Refugee camp

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For the 1996 reggae album, see Refugee Camp - Bootleg Versions.
Refugee camp (located in present-day eastern Congo-Kinshasa) for Rwandans following the Rwandan Genocide of 1994.
A camp in Guinea for refugees from Sierra Leone.
Nahr el-Bared, Palestinian refugee camp in North Lebanon in 2005.
Mitzpe Ramon, development camp for Jewish refugees, southern Israel, 1957

A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations. Refugee camps usually accommodate displaced persons who have fled their home country, but there are also camps for internally displaced persons. Usually refugees seek asylum after they escaped war in their home countries, but some camps also house environmental- and economic migrants. Camps with over a hundred thousand people are common, but as of 2012 the average-sized camp housed around 11,400.[1] They are usually built and run by a government, the United Nations, international organizations (such as the International Committee of the Red Cross), or NGOs. There are also unofficial refugee camps, like Idomeni in Greece or the Calais jungle in France, where refugees are largely left without support of governments or international organizations.[2]

Refugee camps generally develop in an impromptu fashion with the aim of meeting basic human needs for only a short time. Facilities that make a camp look or feel more permanent are often prohibited by host country governments. If the return of refugees is prevented (often by civil war), a humanitarian crisis can result or continue.

According to UNHCR, the majority of refugees worldwide do not live in refugee camps. At the end of 2015, some 67 per cent of refugees around the world lived in individual, private accommodations.[3] This can be partly explained by the high number of Syrian refugees renting apartments in urban agglomerations across the Middle East. Worldwide, slightly over a quarter (25.4%) of refugees was reported to be living in planned/managed camps. At the end of 2015, about 56 per cent of the total refugee population in rural locations resided in a planned/managed camp, compared with 2 per cent who resided in individual accommodation. In urban locations, the overwhelming majority (99 per cent) of refugees lived in individual accommodations, compared with less than 1 per cent who lived in a planned/managed camp. A small percentage of refugees also live in collective centers, transit camps and in self-settled camps.[4]

Facilities[edit]

The average camp size is recommended by the UNHCR to be 45 sqm per person of accessible camp area. Within this area the following facilities can usually be found:[5][6]

  • An administrative headquarters to coordinate services (this may be outside the actual camp).
  • Sleeping accommodations are frequently tents, prefabricated huts, or dwellings constructed of locally available materials. The UNHCR recommends a minimum of 3.5 sqm of covered living area per person. There should be at least 2m between shelters.
  • Gardens attached to the family plot. The UNHCR recommends a plot size of 15 sqm per person.
  • Hygiene facilities, such as washing areas, latrines or toilets. UNHCR recommends one shower per 50 persons and one communal latrine per 20 persons. Distance for the latter should be no more than 50m from shelter and not closer than 6m. Showers should be separated by gender.
  • Places for water collection: either water tanks where water is off-loaded from trucks (then filtered and potentially treated with disinfectant chemicals such as chlorine), or water tap stands that are connected to boreholes. UNHCR recommends 20 litres of water per person and one tap stand per 80 persons that should be no farther than 200m away from households.
  • One 100 litre rubbish container should be provided per 50 persons and one refuse pit per 500 persons.
  • Clinics, hospitals and immunization centres: UNHCR recommends one health centre per 20,000 persons and one referral hospital per 200,000 persons.
  • Food distribution and therapeutic feeding centres: UNHCR recommends one food distribution centre per 5,000 persons and one feeding centre per 20,000 persons.
  • Communication equipment (e.g. radio). Some long-standing camps have their own radio stations.
  • Security, including protection from banditry (e.g. barriers and security checkpoints) and peacekeeping troops to prevent armed violence. Police stations may be outside the actual camp.
  • Schools and training centers: UNHCR recommends one school per 5,000 persons.
  • Markets and shops: UNHCR recommends one market place per 20,000 persons.

