|2nd President of Kyrgyzstan|
25 March 2005 – 15 April 2010
Acting until 14 August 2005
|Preceded by||Ishenbai Kadyrbekov (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Roza Otunbayeva|
|7th Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan|
10 July 2005 – 15 August 2005
Ishenbai Kadyrbekov (Acting)
|Preceded by||Medetbek Kerimkulov (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Felix Kulov|
25 March 2005 – 20 June 2005
Acting until 28 March 2005
|Preceded by||Nikolai Tanayev|
|Succeeded by||Medetbek Kerimkulov (Acting)|
21 December 2000 – 22 May 2002
|Preceded by||Amangeldy Muraliyev|
|Succeeded by||Nikolai Tanayev|
1 August 1949|
|Political party||Ak Jol|
|Alma mater||Kuybyshev Polytechnic Institute|
Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev (Kyrgyz: Курманбек Салиевич (Сали уулу) Бакиев, Qurmanbek Saliyeviç (Sali Uulu) Baqiyev; born 1 August 1949) is a politician who served as the second President of Kyrgyzstan, from 2005 to 2010. Large opposition protests in April 2010 led to the takeover of government offices, forcing Bakiyev to flee the country.
Bakiyev was the leader of the People's Movement of Kyrgyzstan before his ascendance to the presidency. He received most of his popular support from the south of the country. The Legislative Assembly of Kyrgyzstan of the Supreme Council of Kyrgyzstan appointed him acting President on 25 March 2005, following the ousting, during the Tulip Revolution, of President Askar Akayev. In October 2007, Bakiyev initiated the creation of Ak Jol party, but could not lead it due to his presidency.
He was born on 1 August 1949 in the village of Masadan in the Jalal-Abad region of the Kirghiz SSR. His father, Sali Bakiyev, was the chairman of a collective farm. In 1978, he graduated from the Kuibyshev Polytechnic Institute (now Samara State Technical University).In 1974, Bakiyev served in the ranks of the Soviet Army. In 1979, he moved to Jalal-Abad where, from 1979–85, he worked at the plug-in connectors factory. Between 1990-91 he worked as the first secretary of the Kok-Yangak City Committee of the Communist Party of Kirghizia. Starting in 1995, he was the Governor of the Jalal-Abad Region, and Governor of the Chui Region. In December 2000, Bakiyev was appointed prime minister of Kyrgyzstan. Apart from Kyrgyz, he speaks Russian and Uzbek.
In 2006, Bakiyev faced a political crisis as thousands of people participated in a series of protests in Bishkek. He was accused of not following through with his promises to limit presidential power, give more authority to parliament and the prime minister, and eradicate corruption and crime. Bakiyev claimed the opposition was plotting a coup against him.
In April 2007, the opposition held protests demanding Bakiyev's resignation, with a large protest beginning on 11 April in Bishkek. Bakiyev signed constitutional amendments to reduce his own power on 10 April but the protest went ahead, with protesters saying that they would remain until he resigned. Clashes broke out between protesters and police on 19 April, after which the protests ended.
Over the years, the relationship between China and Kyrgyzstan has grown. The number of Chinese students in Kyrgyzstan has risen. In February 2009, while in Moscow, Bakiyev announced the eviction of the US Air Base from Kyrgyzstan, following a meeting with Russian President Dmitri Medvedev, during which Russia promised a $2 billion investment.
The Eurasia Daily Monitor wrote on 10 September 2009 that his style resembled other leaders such as Vladimir Putin and Nursultan Nazarbayev. Kyrgyz people were anxious about the risk of renewed power shortages and blackouts like in the winter 2008–2009. During the winter of 2010, the country suffered from rolling blackouts and cutoffs occurring regularly while energy prices have risen.
Kyrgyzstan's national electric company, Natsionalnaya electricheskaya syet, and the Chinese Tebian Electric signed a $342 million contract to build the Datka-Kemin 500 kv power transmission lines. This would have reduced Kyrgyzstan's dependence on the Central Asian power system. The delegation was led by Bakiyev's son.
