Kim Tschang-yeul

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Kim Tschang-yeul
Hangul 김창열
Hanja 金昌烈
Revised Romanization Gim Chang-yeol
McCune–Reischauer Kim Ch'angyŏl

Kim Tschang Yeul (also known as "김창열","Kim Tchangyeul", "Kim Chang Yeul", or "Tschangyeul Kim") is a South Korean painter born in Maengsan,[1] South P'yŏngan province, Chōsen, in Japanese occupied North Korea, on December 24th, 1929. [2]

Kim Tschang Yeul is part of the first generation of modern artists in South Korea. He is a prolific painter well known for his 'water drop' paintings, and has been one of the most influential figures in modern Korean art history. Although he started out as part of the Art Informel movement in South Korea, he has lived most of his adult life in Paris, France, where he developed his own unique style of painting.

After graduating from the College of Fine Arts at Seoul National University in 1950, Kim led the Korean Art Informel movement with Park Seo-Bo, Se-Ok Suh, Ha Chong-Hyun, and Chung Chang-Sup in the 1950s and 60s. This movement greatly inspired many avant-garde artists of the next generation in rejecting the conservative values imposed on them by Korean institutions.

Shortly after his participation in the Paris Biennale in 1961 and the São Paulo Biennale in 1965, Kim moved to New York City and studied at the Art Students League of New York from 1966 to 1968. Kim Tschang Yeul's time spent in New York City allowed him to interact with and be inspired by the Pop art movement, which was a significant influence on him.

Because of his years abroad, Kim Tschang Yeul developed his art outside of the Seoul and Tokyo art scene, developing his unique style parallel to the Dansaekhwa movement. In 1969, Kim moved from New York City to Paris, where he continued depicting opaque abstract liquid forms.

WIth time, the liquid abstract forms transformed into spherical, transparent 'water drops', which have become his distinctive, trademark style after the mid-1970s. The water drops have been Kim’s focus for the past five decades. He has pursued the painting of water drops between Seoul and Paris, where he lives and works.

Kim’s water drop paintings speak a language that amalgamates the discourses around photorealism and abstract expressionism, situating themselves in an ambiguous space between reality and the abstract. According to Kim, he does not interpret his subject as realistic depictions of actual water drops, but “idealistic” ones. Kim explains that the continued act of painting water drops helps him erase painful and traumatic memories of serving in the military during the Korean War between 1950 and 1953, where he witnessed the deaths of his fellow soldiers. In a way, the incessant act of painting water drops served as a therapeutic tool for him, bringing his art closer to surrealism and spirituality. Many have speculated about the meaning behind his obsession with water drops.

In 1996, he was awarded the Chevalier medal of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres bestowed by the Embassy of France in Seoul.

In 2016, the government of Korea opened the Kim Tschang Yeul Museum of Art in Jeju, Jejudo island, South Korea, the highest honor bestowed upon a living Korean artist. [3]

Kim Tschang Yeul is represented by Gallery Hyundai in South Korea and by Pearl Lam Galleries in Hong Kong.

Artwork[edit]

"The famous monk Dharma meditated for nine years to achieve spiritual enlightenment, I have been painting water drops for 40 years but wasn't able to reach Dharma's level of enlightenment." -Kim Tschang Yeul


Kim Tschang-yeul is considered the artist that inspired monochromatic painting in Korea, as well as one of the most influential Korean masters in contemporary art in the West. At the time of Japanese colonialism and Korean war, the turmoil of social culture and political history pushed Kim to participate in the movement of contemporary art and establish his self through art. In the 1960s, Kim decided to leave his homeland and sojourned in New York; in the 1970s, Kim made Paris his home. A tranquil morning, sunlight slid in from the window, shining on the canvas sprayed with water the night before. The glistening and sparkling water drops at the moment moved Kim Tschang-yeul so much that he started working on waterdrops. Over the next four decades in Paris, Kim would be doing the same thing: painting water drops. There, then, comes the reputation of the "painter of water drops". In 2004, Kim was invited to display his works in an art show at Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, where he was awarded with the Commandeur medal, the highest honor of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres.