Schools and markets may be prohibited by the host country government in order to discourage refugees from settling permanently in camps. Many refugee camps also have:

  • Cemeteries or crematoria
  • Locations for solid waste disposal.
  • Reception or transit centre where refugees initially arrive and register before they are allowed into the camp. Reception centres are usually far away from the camps and closer to the border of the country where refugees come from.
  • Churches or other religious centers or places of worship[7]

In order to understand and monitor an emergency over a period of time, the development and organisation of the camps can be tracked by satellite[8] and analyzed via GIS.[9][10]

Arrival[edit]

Most new arrivals travel distances of up to 500 km by foot. The journey can be very dangerous, e.g. wild animals, armed bandits or militias, landmines. Some refugees are supported by IOM, some use smugglers. A large part of the new arrivals usually suffer from acute malnutrition and dehydration. There can be long queues outside the reception centres and waiting times of up to two months are possible. People outside the camp are not entitled to official support (but refugees from inside may support them). Some locals sell water or food for excessive prices and make large profits with it. It is not uncommon that some die whilst waiting outside the reception centre. They stay in the reception centre until their refugee status is approved and the degree of vulnerability assessed. This usually takes two weeks. They are then taken, usually by bus, to the camp. New arrivals are registered, fingerprinted and interviewed by the host country government and the UNHCR. Health and nutrition screenings follow. Those who are extremely malnourished will be taken to therapeutic feeding centres and the sick to hospital. Men and women receive counselling separate from each other to determine their needs. After registration they are given food rations (until that only biscuits), receive ration cards (the primary marker of refugee status), soap, jerry cans, kitchen sets, sleeping mats, plastic tarpaulins to build shelters (some get tents). Leaders from the refugee community may provide further support to the new arrivals.

Housing and sanitation[edit]

Residential plots are allocated (e.g. 10m x12 m for a family of 4 to 7 people). Shelters may sometimes be built by refugees themselves with locally available materials, but aid agencies may supply materials or even prefabricated housing.[11] Shelters are frequently very close to each other, and many families frequently share a single dwelling, rendering privacy for couples nonexistent. Camps may have communal unisex pit latrines shared by many households, but aid agencies may provide improved sanitation facilities.[12] Household pit latrines may be built by families themselves. Latrines may not always be kept sufficiently clean and disease-free. In some areas there is limited space for new pits. Each refugee is supposed to receive around 20 liters of water a day. However, many have to survive on much less than that (some may get as little as 8 litres per day).[13] There may be a high number of persons per usable tap stand (against a standard number of one per 80 persons). Drainage of water from bathroom and kitchen use may be poor and garbage may be disposed in a haphazard fashion. There may be few or no sanitary facilities accessible for people with disabilities. Poor sanitation may lead to outbreaks of infectious disease, and rainy season flooding of latrine pits increases the risk of infection.[14]

Food rations[edit]

The World Food Programme (WFP) provides food rations twice a month: 2,100 calories/person/day. Ideally it should be:

  • 9 oz. (255 g) whole grain (maize or sorghum)
  • 7 oz. (198 g) milled grain (wheat flour)
  • 1.5 tablespoons vegetable oil
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 3 tablespoons pulses (beans or lentils)

Diet is insensitive to cultural differences and household needs. WFP is frequently unable to provide all of these staples, thus calories are distributed through whatever commodity is available, e.g. only maize flour. Up to 80 or 90% of the refugees sell part or most of their food ration to get cash. Loss of the ration card means no entitlement to food. In 2015 the WFP introduced electronic vouchers.

Economy, work and income[edit]

Research found that if enough aid is provided, the refugees' stimulus effects can boost the host countries economy.[15] The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has a policy of helping refugees work and be productive, using their existing skills to meet their own needs and needs of the host country, to:

"Ensure the right of refugees to access work and other livelihood opportunities as they are available for nationals... Match programme interventions with corresponding levels of livelihood capacity (existing livelihood assets such as skills and past work experience) and needs identified in the refugee population, and the demands of the market... Assist refugees in becoming self-reliant. Cash / food / rental assistance delivered through humanitarian agencies should be short-term and conditional and gradually lead to self-reliance activities as part of longer-term development... Convene internal and external stakeholders around the results of livelihood assessments to jointly identify livelihood support opportunities."[16]

However, refugee hosting countries do not usually follow this policy and instead do not allow refugees to work legally. In many countries the only option is either to work for a small incentive (with NGOs based in the camp) or to work illegally with no rights and often bad conditions. In some camps it is accepted that refugees set up their own businesses. Some refugees even became rich with that. Those without a job or without relatives and friends who send remittances, need to sell parts of their food rations to get cash. As support does not usually provide cash effective demand may not be created[17]

Refugee tents at Arbat Transit Camp for Syrian Refugees in Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan, March 2014.

