Rosalie Kunoth-Monks, who played the title role
|Directed by||Charles Chauvel|
|Produced by||Charles Chauvel|
|Written by||Charles Chauvel|
|Music by||Isador Goodman|
|Edited by||Alex Ezard|
Charles Chauvel Productions Ltd
|Distributed by||Columbia Pictures (Aust)|
British Lion (UK)
Distributors Corporation of America (US)
|3 January 1955 (premiere)|
5 May 1955 (Aust)
|101 mins (Aust)|
61 mins (UK)
Jedda (released in the UK as Jedda the Uncivilized) is a 1955 Australian film written, produced and directed by Charles Chauvel. His last film, it is notable for being the first to star two Aboriginal actors, Robert Tudawali and Ngarla Kunoth, now known as Rosalie Kunoth-Monks, in the leading roles. It was also the first Australian feature film to be shot in colour.
Jedda is seen by some[who?] as an influential film in the development of Australian cinema, as setting a new standard for future Australian films. It won more international attention than previous Australian films during a time when Hollywood films were dominating the Australian cinema. Chauvel, was nominated for the Golden Palm Award in the 1955 Cannes Film Festival, but lost to Delbert Mann for Marty.
Jedda is an Aboriginal girl born on a cattle station in the Northern Territory of Australia. After her mother dies giving birth to her, the child is brought to Sarah McMann, the wife of the station boss. Sarah has recently lost her own newborn to illness. She at first intends to give the baby to one of the Aboriginal women who work on the station, but then raises Jedda as her own, teaching her European ways and separating her from other Aborigines.
Jedda wants to learn about her own culture, but is forbidden by Sarah. When Jedda grows into a young woman, she becomes curious about an Aboriginal man from the bush named Marbuck. This tall stranger arouses strong feelings in her. She is lured to his camp one night by a song. Marbuck abducts her and sets off back to his tribal land, through crocodile-infested swamps.
Joe, a half-caste stockman in love with Jedda, tracks the two for several days. They travel across high, rocky country, and down a river until Marbuck reaches his tribe. The tribal council declares that Marbuck has committed a serious crime by bringing Jedda to them, because she is not of the right skin group. They sing his death song as punishment. Marbuck defies the elders and takes Jedda into an area of steep cliffs and canyons, taboo lands.
Driven insane by the death song, he pulls Jedda with him over a tall cliff, and both perish. Joe, the narrator, says her spirit has joined "the great mother of the world, in the dreaming time of tomorrow."
- Ngarla Kunoth as Jedda
- Robert Tudawali as Marbuck
- Betty Suttor as Sarah McMann
- Paul Reynall as Joe
- George Simpson-Lyttle as Douglas McMann
- Tas Fitzer as Peter Wallis
- Hugh Wason Byers as Felix Romeo (credited as Wason Byers)
- Willie Farrar as Little Joe
- Margaret Dingle as Little Jedda
Charles Chauvel says the original inspiration for the film came from a meeting he had in Hollywood in early 1950 with Merian C. Cooper. Cooper encouraged the director to make a film exploiting Australian locations. Chauvel was further encouraged along these lines by Bess Meredyth, who had made a number of films in Australia in the 1920s.
Chauvel decided to make the project in the Northern Territory. With his wife Elsa he made an extensive survey of the Territory later that year with the assistance of the Commonwealth government. He undertook colour tests, intending to make Australia's first colour movie. The Chauvels then wrote a screenplay, originally entitled The Northern Territory Story.
Chauvel later claimed he turned down an American offer of $100,000 (£44,000) to finance the film because it was conditional upon Linda Darnell being cast in the lead. Chauvel's regular backers Universal Pictures did not want to invest in the movie but Chauvel managed to secure finance from various businessmen, including Mainguard Australia Ltd. It took the Chauvels 18 months to find a suitable filming location.
Filming started in May 1952, when the unit left Sydney for Darwin. By this stage the lead role of Jedda had still yet to be cast, but filming acting sequences did not begin until July. Robert Tudawali was a full-blooded Aboriginal man from Melville Island, the largest island in the Tiwi Islands group. Ngarla Kunoth (Rosalie Kunoth-Monks) was an Anmatyerre woman, born at Utopia cattle station, north east of Alice Springs; she was selected over seven other actors screen tested, and was cast by July.
The shoot took five months to complete, plus post-production work done in Sydney. Most of the scenes were shot on the Coolibah Station in the Northern Territory, as well as at Standley Chasm, Ormiston Gorge and Mary River in the north.
The production process was laborious, as the colour technique used, Gevacolor, could only be processed in England. The film stock was fragile and heat-sensitive, which was a problem in the tropical climate of the Northern Territory. During production, the film was stored in cool caves to protect it from deteriorating. By mid 1952 the film had incurred expenses of £24,673.
The last roll of negative was destroyed in a plane crash on its way for developing in England. Chauvel re-shot these lost scenes at Kanangra Walls in the Blue Mountains and Jenolan Caves west of Sydney. Cave scenes were filmed in the River Cave, Diamond Cave, Imperial Cave, and Mud Tunnels at Jenolan. Editing and sound recording were completed in London.