Water drops are translucent and glistening, nonetheless vanishing within moments. Kim Tschang-yeul's water drops are intimately connected to his life, that is, the wars, poverty, love and pain he's been through. He keeps painting the water drops, over and over, with an attempt to erase the pains and to look for absolute transparency, absolute withering, until he reaches a spiritual state of emptiness. "The process of painting the water drops is to filter, to dissolve all the impurities out of them and return them to a clear state of nothing. When all the rage, anxiety, and fear come to the moment of nothing, we reach a state of peace and comfort." To Kim, the pure clean water drop is a consolation, a remedy for himself, seeking, not forgetting, peace, forgiveness, and reflection between now and the past. Regardless of single drops or in groups, the water drops of Kim Tschang-yeul are sprinkled non-uniformly upon the canvas of sleek or rough surface. It is as if they are falling off the canvas, or they are absorbed by the canvas but afloat, or it is that they are pulled out of the canvas by gravity. And a ray of light gleams from the side, slightly gliding through the isolated water drops, reflecting their crystal clarity. The water drops give the extremely realistic impression made out of fiction, enticing people to touch them. Time also finds its own refraction in the water drops with enormous layers and transparency: every temporary moment that doesn't seem to be is actually permanent existence. How we captures the flashes of our creative mind determines how insightful that particular piece of memory unfolds to us. Kim Tschang-yeul is convinced that he shall make water drops the thematic subject of his painting career, for which he does with such care, details, and joy of art in everyday life, so much so that it paves the way to art for him. By 1972, new Waterdrops works revealed a substantial conceptual shift as opposed to the Phenomenon series which appeared to visualize the quality of existence. Water drop on his canvas was no longer alone. The number of water drops radically increases in all sizes, which turns reality into beauty and reflects the lightness of life and the wonder of existence.

Kim had lived abroad for many years, in the 1980s, he recalled reading and practicing writing when he was a child. Kim decided to draw positive texts from Thousand Character Classic, or deconstruct Chinese letters to compose together with water drops and created the new series Recurrence. It is a return to Kim's cultural origin as well as the origin of his life; it is also a struggle over the reality and illusion of time and space. By the 1990s, Kim began to paint water drops on wooden boards and newspapers like Le Monde, too, actively exploring new media and techniques for his works. In the other hand, he also makes several pieces of works in sculpture, with iron, bronze, or rock as the base, and with glass for water drops as the installation. Kim persists in pushing for extremely refined changes in plasticity as well as exploring the multiple aesthetic values of water. With his personal life force as well as his simple strokes and plain arrangement in the frame, Kim paints what his mind envisions. In this inner world, with all its moments, intervals, stillness and motions, rests a sophisticated life that opens to the universe through the strokes. No matter if it is his Waterdrops from the 1970s or Recurrence of the 1980s and 1990s, Kim structures countless highly realistic water drops in the abstract space. And, with the impermanence of time by which he contemplates, Kim expresses the immensity and nothingness of nirvana and ever-flowing life.

He has said that, "my waterdrops paintings are accomplished under the encounters of my life experiences and my plasticizing experiences." Each clear, impeccable water drop is in its initial state since purification, as if it is a recurrence of absolute nothingness; the water drop is also what it finally returns to."


Kim Tschang Yeul Museum[edit]

In 2016, the Kim Tschang-Yeul Museum of Art opened in Jeju, Jejudo island, South Korea, to honor the artist. [4] [5]

Solo Exhibitions[edit]

A Communion of Beads, Pearl Lam Galleries, Hong Kong, China (2017)

Traces of Beads, Metaphysical Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan (2017);

Galerie Baudoin Lebon, Paris, France (2016);

Galerie 75 Faubourg - Galerie Enrico Navarra, Paris, France (2016);

Gwangju Museum of Art, Gwangju, Korea (2014);

National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan (2012);

Busan Museum of Art, Busan, Korea (2009);

National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China (2006);

Gallery Hyundai, Seoul (2004);

Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris (2004);

Draguignan Museum, Drauignan, France (1997);

Sonje Museum of Contemporary Art, Korea (1994);

Kongkan Gallery, Pusan, Korea (1994);

SAGA (Matsumura Graphics, Tokyo), Paris (1993);

The National Museum of Contemporary Art, Korea (1993);

Chicago International Art Exposition, Gallery Hyundai, Chicago (1989);

Naviglio Gallery, Milan, Italy (1987);

Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo (1983);

Antwerp Gallery, Antwerp, Belgium (1977);

Kunsthaus, Hamburg, Germany (1975);

Knoll International, Paris (1973).