The main markets of bigger camps usually offer electronics, groceries, hardware, medicine, food, clothing, and cosmetics, and services such as prepared food (restaurants, coffee–tea shops), laundry, internet and computer access, banking, electronic repairs and maintenance, and education. Some traders specialize in buying food rations from refugees in small quantities and selling them in large quantities to merchants outside the camp. Many refugees buy in small quantities because they don’t have enough money to buy normal sizes, i.e. the goods are put in smaller packages and sold for a higher price.[citation needed]

Camp structure[edit]

According to UNHCR vocabulary a refugee camp consists of: settlements, sectors, blocks, communities and families. 16 families make up a community, 16 communities make up a block, four blocks make up a sector and four sectors are called a settlement. A large camp may consist of several settlements.[6] Each block elects a community leader to represent the block. Settlements and markets in bigger camps are often arranged according to nationalities, ethnicities, tribes and clans of their inhabitants, such as at Dadaab and Kakuma.

Democracy and justice[edit]

Elected refugee community leaders are contact point within the community, for both community members and aid agencies. They mediate and negotiate to resolve problems, and liaise with refugees, UNHCR and other NGOs. Refugees are expected to convey their concerns, messages or reports of crimes, etc. through their community leaders and are therefore considered to be part of the disciplinary machinery. Many refugees mistrust them and there are allegations of aid agencies bribing them. Community leaders can decide what a crime is and thus whether it is reported to Police or other agencies and they can potentially use their position to marginalize those refugees from minority clans.[18] Refugees have been allowed to establish their own 'court' system which is funded by charities. Elected community leaders and the elders of the communities provide an informal kind of jurisdiction in refugee camps. They preside over these courts and are allowed to pocket the fines they impose. Refugees are left without legal remedies against abuses and can’t appeal against their own ‘courts’.

Security[edit]

Security of a refugee camp is usually the responsibility of the host country and is provided by the military or local police. The UNHCR only provides legal protection. However, local police or the legal system of the camp-hosting countries are not usually responsible or also not willing to get involved in things that happen inside the camps. In many camps refugees create their own patrolling systems as police protection is insufficient. Most camps are enclosed with barbed wire fence. This is not only for the protection of the refugees, but also to avoid that refugees move freely or interact with the local people.

Refugee camps may sometimes serve as headquarters for the recruitment, support and training of guerilla organizations engaged in fighting in the refugees' area of origin; such organizations often use humanitarian aid to supply their troops.[19] Rwandan refugee camps in Zaire[20] and Cambodian refugee camps in Thailand[21] supported armed groups until their destruction by local military forces.

Refugee camps are also places where terror attacks, bombings, militia attacks, stabbings and shootings take place and abductions of aid workers are not unheard of. The police can also play a role in attacks on refugees.

Health and health care[edit]

Due to crowding and lack of infrastructure, some refugee camps can become unhygienic, leading to a high incidence of infectious diseases, including epidemics. Some refugees avoid the hospital because of traditional myths about modern medicine. Outreach workers make visits from tent to tent in order to offer medical assistance to any ill and malnourished refugees. Vulnerable persons who have difficulties accessing services are supported through individual case management and home. Common illnesses are malaria, cholera, jaundice, hepatitis, measles, meningitis and malnutrition.[citation needed]

Freedom of movement[edit]

Once admitted to a camp, refugees usually do not have freedom to move about the country but are required to obtain Movement Passes from the UNHCR and the host country government. Yet informally many refugees are mobile and travel between cities and the camps, or otherwise making use of networks or technology in maintaining these links. Due to widespread corruption in public service there is a grey area that creates space for refugees to manoeuvre. Many refugees in the camps, given the opportunity, try to make their way to cities. Some refugee elites even rotate between the camp and the city, or rotate periods in the camp with periods elsewhere in the country in family networks, sometimes with another relative in a Western country that contributes financially. Refugee camps may serve as a safety net for people who go to cities or who attempt to return to their countries of origin. Some refugees marry nationals so that they can bypass the police rules regarding movements out of the camps. It is a lucrative side-business for many police officers working the area around the camps to have many unofficial roadblocks and to target refugees travelling outside the camps who must pay bribes to avoid deportation.[citation needed]

Duration and durable solutions[edit]

Although camps are intended to be a temporary solution, some of them exist for decades. Some Palestinian refugee camps exist since 1948, camps for Eritreans in Sudan (such as the Shagarab camp) exist since 1968,[22] the Sahrawi refugee camps in Algeria exist since 1975, camps for Burmese in Thailand (such as the Mae La refugee camp) exist since 1986, Buduburam in Ghana since 1990, or Dadaab and Kakuma in Kenya since 1991 and 1992, respectively. In fact “protracted refugee situations now account for the vast majority of the world’s refugee population”.[23] The average time a refugee stays in a camp is 17 years. The longer a camp exist the lower tends to be the annual international funding and the bigger the implications for human rights.[24] Some camps grow into permanent settlements and even merge with nearby older communities, such as Ain al-Hilweh, Lebanon and Deir al-Balah, Palestine.

