Lukashenko in July 2015
|President of Belarus|
20 July 1994
|Preceded by||Myechyslaw Hryb (Chairman of the Supreme Soviet)|
|Chairman of the Supreme State Council of the Union State|
26 January 2000
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Born||Alexander Grigoryevich Lukashenko
30 August 1954
Kopys, Soviet Union
|Spouse(s)||Galina Zhelnerovich (1975–present)|
|Years of service||
|Rank||Marshal of Belarus|
Alexander Grigoryevich Lukashenko (Belarusian: Алякса́ндр Рыго́равіч Лукашэ́нка, Russian: Алекса́ндр Григо́рьевич Лукаше́нко; born 30 August 1954) is the President of Belarus, in office since 20 July 1994. Before his career as a politician, Lukashenko worked as director of a state-owned agricultural farm and spent time with the Soviet Border Troops and the Soviet Army. He was the only deputy to vote against the independence of Belarus from the Soviet Union.
Lukashenko opposed Western-backed "shock therapy" during the post-Soviet transition. He has retained Soviet-era policies, such as continued state ownership of key industries, despite objections from Western governments. Observers also contend that Lukashenko presides over a regime steeped in Soviet nostalgia. Belarus has been labeled "Europe's last dictatorship" by some Western journalists, on account of Lukashenko's self-described authoritarian style of government. Lukashenko and other Belarusian officials are also the subject of sanctions imposed by the European Union and the United States for alleged human rights violations off and on since 2006.
- 1 Early life and career (1954–94)
- 2 President of Belarus
- 3 Controversial statements
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Orders and honors
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Early life and career (1954–94)
Lukashenko was born on 30 August 1954, in the settlement of Kopys in the Vitebsk voblast of the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. His grandfather, Trokhym Lukashenko, had been born in the Sumy Oblast of Ukraine near Shostka (today village of Sobycheve). Lukashenko grew up without a father in his childhood, leading him to be taunted by his schoolmates for having an unmarried mother.
Lukashenko graduated from the Mogilev Pedagogical Institute (now Mogilev State A. Kuleshov University) in 1975 and the Belarusian Agricultural Academy in 1985. He served in the Border Guard (frontier troops) from 1975 to 1977 and in the Soviet Army from 1980 to 1982. In addition, he led an All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Komsomol) chapter in Mogilev from 1977 to 1978. While in the Soviet Army, Lukashenko was an officer of the 120th Guards Motor Rifle Division, which was based in Minsk. After leaving the military, he became the deputy chairman of a collective farm in 1982 and in 1985. He was promoted to the post of director of the Gorodets state farm and construction materials plant in the Shklov district.
In 1990, Lukashenko was elected Deputy to the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus. He was the only deputy of the Belarusian parliament who voted against ratification of the December 1991 agreement that dissolved the Soviet Union and set up the Commonwealth of Independent States. Having acquired a reputation as an eloquent opponent of corruption, Lukashenko was elected in 1993 to serve as the chairman of the anti-corruption committee of the Belarusian parliament. In late 1993 he accused 70 senior government officials, including the Supreme Soviet chairman Stanislav Shushkevich and prime minister Vyacheslav Kebich, of corruption including stealing state funds for personal purposes. While the charges were never fully proven against him, Shushkevich resigned his chairmanship due to the embarrassment of the series of events and losing a vote of no-confidence.
A new Belarusian constitution enacted in early 1994 paved the way for the first democratic presidential election on 23 June and 10 July. Six candidates stood in the first round, including Lukashenko, who campaigned as an independent on a populist platform of "defeat the mafia against the Conspiracy of New World Order and Zionism". Shushkevich and Kebich also ran, with the latter regarded as the clear favorite. Lukashenko won 45.1% of the vote while Kebich received 17.4%, Zyanon Paznyak received 12.9% and Shushkevich, along with two other candidates, received less than 10% of votes. Lukashenko won the second round of the election on 10 July with 80.1% of the vote. Shortly after his election, he addressed the State Duma of the Russian Federation in Moscow proposing a new Union of Slavic states, which would culminate in the creation of the Union State in 1999.