Exhibitions[edit]

2015: Primus Sensus, Galerie Pont des Arts, Seoul, Korea

Onyang Museum, Ansan, Korea

Gwangju Museum of Art, Gwangju, Korea

Korean Abstract Painting, GALLERY HYUNDAI, Seoul, Korea

2014: Kim Tschang-Yeul, Jeju Museum of Art, Jeju

Kim Tschang-Yeul, Gwangju Museum of Art, Gwangju

Masters of Korean Art, Seoul Museum, Seoul, Korea

Botero, Ufan Lee, Tschang-Yeul Kim, Galerie Bhak, Seoul, Korea

Like Cow Walks : Slowly, Steadily, and Far Away, Seoul Museum, Seoul, Korea

Kim Tschang-Yeul & John Bae, Konjiam Gallery, Kyunggi, Korea

The Artistic Spirits of Modern Artists on Paper, GALLERY HYUNDAI, Seoul, Korea

2013: Kim Tschang-Yeul, GALLERY HYUNDAI, Seoul

Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taiwan

2012: Pohang Museum of Steel Art, Pohang, Korea

Working with Nature, Park Ryu Sook Gallery, Seoul, Korea

2011: Beyond the Blue, GALLERY HYUNDAI, Seoul, Korea

Lee Hwaik Gallery, Seoul, Korea

2010: Kim Tschang-Yeul: Recurrence, GALLERY HYUNDAI, Seoul

2010 In the Midst of the Korean Contemporary Art, GALLERY HYUNDAI, Seoul, Korea

2009: Busan Museum of Art, Busan

Korean Monochrome, Wellside Gallery, Shanghai, China

2008: Pyo Gallery LA, Los Angeles

Baudoin Ledon Gallery, Paris

Valerie Bach Gallery, Brussel, Belgium

Contemporary Korean Artists in Paris, Seoul Arts Center, Seoul, Korea

Kim Tschang-Yeul & Nam June Paik, GALLERY HYUNDAI, Seoul, Korea

Korean Contemporary Artists, Singapore Art Museum, Singapore

2007: Kim Tschang-Yeul, GALLERY HYUNDAI, Seoul

Seoul Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea

2006: Kongkan Gallery, Busan

Pyo Gallery Beijing, Beijing

Where, in What Form, Shall We Meet Again, GALLERY HYUNDAI, Seoul, Korea

Masters and Leading Artists of Korean Contemporary Art, Lee Hwaik Gallery, Seoul, Korea

2005: Kim Tschang-Yeul, Galerie Bhak, Seoul

The National Museum of China, China

Korean Contemporary 20 Artists, GALLERY HYUNDAI, Seoul, Korea

Guimet Museum of Asian Art, Paris, France

2004: Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris, France

Painting in Korea-Yesterday and Today, Seoul Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea

2002: Work on Paper by 4 Korean Artists, Gallery Bijutsu Sekai, Tokyo, Japan

2001: L’art à la plage, Saint-Tropez, Gallery Enrico Navarra, Paris, France

Monochrome Painting in Korea, Korea Art Gallery, Busan, Korea

KCAF, Hangaram Art Museum, Seoul, Korea

2000: Gallery HYUNDAI/ Galerie BHAK, Seoul, Korea

Navy Pier, Gallery BHAK, Seoul, Chicago, IL

Gallery BHAK, Seoul, Cologne, Germany

Gallery BHAK, Seoul, Tokyo, Japan

1999: Andrew Shire Gallery, Los Angeles, CA

1998: Gallery MMG, Tokyo, Japan

Sakamoto Zenzo Museum of Art, Kumamoto, Japan

1996: Enrico Navarra Gallery, Paris, France

1994: Sonje Museum of Contemporary Art, Gyeongju, Korea

1993: National Museum of Contemporary Art, Seoul, Korea

1992: Tate Gallery, Liverpool, UK

1957–1991: Staempfli Gallery, New York, NY

1989 Kasahara Gallery, Osaka, Japan

1988: Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo, Japan

Seibu Contemporary Art Gallery, Tokyo, Japan

1979: Hyundai Gallery, Seoul, Korea

1978: Staempfli Gallery, New York, NY

Gallery Takagi, Nagoya, Japan

1976: Hyundai Gallery, Seoul, Korea

Participated at the Salon de Mai, Paris

1975: INKO Arts, Galerie Sprick, Bochum, Rome, Italy

Kunsthaus, Hamburg, Germany

1968: Exhibited at the 8th São Paulo Biennale

1961: Exhibited at the 2nd Paris Biennale

Selected Group Exhibitions[edit]

2015 MMCA Collection Highlights: Untitled, National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, Korea

2013 A Moment of Truth, Hansol Museum, Wonju, Korea

2012 Thoughts in Korean Modern Art, Pohang Museum of Steel Art, Pohang, Korea

2011 Qi is Full, Daegu Art Museum, Daegu, Korea

2010 Portrait of the Korean War, Museum of Art at Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

Korean Avant-Garde Drawing, Soma Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea

OFF the WALL, Clayarch Gimhae Museum, Gimhae, Korea

2009 Beginning the New Era, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Seoul, Korea

Art & Chinese Character, Gallery Yookgongsa, Busan, Korea

The Colour of Nature—Monochrome Art in Korea, Wellside Gallery, Shanghai, China

2008 Recomposition of the Works, Gyeongi Do Museum of Art, Ansan, Korea

Korean Contemporary Art Show, Singapore Art Museum, Singapore, Singapore

Contemporary Korean Artists in Paris, Seoul Art Center, Seoul, Korea

In Memory of Moon Mi Aie, Whanki Museum, Seoul, Korea

2007 Writing Paintings, Painting Words, Seoul Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea

Poetry in Motion, Galerie Beyeler, Basel, Switzerland

2006 Kim Whan-Ki, Kim Tschang-Yeul, Lee U-Fan, 1970–1980: Where, in What Form, Shall We Meet Again, Gallery Hyundai, Seoul, Korea

2005 Poem of Indian Ink, Guimet Museum of Asian Art, Paris, France

2004 Painting in Korea—Yesterday and Today, Seoul Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea

2002 Work on Paper by 4 Korean Artists, Gallery Bijutsu Sekai, Tokyo, Japan

2001 L’art à la plage (Art at the Beach), Saint-Tropez, Gallery Enrico Navarra, Paris, France

Monochrome Painting in Korea, Korea Art Gallery, Busan, Korea

Korean Contemporary Art Festival (KCAF), Hangaram Art Museum, Seoul, Korea

2000 Gwangju Biennale 2000 Special Exhibition, The Facet of Korean and Japanese Contemporary Art, Gwangju Museum of Art, Gwangju, Korea

1999 L’art à la plage, Saint-Tropez, Gallery Enrico Navarra, Paris, France

1998 Les peintres du silence, Museum of Art and History, Monbliéard, France

1997 Made in France, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

1996 Letter and Images, Hanlim Museum, Tae-Jeon, Korea

1994 L’art à la plage, Gallery Enrico Navarra, Paris, France

1992 Working with Nature: Traditional Thought in Contemporary Art from Korea, Tate Liverpool, Liverpool, England

Ecole de Seoul, Kwanhoon Gallery, Seoul, Korea

Hangul, Seoulim Gallery, Seoul, Korea

1991 Ecole de Seoul, Kwanhoon Gallery, Seoul, Korea

1990 Ecole de Seoul, Kwanhoon Gallery, Seoul, Korea

1989 Ecole de Seoul, Kwanhoon Gallery, Seoul, Korea

1988 Olympiad of Art: The International Contemporary Painting Exhibition (sponsored by Seoul Olympic Organising Committee).National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, Korea