People may stay in these camps, receiving emergency food and medical aid, for many years and possibly even for their whole life. To prevent this the UNHCR promotes three alternatives to that:

Notable refugee camps[edit]

Darfur refugee camp in Chad

Africa[edit]

  • There are 12 camps in the east of Chad, such as Breidjing Camp. They are hosting approximately 250,000 Sudanese refugees from the Darfur region in Sudan and were opened in 2002. The other camps are Oure Cassoni, Mile, Treguine, Iridimi, Touloum, Kounoungou, Goz Amer, Farchana, Am Nabak, Gaga and Djabal.[29] Some of these camps appear in the documentary Google Darfur.
  • A number of camps in the south of Chad - such as Dosseye, Kobitey, Mbitoye, Danamadja, Sido, Doyaba and Djako - are hosting approximately 113,000 refugees from Central African Republic.[30]
  • There are a number of camps in Uganda, such as Nakivale, Kayaka II, Kyangwali and Rwamwanja. They host 170,000 refugees from South Sudan and the Democratic Republic Of Congo.[31]
  • There are four camps in Maban County in South Sudan hosting Sudanese refugees. Yusuf Batil camp is home to 37,000 refugees, Doro camp to 44,000, Jamam camp hosts 20,000 refugees and Gendrassa camp 10,000.[32]
  • Buduburam refugee camp in Ghana, home to more than 12,000 Liberians[33] (opened 1990)
  • Dadaab refugee camps (Ifo, Ifo II, Dagahaley, Hagadera, and Kambioos) in North Eastern Kenya, established in 1991 and now hosting more than 330,000 refugees from Somalia.[34] It is the world's largest refugee camp.[35] If taken separately, Hagadera, Dagahaley, Ifo II and Ifo were (in this order) the world's four largest camps in 2013.[36]
  • Sahrawi refugee camps near Tindouf, South Western Algeria, were opened circa 1976 and are called Laayoune, Smara, Awserd, February 27, Rabouni, Daira of Bojador and Dakhla.
  • Ras Ajdir camp, close to the Tunisian border in Libya, was opened in 2011 and is housing between 20,000 and 30,000 Libyan refugees.[37]
  • Dzaleka camp in the Dowa District of Malawi is home to 17,000 refugees from Burundi, the DRC and Rwanda.[38]
  • Nyarugusu refugee camp in Tanzania opened in 1997 and initially hosted 60.000 refugees from the DRC. Due to the recent conflicts in Burundi it also hosts 90.000 refugees from Burundi. In 2014 it was the 9th largest refugee camp.[39] However, since the conflict in Burundi it is considered one of the world's biggest and most overcrowded camps.[40]
  • Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya was opened in 1991. In 2014, it was the third largest refugee camp worldwide.[35][39] As of June 2015, Kakuma hosts 185,000 people, mostly migrants from the civil war in South Sudan.[41]
  • Bwagiriza and Gatumba refugee camps in Burundi host refugees from the DRC.
  • There are a number of camps close to Dolo Odo in southern Ethiopia, hosting refugees from Somalia.[42] In 2014 the Dolo Odo camps (Melkadida, Bokolmanyo, Buramino, Kobe Camp, Fugnido, Hilaweyn and Adiharush) were considered to be the second largest.[35][39]
  • Jomvu, Hatimy and Swaleh Nguru camps near Mombasa, Kenya, were closed in 1997. Refugees, mainly displaced people from Somalia, were either forced to relocate to Kakuma, repatriated or remunerated to voluntarily relocate into unsafe areas in Somalia.[43] Other closed camps in the area include Liboi, Oda, Walda, Thika, Utange and Marafa.
  • Hart Sheik in Ethiopia hosted more than 250,000 mostly refugees from Somalia between 1988 and 2004.
  • Itang camp in Ethiopia hosted 182,000 refugees from South Sudan and was the world's largest refugee camp for some time during the 1990s.[44]
  • Benaco and Ngara in Tanzania.
  • Kala, Meheba and Mwange camps in the northwest of Zambia host refugees from Angola and DRC.[45]
  • There are 12 camps, such as Shagarab and Wad Sharifey, in eastern Sudan. They host around 66,000 mostly Eritrean refugees, the first of whom arrived in 1968.[22]
  • Ali Addeh (or Ali Adde) and Holhol camps in Djibouti host 23,000 refugees, who are mainly from Somalia, but also Ethiopians and Eritreans.[46]
  • Osire camp in central Namibia was established in 1992 to accommodate refugees from Angola, Burundi, the DRC, Rwanda and Somalia. It had 20,000 inhabitants in 1998 and only 3,000 in 2014.
  • Lainé and Kouankan (I & II) camps in Guinea hosted nearly 29,300 refugees mostly from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Côte d'Ivoire. The number reduced to 15,000 in 2009.[47]
  • Cameroon hosted more than 240,000 UNHCR registered refugees in 2014, mainly from the Central African Republic: Minawao refugee camp in the north and Gado Badzere, Borgop, Ngam, Timangolo, Mbilé and Lolo refugee camps in the east of Cameroon.[48]
  • There are a number of camps in Rwanda that host 85,000 refugees from the DRC: Gihembe, Kigeme, Kiziba, Mugombwa and Nyabiheke camps.[49]
  • Mentao camp in Burkina Faso hosts 13,000 Malian refugees.[50]
  • PTP camp near Zwedru, Bahn camp and Little Wlebo camp in eastern Liberia is home to 12,000 refugees from Ivory Coast.[51]
  • M’Bera camp in southeastern Mauritania hosts 50,000 Malian refugees.[52]
  • Choucha camp in Tunisia hosted nearly 20,000 refugees from 13 different countries who fled from Libya in 2011. Half of them are sub-Saharan African and Arab refugees and the other half are Bangladeshis who had been working in Libya. 3,000 refugees remained the camp in 2012, 1,300 in 2013 and its closure is planned.[53]
  • Comè in Benin hosted Togolese refugees until it was closed in 2006.
  • Lazaret in Niger was the largest camp in the Sahel during the extreme drought of 1973-1975 and mainly hosted Tuareg people.
  • Tongogara camp in Zimbabwe was established for Mozambican refugees in 1984 and housed in 58,000 of them in 1994.[54]