The film had its world premiere on 3 January 1955 at the Star Theatre in Darwin. The theatre's manager Tom Harris arranged for a member of the Warhiti tribe "to sing songs and burn sticks to prevent any unwanted rainfalls during the screening. He decorated the theatre for the opening with pandanus, grass mats and Aboriginal artefacts. Large crowds gathered along Smith Street to catch a glimpse of the film's stars Ngarla Kunoth and Robert Tudawali were permitted to sit in the balcony with the Northern Territory Administrator Frank Wise and his wife.
The film then opened in Sydney in May. Its commercial reception was solid rather than sensational: Charles Chauvel Productions Ltd received £17,915 from the film in May and June 1955. The company's name was changed to Jedda Ltd to help exploit the film. In December 1956 Jedda Ltd reported a profit of £50,454 for the year to 30 June, reducing the debit balance in the production account to £69,697. The film had been successful in Australia but performed disappointingly overseas.
The film was released in the UK as Jedda the Uncivilised.
Some time after the film was completed and released in locations around the world, the film in Gevacolor was found to have faded from ageing. In 1972 the film was reproduced from original tri-separations found in London.
This was Charles Chauvel's last feature film. He had intended to adapt Kay Glasson Taylor's novel The Wars of the Outer March, but was hired by the BBC to make the TV series Walkabout. Before he could resume work on his feature projects he died on 11 November 1959..
- "Chauval film cost £90,823". The Sydney Morning Herald. 3 December 1954. p. 9. Retrieved 5 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Festival de Cannes: Jedda". festival-cannes.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
- "A Little Black Girl Who Would Not Cry". The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 July 1953. p. 5 Section: Women's Section. Retrieved 25 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Our Outback Is A Rich Field fur Film Makerss". The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 August 1950. p. 2. Retrieved 18 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- ""Herald" Saturday Magazine". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 September 1950. p. 11. Retrieved 22 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Stark color film to be 'shot' in N.T." The Argus. Melbourne. 19 June 1951. p. 3. Retrieved 5 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "N.T. Natives Appear In Colour Film". The West Australian. 69 (20, 899). Western Australia. 15 July 1953. p. 4. Retrieved 16 April 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Black stars in a big Chauvel film". The News. 61 (9, 338). Adelaide. 15 July 1953. p. 21. Retrieved 16 April 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
- "MOTION PICTURE FIRM IN SYDNEY". The Canberra Times. 31 March 1951. p. 6. Retrieved 5 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Chauvel To Make Film In N.T." The Sydney Morning Herald. 19 June 1951. p. 5. Retrieved 5 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "CAPITAL FOR FILMS". The Sydney Morning Herald. 15 August 1951. p. 7. Retrieved 5 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Forever Amber—but never Jedda role". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane. 13 September 1952. p. 1. Retrieved 5 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "MAINGUARD'S INTERESTS". The Argus. Melbourne. 11 October 1955. p. 11. Retrieved 5 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "N. Territory as scene of first colour film". The Canberra Times. 19 May 1952. p. 4. Retrieved 5 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "MALE LEAD GOES HOME". The Sydney Morning Herald. 13 April 1954. p. 12. Retrieved 25 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- ""Jedda" and her foster family". The Australian Women's Weekly. 9 June 1971. p. 2. Retrieved 25 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Arunta Tribe Girl Star". The Sydney Morning Herald. 30 July 1953. p. 6. Retrieved 25 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Progress cost of film". The Sydney Morning Herald. 10 December 1952. p. 9. Retrieved 5 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "He's Out to Prove the Dead Heart Beats". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane. 25 July 1953. p. 2. Retrieved 1 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Had Silver Wedding In Outback". The Sydney Morning Herald. 5 June 1952. p. 9. Retrieved 25 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "N.T. Cattleman To Stand Trial". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 August 1953. p. 5. Retrieved 25 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "N. T. World Premiere Of 'Jedda' Delights Critics". Northern Standard. 10 (1). Northern Territory, Australia. 6 January 1955. p. 8. Retrieved 24 September 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Territorians Await "Jedda" Premiere". Northern Standard. 9 ([?]). Northern Territory, Australia. 23 December 1954. p. 1. Retrieved 24 September 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
- Brister, Charles (1995). "A history of the Star Theatre of Darwin". Journal of Northern Territory History. 6: 35–43. ISSN 1034-7488. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- "Jedda a big success". The Argus. Melbourne. 23 November 1955. p. 13. Retrieved 5 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Jedda's £50,454". The Argus. Melbourne. 8 December 1956. p. 25. Retrieved 5 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "JEDDA will get new title for U.K." The Sunday Times. Perth. 13 February 1955. p. 50. Retrieved 12 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Mrs. Chauvel In Hollywood". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 December 1949. p. 9. Retrieved 25 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- Philip Taylor, "Ken G. Hall", Cinema Papers January 1974, p. 86
- Vagg, Stephen (15 November 2020). "The Flawed Landmark: Burst of Summer". Filmink.
- Jedda on IMDb
- National Film and Sound Archive
- Jedda, Murdoch University Media Communication and Culture
- Jedda at National Film and Sound Archive
- Ben Miller 'The Mirror of Whiteness: Blackface in Charles Chauvel's Jedda ' JASAL Special Issue 2007
- Jedda at Australian Screen Online
- Jedda at Oz Movies
- Review of film at Variety