Contemporary Art and the Olympics: Exhibition of Official Fine Art Posters & Lithographs of the 24th Olympiad Seoul 1988, Lloyd Shin Gallery, Seoul, Korea

1987 Ecole de Seoul, Kwanhoon Gallery, Seoul, Korea

1986 Seoul-Paris, Press Center, Seoul, Korea and Center National des Arts Plastiques, Paris, France

Korean Art Today, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, Korea

1985 Human Documents ’84/’85, Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo, Japan

1984 Korean Contemporary Fine Arts Exhibition—The Stream of the ’70s, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

Art Today, Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan

1983 Korean Contemporary Arts Exhibition—The Latter Half of the ’70s: An Aspect, Tokyo, Osaka,

Sapporo, Utsunomiya, Fukuoka, Japan

1982 Korean Contemporary Art Phase, Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, Kyoto, Japan

Works on Paper in Korea and Japan, National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Seoul, Korea; travelled to Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, Kyoto; The Museum of Modern Art, Saitama; and Kumamoto

Traditional Crafts Center, Kumamoto, Japan

1981 Dealers Eyes, Long Island Museum, New York, USA

Korean Drawing Now, Brooklyn Museum, New York, USA

1980 Asian Artists Exhibition Part 2, Fukuoka Art Museum, Fukuoka, Japan

Festival: Contemporary Asian Art Show, Fukuoka Art Museum, Fukuoka, Japan

Faculty Choices, Albany Museum, New York, USA

Salon des grands et jeunes d’aujourd’hui, Grand Palais, Paris, France

1979 Reality of Illusion Traveling Exhibition, Denver Art Museum, Denver, USA

1977 15th Biennale of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Korea: Facet of Contemporary Art, Tokyo Central Museum, Tokyo, Japan

Korean Modern Painting, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan

1976 Aspect of Realism, Winnipeg Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Canada

1975 Salon de Mai, Paris, France

1974 Salon de Mai, Paris, France

1973 Salon de Mai, Paris, France

Salon des Réalitiés Nouvelles, Paris, France

12th Biennale of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

1972 Salon de Mai, Paris, France

50 Paintings of Salon de Mai de Paris, Yugoslavia

Festival International de la Peinture (International Painting Festival), Cagnes-sur-Mer, France

8th Prints Biennale of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

4 Painters Exhibition, Museum of Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France

1971 Korean Contemporary Painting Exhibition, Paris, France

1969 Avant-Garde Festival, New York, USA

1965 8th Biennale de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

1962–64 The Actuel Exhibition, Shinsegae Art Hall, Seoul, Korea

1961 The 2nd Biennale de Paris, Paris, France

Selected Public Collections[edit]

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, USA

Aqua Museum 104°, Shimane, Japan

Art Center Nabi, Seoul, Korea

Bochum Museum Art Collection, Bochum, Germany

Busan City Museum of Art, Busan, Korea

Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

Daejeon Museum of Art, Daejeon, Korea

Daegu Art Museum, Daegu, Korea

Daelim Museum, Seoul, Korea

Fondation Veranneman, Ghent, Belgium

Fukuoka Art Museum, Fukuoka, Japan

Fundació Stämpfli, Sitges, Barcelona, Spain

Gwangju Museum of Art, Gwangju, Korea

Hakodate Museum, Hokkaido, Japan

Hansol Museum, Wonju, Korea

Hiroshima Contemporary Museum of Art, Hiroshima, Japan

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C., USA

Ho-Am Art Museum, Yongin, Korea

Iwaki City Art Museum, Iwaki, Japan

Leeum, Samsung Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea

Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, USA

Museum of Fine Arts, Gifu, Japan

Museum of Modern Art, Saitama, Japan

Museum of Oriental Art, Cologne, Germany

Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA

National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, Korea

National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, Japan

Niigata Prefectual Museum of Modern Art, Niigata, Japan

Ohara Museum of Art, Kurashiki, Japan

Seoul Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea

Seoul National University Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea

Shimonoseki City Museum of Art, Shimonoseki, Japan

Sonjae Museum of Contemporary Art, Gyeongju, Korea

Sunkyung Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea

Takamatsu City Museum of Art, Takamatsu, Japan

Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan

Walker Hill Art Center, Seoul, Korea

Winnipeg Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Canada

Selected Publications[edit]

2009 Morgan, Robert C., Kim Tschang-Yeul: The Paradox of Meaning, PYO Gallery, Seoul (in English and Korean).

2008 Sergeant, Philippe, Kim Tschang-Yeul, Éditions de la Différence, Paris (in French and Korean).

2002 Barrière, Gérard, Kim Tschang-Yeul, Galerie Bhak, Seoul (in French and Korean).

2000 Restany, Pierre, “A Bit of the Comet’s Coma”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Gallery Hyundai, Seoul (in French).