Asia[edit]

Middle East[edit]

Europe[edit]

Nong Samet Refugee Camp on the Thai-Cambodian border, May 1984
  • Timisoara Emergency Transit Centre for refugees in Romania.[66] It can accommodate up to 200 people and provides a temporary safe haven – for up to six months – for individuals or groups who need to be evacuated immediately from life-threatening situations before being resettled.[67]
  • Sangatte camp[68] and the Calais jungle in northern France.[69]
  • The Oksbøl Refugee Camp was the largest camp for German Refugees in Denmark after World War II.
  • Traiskirchen camp in eastern Austria hosts refugees that come to Europe as part of the European migrant crisis.
  • Friedland refugee camp in Germany hosted refugees who fled from the former eastern territories of Germany at the end of World War II, between 1944 and 1950. Between 1950 and 1987 it was a transit centre for East German (GDR) citizens who wanted to flee to Germany (FRG).
  • International Refugee Organization camp at Lesum, near Bremen, Germany.
  • Kjesäter in Sweden was a refugee camp and transit centre for Norwegian refugees fleeing Nazi persecution during World War II.
  • Kløvermarken in Denmark was a refugee camp that hosted 19,000 German refugees between 1945 and 1949.
  • Vrela Ribnička refugee camp in Montenegro was built in 1994 and houses refugees of Bosnian origin who were displaced during the Yugoslav Wars.
  • Čardak was a camp in Serbia, for Serbs who fled from Croatia and Bosnia.
  • Bagnoli camp in Naples, Italy, housed up to 10,000 refugees from Eastern Europe between 1946 and 1951.

Refugee camps by country and population[edit]