In February 2010 Kyrgyzstan had to raise energy tariffs. Heating costs were reportedly going to rise 400 percent and electricity by 170 percent.
Russia backed his government until March 2010. The Eurasian Daily Monitor reported on 1 April that, for two weeks, the Kremlin had used the Russian mass media to run a negative campaign against Bakiyev. Russia controls much of the media in Kyrgyzstan. The sudden campaign coincided with Bakiyev's failure to carry out Russia's various demands related to things such as military bases.
On 1 April 2010, Russia also imposed duties on energy exports to Kyrgyzstan. It influenced fuel and transport prices immediately, and reportedly led to a massive protest in Talas on 6 April.
In April 2010, after bloody riots in the capital overturned the government, Bakiyev reportedly fled to the southern city of Osh. The head of the new provisional government, Roza Otunbayeva, declared that Bakiyev had not resigned and was trying to rally support.
On 13 April 2010, Bakiyev stated he would be willing to resign the presidency if his security was guaranteed. On 15 April 2010, at 19:00, Bakiyev left Kyrgyzstan for Kazakhstan, having signed a resignation letter. Otunbayeva said she would press ahead to bring Bakiyev to trial.
On 20 April, the Belarusian president, Alexander Lukashenko told his parliament that "Bakiyev and his family, four people in all, have been in Minsk since Monday evening, as guests...Today they are here under the protection of our state, and personally of the president."
On 21 April, Bakiyev held a press conference in Minsk and stated "I, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, am the legally elected president of Kyrgyzstan and recognised by the international community. I do not recognise my resignation. Nine months ago the people of Kyrgyzstan elected me their president and there is no power that can stop me. Only death can stop me", and called Otunbayeva's administration an "illegitimate gang".
Parliamentary elections of 2010
Ata-Zhurt, a party campaigning for bringing Kurmanbek Bakiyev back to power, won 28 out of 120 seats in Kyrgyzstan's parliamentary elections of 2010, securing a narrow plurality over the other parties.
During his time as president, several Bakiyev family members had prominent positions in the government, with at least five close relatives working in the upper echelons of power. His brother Janysh was head of the presidential guard. Another brother Marat was Kyrgyzstan's ambassador to Germany. Another brother, Adyl, was an adviser to Kyrgyzstan's ambassador to China.
Since the overthrow, Kurmanbek's younger son, Maksim, was charged with embezzlement and abuse of power by the interim government. It is suspected that he transferred about $35 million of a $300 million loan from Russia into his private bank accounts. Evgeniia Bakiev (Dankin) Kurmanbek's youngest daughter had to leave the country after the overthrow and move to the USA.
When the revolt took place, Bakiyev was headed to the USA for a series of meetings in Washington. On 14 June 2010, Maksim was arrested in the UK when he landed at Farnborough Airport in Hampshire in a privately hired jet. The Kyrgyz government has demanded his extradition.
- After years of turmoil, Kyrgyz voters go to the polls, unhcr.org/cgi-bin; accessed 7 April 2018.
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- "Курманбек Салиевич Бакиев. Биографическая справка - РИА Новости". ria.ru (in Russian). 24 July 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
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- Erica Marat (1 April 2010). "Russian Mass Media Attack Bakiyev". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 7 (63). The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
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- "Бакіеў атрымаў беларускае грамадзянства і купіў дом за $2 млн у Мінску?" (in Russian). nn.by. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- "Kyrgyz President's Son's New Role". rferl.org. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
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- Interpol fugitive held in UK, thesun.co.uk; accessed 7 April 2018.
- "Вторые жены кыргызстанских политиков". Вечерний Бишкек. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "With which wife has Bakiyev arrived to Minsk?". charter97.org. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kurmanbek Bakiyev.|
- Official Website of Kurmanbek Bakiyev
- Presidential biography
- Previous Constitution of Kyrgyzstan
- Xinhua profile
- "Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Sign Economic Cooperation Treaty"
- Kyrgyzstan on the Edge
- Kyrgyz President Replaces Renegade Regional Governor
| Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan
| Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan
| Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan
| President of Kyrgyzstan