Kryptotrochozoa

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Kryptotrochozoa
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Lophotrochozoa
Clade: Kryptotrochozoa
Giribet et al., 2009[1]
Clades

The Kryptotrochozoa (incl. Entoprocta + Ectoprocta) are a proposed Lophotrochozoa clade. It consists of the Nemertea and Lophophorata.[1][2] It is controversial.[3]

Lophotrochozoa

Cycliophora

Annelida

Mollusca

Kryptotrochozoa
Lophophorata
Brachiozoa

Brachiopoda

Phoronida

Bryozoa s.l.

Entoprocta

Ectoprocta

Nemertea

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Giribet G, Dunn CW, Edgecombe GD, Hejnol A, Martindale MQ, Rouse GW. "Assembling the spiralian tree of life". In M. J. Telford; D. T. J. Littlewood (eds.). Animal Evolution — Genomes, Fossils, and Trees. pp. 52–64.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  2. ^ Luo YJ, Kanda M, Koyanagi R, Hisata K, Akiyama T, Sakamoto H, Sakamoto T, Satoh N (January 2018). "Nemertean and phoronid genomes reveal lophotrochozoan evolution and the origin of bilaterian heads". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2 (1): 141–151. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0389-y. PMID 29203924.
  3. ^ Nesnidal MP, Helmkampf M, Meyer A, Witek A, Bruchhaus I, Ebersberger I, Hankeln T, Lieb B, Struck TH, Hausdorf B (November 2013). "New phylogenomic data support the monophyly of Lophophorata and an Ectoproct-Phoronid clade and indicate that Polyzoa and Kryptrochozoa are caused by systematic bias". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 13 (1): 253. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-253. PMC 4225663. PMID 24238092.