Populations of concern to UNHCR in refugee camps between 2014 and 2006
Country Camp 2015 2014 [70] 2013 [71] 2012 [72] 2011 [73] 2010 [74] 2009 [75] 2008 [76] 2007 [77] 2006 [78]
Chad Am Nabak 25,553 24,513 23,611 20,395 18,087 17,402 16,696 16,701 16,504
Chad Amboko 11,819 10,719 11,297 11,627 11,111 11,671 12,057 12,002 12,062
Kenya Dagahaley, Dadaab 88,486 104,565 121,127 122,214 93,470 93,179 65,581 39,626 39,526
Chad Djabal 20,809 19,635 18,890 18,083 17,200 15,693 17,153 15,602 15,162
Yemen Al Kharaz 16,500 16,816 19,047 16,904 14,100 16,466 11,394 9,491 9,298
Chad Breidjing 41,146 39,797 37,494 35,938 34,465 32,559 32,669 30,077 28,932
Malawi Dzaleka 5,874 16,935 16,664 16,853 12,819 10,275 9,425 8,690 4,950
Chad Farchana 27,548 26,292 24,419 23,323 21,983 20,915 21,183 19,815 18,947
Kenya Hagadera, Dadaab 106,968 114,729 139,483 137,528 101,506 83,518 90,403 70,412 59,185
Sudan Girba 6,306 6,295 6,252 5,570 5,592 5,645 5,120 9,081 8,996
Chad Gondje 12,138 11,349 11,717 10,006 9,586 11,184 12,700 12,664 12,624
Kenya Ifo, Dadaab 83,750 99,761 98,294 118,972 97,610 79,424 79,469 61,832 54,157
Chad Iridimi 22,908 21,976 21,083 21,329 18,859 18,154 19,531 18,269 17,380
Kenya Kakuma 153,959 128,540 107,205 85,862 69,822 64,791 53,068 62,497 90,457
Sudan Kilo 26 8,391 8,303 8,310 7,634 7,608 7,610 7,133 12,690 11,423
Chad Kounoungou 21,960 20,876 19,143 18,251 16,927 16,237 18,514 13,500 13,315
Bangladesh Kutapalong 13,176 12,626 12,404 11,706 11,469 11,251 11,047 10,708 10,144
Thailand Mae La 46,978 25,156 26,690 27,629 29,188 30,073 32,862 38,130 46,148
Thailand Mae La Oon 12,245 8,675 9,611 10,204 11,991 13,811 13,478 13,450 14,366
Thailand Mae Ra Ma Luang 13,825 8,421 9,414 10,269 11,749 13,571 11,304 11,578 12,840
Chad Mile 21,723 20,818 19,823 18,853 17,382 14,221 17,476 16,202 15,557
Bangladesh Nayapara 19,179 18,288 18,066 17,729 17,547 17,091 17,076 16,679 16,010
Thailand Nu Po 13,372 7,927 15,715 15,982 9,262 9,800 11,113 13,377 13,131
Tanzania Nyarugusu 57,267 68,888 68,132 63,551 62,726 62,184 49,628 50,841 52,713
Chad Oure Cassoni 36,466 35,415 33,267 36,168 32,206 31,189 28,430 28,035 26,786
Ethiopia Shimelba 6,106 5,885 6,033 8,295 9,187 10,135 10,648 16,057 13,043
India Tamil Nadu 65,057 65,674 67,165 68,152 69,998 72,883 73,286 72,934 69,609
Chad Touloum 29,683 28,501 27,940 27,588 24,500 26,532 24,935 23,131 22,358
Chad Treguine 21,801 20,990 19,957 19,099 17,820 17,000 17,260 15,718 14,921
Sudan Um Gargur 10,269 10,172 8,947 8,550 8,641 8,715 8,180 10,104 9,845
Thailand Um Pium 16,109 9,816 10,581 11,017 11,742 12,494 14,051 19,397 19,464
Sudan Wad Sherife 15,357 15,318 15,472 15,481 15,819 15,626 13,636 36,429 33,371
Ethiopia Fugnido 53,218 42,044 34,247 22,692 21,770 20,202 - 18,726 27,175
Chad Gaga 24,591 23,236 22,266 21,474 19,888 19,043 20,677 17,708 12,402
Pakistan Gamkol 30,241 31,326 31,701 32,830 35,169 33,033 33,499 37,462 -
Pakistan Gandaf 12,068 12,508 12,632 13,346 12,731 12,497 12,659 13,609 -
South Sudan Gendressa 17,975 17,289 14,758 - - - - - -
Rwanda Gihembe 14,735 - 14,006 19,827 19,853 19,407 19,027 18,081 17,732
Liberia Bahn 5,257 8,412 8,851 5,021 - - - - -