Restany, Pierre, Kim Tschang-Yeul, Galerie Bhak, Seoul (in English and Korean).

1998 Chiba, Shigeo, “Like Play, Also Like a God”, Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo (brochure).

Shioda, Junichi, “A Word About Kim’s Paintings: The Waterdrops and the Kanji Characters”, in Tschang Yeul Kim: Water Drops—Play and Prayer, Sakamoto Zenzo Museum of Art, Kumamoto (in English and Japanese).

Masuda, Ryoske, “Entretien”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul: Water Drops—Play and Prayer, Sakamoto Zenzo Museum of Art, Kumamoto.

1997 Matheson, John, Kim Tschang-Yeul, Antwerp Gallery, Anvers (in English, Flemish, and French) Byong-Kwan, Jeung, “Notes Verbales”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Galerie Bhak/Gallery Hyundai, Seoul (in English and Korean).

1994 Byong-Kwan, Jeung, “The Artist’s Avant-Garde Spirit Seen from the Transition of the Waterdrops”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul: Waterdrops, Sonje Museum of Contemporary Art, Kyongju, pp7–12 (in English and Korean).

Tae-Sung, Kang, “Transformation of the World of Water, Waterdrops”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul:

Waterdrops, Sonje Museum of Contemporary Art, Kyongju, pp13–21 (in English and Korean).

1993 Lee, Yil, “Kim Tschang-Yeul’s ‘Water Drops’ oeuvre and its path”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, pp48–60 (in English and Korean).

Cohen, Ronny, Kim Tschang-Yeul, Hudson Hills Press, New York.

Kyong-Soo, Lee, “Literature on Water Drops”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, pp30–37 (in English), pp25–29 (in Korean).

Cyroulnik, Philippe, “Kim Tschang-Yeul”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, pp73–75 (in French and Korean).

Oh, Kwang-Soo, “Kim Tschang-Yeul’s ‘Drops of Water’ as the Essence of Consciousness”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, pp30–37 (in English and Korean).

Restany, Pierre, “The Other Place”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, pp25–29 (in French and Korean).

Bosquet, Alain, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, pp115–119 (in French and Korean).

Barrière, Gérard, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Galerie Enrico Navarra, Paris, pp11–27 (in French and Korean).

Barrière, Gérard, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Gallery Hyundai, Seoul, pp28–38 (in French, English, and Korean).

Cohen, Ronny, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Seoul, pp61–71 (in English and Korean).

Cohen, Ronny, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Galerie Enrico Navarra, Paris, pp69–78 (in French and English).

Cohen, Ronny, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Gallery Hyundai, Seoul, pp102–116 (in French, English, and Korean).

Byong-Kwan, Jeung, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Seoul, pp77–95 (in French and Korean).

Kwang-Soo, Oh, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Gallery Hyundai, Seoul, pp7–12 (in English and Korean).

Restany, Pierre, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Galerie Enrico Navarra, Paris, pp7–10 (in French and English).

Restany, Pierre, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Gallery Hyundai, Seoul, pp17–25 (in French, English, and Korean).

Ufan, Lee, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, pp97–105 (in English and Korean).

Matheson, John, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, pp107–113 (in English and Korean).

Barrière, Gérard, “Notes on Kim Tschang-Yeul or The Universe After the Rain”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, pp38–47 (in French and Korean).

1991 Cohen, Ronny, “Introduction”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Sigma Gallery/Staempfli Gallery, New York (in English).

