Roseman was born in Boston, and studied at the New England Conservatory of Music. Roseman toured Jamaica with The Skatalites and in Australia with the Christopher Hale Ensemble. He has also played with Steve Coleman, Dave Holland, Dave Douglas, Don Byron, John Zorn, Charlie Hunter, Mike Gordon, Soulive, Groove Collective, and Me'Shell Ndegeocello.
Roseman has led sessions for Enja Records as The Josh Roseman Unit. His sidemen include Peter Apfelbaum, Barney McAll, Ben Monder, Jonathan Maron, Billy Kilson, Ted Poor, Tony Barba, and Kirk Knuffke and special guests on the albums include Chris Potter, Liberty Ellman, Ben Perowsky, and Mark Feldman.
- Cherry (Enja, 2001)
- Treats for the Nightwalker (Enja, 2003)
- New Constellations: Live in Vienna (Accurate, 2007)
- Rebelution - The Soul Rebels (Barn Burner Music, 2005)
With Lester Bowie
- When the Spirit Returns (Dreyfus, 1997 )
With Don Byron
- Don Byron Plays the Music of Mickey Katz (Nonesuch, 1993)
With Uri Caine
- Toys (JMT, 1996)
- Urlicht / Primal Light (Winter & Winter, 1997)
- The Sidewalks of New York: Tin Pan Alley (Winter & Winter, 1999)
- The Goldberg Variations (Winter & Winter, 2000)
With Cibo Matto
- Viva! La Woman
- Stereo Type A
With Steve Coleman
With Dave Douglas
- In Our Lifetime (New World, 1995)
- Sanctuary (Avant, 1997)
- Stargazer (Arabesque, 1997)
- Soul on Soul (RCA, 2000)
With Mitchell Froom
With Dave Holland
With Jason Moran
- All Rise: A Joyful Elegy for Fats Waller (Blue Note, 2014)
With The Roots
- Illadelph Halflife (DGC, 1996)
- Do You Want More
With Samo Salamon
- Government Cheese (Fresh Sound New Talent, 2007)
With John Zorn
- Cobra: John Zorn's Game Pieces Volume 2 (Tzadik, 2002)
- Music Picks Archived 2005-02-07 at the Wayback Machine. Philadelphia City Paper, January 15–21, 2004.
- Jazz Listings. New York Times, December 8, 2006.
- The Josh Roseman Unit. The Age, August 15, 2005.
- Mike Gordon - Inside In - The Band and Guests Archived 2011-07-13 at the Wayback Machine, January 25, 2011
- Bill Tilland, Review of Treats for the Nightwalker. Allmusic