Ethiopia Bambasi 14,279 13,354 12,199 - - - - - -
Pakistan Barakai 24,786 25,909 26,739 28,093 32,077 28,597 28,851 30,266 -
Ethiopia Tongo 11,075 10,399 9,518 9,605 - - - - -
Chad Yaroungou - - 11,594 10,916 10,544 11,925 16,573 13,352 15,260
South Sudan Yusuf Batil 40,240 39,033 36,754 - - - - - -
Jordan Zaatari 84,773 145,209 - - - - - - -
Pakistan Thall 12,247 12,847 12,976 13,468 15,419 15,269 15,602 17,266 -
Thailand Tham Hin 7,406 - 7,242 7,150 4,282 - 5,078 6,007 7,767
Nepal Timai - - - - 7,058 8,553 9,935 10,421 10,413
Pakistan Timer 8,690 8,603 8,665 11,161 11,764 11,839 12,080 13,919 -
Algeria Tindouf 90,000 90,000 90,000 90,000 90,000 90,000 90,000 90,000 90,000
Pakistan Old Akora 34,789 36,384 36,693 37,736 42,872 37,019 37,757 41,647 -
Pakistan Old Shamshatoo 48,268 52,835 53,573 54,502 61,205 58,804 58,773 66,556 -
Namibia Osire - - - - - 8,506 8,122 7,730 6,486
Uganda Pader - - - 6,677 38,550 90,000 196,000 - -
Pakistan Padhana 9,362 9,775 9,892 10,075 11,393 10,380 10,403 10,564 -
Pakistan Panian 53,816 56,295 56,820 58,819 67,332 61,822 62,293 65,033 -
Pakistan Pir Alizai 7,681 9,204 9,771 10,243 15,157 13,802 14,710 16,563 -
Nepal Sanischare - 6,599 9,212 10,173 13,649 16,745 20,128 21,386 21,285
Pakistan Saranan 18,248 20,744 21,218 21,927 26,786 24,119 24,272 24,625 -
Sudan Shagarab 34,039 34,147 37,428 27,809 24,104 16,562 14,990 22,706 21,999
Ethiopia Sheder 12,263 11,248 11,882 11,326 10,458 7,964 6,567 - -
Ethiopia Sherkole 10,171 9,737 7,527 8,962 - - - 8,989 13,958
Pakistan Surkhab 5,764 7,012 7,214 7,422 12,304 11,789 11,877 12,225 -
Burkina Faso Mentao 10,953 11,907 6,905 - - - - - -
Tanzania Mtabila - - - 37,554 36,789 36,009 45,247 90,680 -
Pakistan Munda 9,388 9,941 10,100 10,341 12,728 11,225 11,386 13,274 -
Burundi Musasa 7,001 6,829 6,500 6,330 6,153 6,572 5,984 6,764 -
Zambia Mwange - - - - - 5,820 14,429 17,911 21,179
Uganda Nakivale 66,691 - 64,373 - - 52,249 42,113 33,176 25,692
Pakistan New Durrani - 14,978 12,438 14,397 10,458 - - - -
Pakistan Oblan 9,015 9,294 9,331 9,474 10,065 9,560 9,624 11,564 -
Liberia PTP 15,300 12,734 9,353 - - - - - -
Uganda Rhino Camp 18,762 - 4,266 - - - 5,582 14,328 18,493
Uganda Rwamwanja 52,489 - 29,797 - - - - - -
Liberia Little Wlebbo 8,481 10,009 8,399 - - - - - -
Tanzania Lugufu - - - - - - 28,995 45,308 75,254
Tanzania Lukole - - - - - - - 25,490 39,685
Thailand Mai Nai Soi 12,414 9,725 11,730 12,244 12,252 - 19,311 19,103 -
Ethiopia Mai Ayni 17,808 18,207 15,715 14,432 12,255 15,762 - - -
Iraq Makhmour - 10,534 10,552 10,240 11,101 - 10,912 10,728 11,900
Mozambique Maratane - 7,707 7,398 9,576 6,646 - - - 5,019
Uganda Masindi - - - 6,500 20,000 55,000 55,000 - -
Zambia Mayukwayukwa - 11,366 10,117 - - 10,184 10,474 10,660 10,636
Mauritania M'bera 48,910 66,392 - - - - - - -
Zambia Meheba 8,410 17,806 17,708 - - 14,970 15,763 13,892 13,732
Ethiopia Melkadida 44,645 43,480 42,365 40,696 25,491 - - - -
Chad Abgadam 21,571 21,914 - - - - - - -
Ethiopia Adi Harush 34,090 25,801 23,562 15,982 6,923 - - - -
Uganda Adjumani 96,926 11,986 9,279 - 7,365 28,000 21,714 52,784 54,051
South Sudan Ajuong Thok 15,015 6,691 - - - - - - -
