.; Polansky, L. (1980). "Temporal gestalt perception in music". Journal of Music Theory. 24 (2): 205–241. doi:10.2307/843503. JSTOR 843503. S2CID 53485822.
- Tenney, J. (1983). "John Cage and the Theory of Harmony". In Kostelanetz, R. (ed.). Writings about John Cage. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press (published 1993). ISBN 9780472103485.
- Tenney, J. (1988). A History of Consonance and Dissonance. New York: Excelsior. ISBN 978-0935016994.
- Tenney, James (2015). Lauren Pratt; Robert Wannamaker; Michael Winter; Larry Polansky (eds.). From Scratch: Writings in Music Theory. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252038-72-X.
- Garland, Peter (ed.). 1984. Soundings Vol. 13: The Music of James Tenney. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Soundings Press.
- Hasegawa, Robert (ed.). 2008. "The Music of James Tenney". Contemporary Music Review 27, no. 1 (February)]. Routledge (subscription access).
- Polansky, Larry, and David Rosenboom (eds.). 1987. "A Tribute to James Tenney". Perspectives of New Music 25, nos. 1 & 2 (Fall–Winter & Spring–Summer): 434–591.
- Smigel, Eric. 2012. "Metaphors on Vision: James Tenney and Stan Brakhage, 1951–1964". American Music 30, no. 1 (Spring|: 61–100.
- Smigel, Eric. 2017. "'To Behold with Wonder': Theory, Theater, and the Collaboration of James Tenney and Carolee Schneemann". Journal of the Society for American Music 11, no. 1:1–24.
- Tenney, James. 1988. A History of 'Consonance' and 'Dissonance'. New York: Excelsior Music Publishing Co. ISBN 0-935016-99-6.
- Zimmerman, Walter, Desert Plants – Conversations with 23 American Musicians, Berlin: Beginner Press in cooperation with Mode Records, 2020 (originally published in 1976 by A.R.C., Vancouver). The 2020 edition includes a CD featuring the original interview recordings with Larry Austin, Robert Ashley, Jim Burton, John Cage, Philip Corner, Morton Feldman, Philip Glass, Joan La Barbara, Garrett List, Alvin Lucier, John McGuire, Charles Morrow, J. B. Floyd (on Conlon Nancarrow), Pauline Oliveros, Charlemagne Palestine, Ben Johnston (on Harry Partch), Steve Reich, David Rosenboom, Frederic Rzewski, Richard Teitelbaum, James Tenney, Christian Wolff, and La Monte Young.
- James Tenney at plainsound.org including a complete list of works and a selection of Tenney's writings.
- The Early Works of James Tenney (book by Larry Polansky)
- Articles by Robert Wannamaker on James Tenney's music (some downloadable as PDFs)
- Performance film Having Never inspired by the Tenney composition Having Never Written a Note for Percussion, a "Postcard Piece" with Danny Holt performing. Directed by Raffaello Mazza.
- Extensive YouTube channel dedicated to the music of James Tenney
- UbuWeb Sound page for James Tenney
- Spectral Variation No 1 recording of premiere at DNK Amsterdam by Ciarán Maher
- Just intonation version of Tenney's Chromatic Canon for Two Pianos, using the tuning system provided by Tenney
Groups who often perform Tenney's works:
- Interview with Tenney about his work in the 1960s by Douglas Kahn in 1999
- James Tenney (May 8–11, 2005). "Postcards from the Edge". NewMusicBox (Interview). Interviewed by Frank J. Oteri (published June 1, 2005). (includes video)
- Hermits of Re-Tuning (Show 115) James Tenney interviewed on Kalvos & Damian New Music Bazaar, August 2, 1997 (click to listen)
- James Tenney interviewed by American Mavericks (click to listen)
- Schneemann, Carolee with Robert Enright. 1998. "Notes on Fuseology: Carolee Schneemann Remembers James Tenney". Border Crossings 132 (December 2014).