Yil, Lee, “Kim Tschang-Yeul’s 1000 Characters and Water Drops”, Inkong Gallery, Daegu (brochure in Korean).

Yil, Lee, Kongkan Gallery, Busan (catalogue in Korean).

1988 Yil, Lee, “Kim Tschang-Yeul and a Water Drop”, Gallery Hyundai, Seoul (brochure in Korean), Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo (in Japanese).

Moriguchi, Akira, “Kim Tschang-Yeul—Luminous and Fresh Paintings”, in Tschang-Yeul Kim, Seibu Contemporary Art Gallery, Tokyo (in Japanese).

1987 Wolff, Theodore F., “Tschang-Yeul Kim”, Staempfli Gallery, New York (brochure in English).

1983 Yil, Lee, “This is Not a Water Drop”, Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo (brochure in Japanese).

1979 Bosquet, Alain, “The Waterdrops of Kim”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Staempfli Gallery, New York, pp30–37 (in French and English).

Byong-Kwan, Jeung, “Painting of Another Genre”, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Staempfli Gallery, New York, pp8–27 (in French and English).

Ufan, Lee, “Entre l’idée et la matière” (“Between the Idea and the Material”), in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Staempfli Gallery, New York, pp38–39 (in French and English).

Matheson, John, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Staempfli Gallery, New York, pp48–55 (in French and English).

Staempfli, George W., “Introduction” in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Staempfli Gallery, New York, pp6–7 (in French and English).

1978 Ufan, Lee, “Fra l’idea e la material” (“Between the Idea and the Material”), Galleria del Naviglio, Milan (in Italian).

Staempfli, George W., Staempfli Gallery, New York (brochure in English).

1976 Bosquet, Alain, “Les gouttes de Kim” (“The Drops of Kim”) in T. Kim, Gallery Hyundai, Seoul (in French and Korean).

Yil, Lee, “To Brother Tschang-Yeul”, in T. Kim, Gallery Hyundai, Seoul (in French and Korean). Nakahara, Yusuke, Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo (brochure in Japanese).

1974 Bosquet, Alain, “Die Wassertropfen von Kim” (“The Water Drops of Kim”), Galerie Sprick, Bochum (in German).

Bosquet, Alain, “20 gouttes d’eau pour Kim” (20 poemes) (“20 Water Drops by Kim”, 20 poems) in Kim, Gouttes d’eau (Kim, Water Drops), Galerie Engelberts, Geneva.

1973 Leuwers, Daniel and Ryoske Masuda, Knoll International, Paris (brochure).

Pre-1973 Yil, Lee, Kasahara Gallery, Osaka (brochure in Japanese).

Matheson, John, “Merely Drops of Water?”

Restany, Pierre, in Kim Tschang-Yeul, Galerie Bhak, Seoul (in English and Korean).

Lewis Biggs. Working with Nature: Traditional Thought in Contemporary Art from Korea: Chung, Chang-Sup; Yun, Hyong-Keun; Kim, Tschang-Yeul; Park, Seo-Bo;

Lee, U-Fan; Lee, Kang-So.este señor a creado en sus dibujos el relieve

Ronny Cohen. Tschang Yeul Kim.

Writings by the Artist[edit]

1962 “My Vision”, Taehan Ilbo, Seoul, 1 January 1962.

1960 “Note”, Hanguk Ilbo, Seoul, 24 January 1960.

1960 “The Problem of 30 Years”, Segye Ilbo, Seoul, 31 May 1960.

1960 “The Advance of the Avant-Garde”, Jayu Munhak, Seoul, December 1960.

1958 “Secret Words”, Hanguk Ilbo, Seoul, 11 January 1958.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ronny Cohen: Tschang Yeul Kim.
  2. ^ Kim Ho-jeong (김호정). "김창열 (Gim Chang-yeol)" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. 
  3. ^ "Kim Tschang Yeul Art Museum". http://kimtschang-yeul.jeju.go.kr/kimArt/en/mainView.do.  External link in |website= (help);
  4. ^ Youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j6hLTUGWt7Q. Retrieved 31 March 2017.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ Youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VAdkpU1kASI. Retrieved 31 March 2017.  Missing or empty |title= (help)

External links[edit]