Djibouti Ali Adde 18,208 17,523 17,354 19,500 14,333 - 8,924 6,376 6,739
Uganda Amuru - - - 6,779 35,475 98,000 234,000 - -
Ethiopia Awbarre / Teferiber 12,965 13,752 13,331 13,426 13,120 12,293 11,045 8,581 -
Pakistan Azakhel 20,191 21,132 21,231 21,398 26,342 23,963 24,258 25,649 -
Jordan Azraq 11,315 - - - - - - - -
Pakistan Badaber 23,918 25,589 26,227 28,729 31,345 30,107 30,327 36,614 -
Nepal Beldangi 1 & 2 18,379 24,377 31,976 33,855 36,761 42,122 50,350 52,967 52,997
Chad Belome 26,521 23,949 - - - - - - -
Ethiopia Bokolmanyo 41,665 41,670 40,423 38,501 14,988 21,707 - - -
Ghana Buduburam - - - - - 11,334 14,992 26,179 36,159
Ethiopia Buramino 39,471 40,114 35,207 - - - - - -
Burundi Bwagiriza 9,480 9,289 10,105 6,159 4,526 2,896
Niger Abala 12,938 12,216 11,126 - - - - - -
Pakistan Chakdara 10,704 11,184 11,242 13,354 18,752 16,069 16,427 17,420 -
Kenya Ifo 2, Dadaab 52,310 65,693 69,269 64,945 - - - - -
Kenya Kambioos, Dadaab 21,035 20,435 18,126 10,833 - - - - -
Chad Dogdore - - 19,500 19,500 19,500 - - - -
South Sudan Doro 50,087 47,422 - 28,709 - - - - -
Chad Dosseye 21,522 15,766 9,922 9,724 9,433 9,607 8,556 6,158 2,277
Pakistan Girdi Jungle 17,376 22,065 22,340 22,740 31,642 29,716 29,717 29,783 -
Nepal Goldhap - - - - 4,764 6,356 8,315 9,694 9,602
Burkina Faso Goudebo 9,403 9,287 4,943 - - - - - -
Chad Goz Amer 31,477 30,105 27,091 25,841 24,608 21,449 21,640 20,097 19,261
Chad Goz Beïda - - 60,500 73,000 73,000 - - - -
Uganda Gulu - - - - 9,043 44,000 156,000 - -
Yemen Al-Mazrak - 12,416 12,308 12,075 - - - - -
Ethiopia Hilaweyn 38,890 37,305 30,960 25,747 - - - - -
Ethiopia Hitsats 33,235 10,226 - - - - - - -
Uganda Impevi - - - - - - 7,453 22,061 23,331
Niger Intikane 12,738 11,221 - - - - - - -
Sri Lanka Jaffna - - - 6,436 9,108 - - 10,522 -
Pakistan Jalala 12,968 13,278 13,421 14,042 16,094 13,854 14,115 16,160 -
Ethiopia Kobe 39,214 36,488 31,656 26,033 - - - - -
Pakistan Koga 8,404 8,738 8,893 9,216 9,183 9,264 10,458 10,766 -
Pakistan Kot Chandna 13,796 14,664 14,889 15,100 17,787 15,012 15,037 15,130 -
Ethiopia Kule 46,314 - - - - - - - -
Pakistan Jalozai - 22,076 57,771 32,499 100,748 30,955 32,155 83,616 -
Pakistan Kababian 11,044 11,664 12,167 12,504 13,214 12,335 11,291 14,729 -
Pakistan Kacha Gari - - - - - 28,365 24,554 26,721 -
Zambia Kala - - - - - - 12,768 16,877 19,143
South Sudan Kaya 21,918 18,788 - - - - - - -
Uganda Kyaka II 22,616 - 18,055 - - 17,442 14,750 18,229 16,410
Ethiopia Kebribeyah - 15,788 16,009 16,408 16,601 16,496 16,132 16,879 16,399
Iran Rafsanjan - - - - 6,852 6,630 - - 12,715
Pakistan Khaki 14,101 14,698 14,939 15,768 16,221 15,933 16,010 16,267 -
Nepal Khudunabari - - - 9,032 11,067 12,054 13,254 13,226 13,506
Burundi Kinama 9,796 9,759 9,480 9,369 8,447 - -
Uganda Kitgum - - - 7,070 12,290 122,000 164,000 - -
Rwanda Kiziba - - 15,927 18,919 18,888 18,693 18,323 18,130 17,978
Pakistan Khairābād-Kund - - 12,961 12,921 11,839 11,669 11,686 14,674 -
Uganda Kyangwali 40,023 - 21,280 - - 20,606 13,434 20,109 19,132
Guinea Laine - - - - 4,187 - - 5,185 11,406
Ethiopia Leitchour 47,711 - - - - - - - -
Botswana Dukwe 2,833[79] - - - - - - - - -

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]