President of Belarus
First term (1994–2001)
In May 1995, Belarus held a referendum on changing its national symbols; the referendum also made the Russian language equal to Belarusian, and forged closer economic ties to Russia. Lukashenko was also given the ability to disband the Supreme Soviet by decree. In the summer of 1996, deputies of the 199-member Belarusian parliament signed a petition to impeach Lukashenko on charges of violating the Constitution. Shortly after that, a referendum was held on 24 November 1996 in which four questions were offered by Lukashenko and three offered by a group of Parliament members. The questions ranged from social issues (changing independence day to 3 July, abolition of the death penalty) to the national constitution. As a result of the referendum, the constitution that was amended by Lukashenko was accepted and the one amended by the Supreme Soviet was voided. The new document dramatically increased Lukashenko's power and transformed his presidency into a de facto legal dictatorship. His decrees now had the force of law, and he also acquired near-total control over government spending. On 25 November, it was announced that 70.5% of voters, of an 84% turnout, had approved the amended constitution. The US and the EU, however, refused to accept the legitimacy of the referendum.
After the referendum, Lukashenko convened a new parliamentary assembly from those members of the parliament who were loyal to him. After between ten and twelve deputies withdrew their signature from the impeachment petition, only about forty deputies of the old parliament were left and the Supreme Soviet was dismissed by Lukashenko. Nevertheless, international organizations and many Western countries do not recognize the current parliament given the way it was formed. At the start of 1998, the Central Bank of Russia suspended trading in the Belarusian ruble, which led to a collapse in the value of the currency. Lukashenko responded by taking control of the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus, sacking the entire bank leadership and blaming the West for the free fall of the currency.
Lukashenko blamed foreign governments for conspiring against him and, in April 1998, expelled ambassadors from the Drazdy complex near Minsk and moved them to another building. The Drazdy conflict caused an international outcry and resulted in a travel ban on Lukashenko from the EU and the US. Although the ambassadors eventually returned after the controversy died down, Lukashenko stepped up his rhetorical attacks against the West. He stated that Western governments were trying to undermine Belarus at all levels, even sports, during the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.
Second term (2001–06)
Belarus held another presidential election on 9 September 2001. Under the original constitution, this election should have been held in 1999, but the 1996 referendum extended Lukashenko's term for an additional two years. Lukashenko faced Vladimir Goncharik and Sergei Gaidukevich in the election. During the campaign, Lukashenko promised to raise the standards of farming, social benefits and increase industrial output of Belarus. Lukashenko won in the first round with 75.65% of the vote. The Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) said the process "failed to meet international standards". Jane's Intelligence Digest surmised that the price of Russian support for Lukashenko ahead of the 2001 presidential elections was the surrender of Minsk's control over its section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline. After the results were announced declaring Lukashenko the winner, Russia publicly welcomed Lukashenko's re-election; the Russian President, Vladimir Putin, telephoned Lukashenko and offered a message of congratulations and support.
Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, American intelligence agencies reported that aides of Saddam Hussein managed to acquire Belarusian passports while in Syria, but that it was unlikely that Belarus would offer a safe haven for Saddam and his two sons. This action, along with arms deals with Iraq and Iran, prompted Western governments to take a tougher stance against Lukashenko. The US was particularly angered by the arms sales, and American political leaders increasingly began to refer to Belarus as "Europe's last dictatorship". The EU was concerned for the security of its gas supplies from Russia, which are piped through Belarus, and took an active interest in Belarusian affairs. With the accession of Poland, Latvia and Lithuania, the EU's border with Belarus has grown to more than 1000 kilometers.
During a televised address to the nation on 7 September 2004, Lukashenko announced plans for a referendum to eliminate presidential term limits. This was held on 17 October 2004, the same day as parliamentary elections, and, according to official results, was approved by 79.42% of voters. Previously, Lukashenko had been limited to two terms and thus would have been constitutionally required to step down after the presidential elections in 2006. Opposition groups, the OSCE, the European Union, and the US State Department stated that the vote fell short of international standards. An example of the failure, cited by the OSCE, was the pre-marking of ballots. Belarus grew economically under Lukashenko, but much of this growth was due to Russian crude oil which was imported at below-market prices, refined, and sold to other European countries at a profit.
2006 presidential election
After Lukashenko confirmed he was running for re-election in 2005, opposition groups began to seek a single candidate. On 16 October 2005, on the Day of Solidarity With Belarus, the political groups Zubr and Third Way Belarus encouraged all opposition parties to rally behind one candidate to oppose Lukashenko in the 2006 election. Their chosen candidate was Alexander Milinkevich. Lukashenko reacted by saying that anyone going to opposition protests would have their necks wrung "as one might a duck". On 19 March 2006, exit polls showed Lukashenko winning a third term in a landslide, amid opposition reports of vote-rigging and fear of violence. The EcooM organisation gave Lukashenko 84.2% of the vote and Milinkevich just 2%, while the Belarusian Republican Youth Union gave Lukashenko 84.2% and Milinkevich 3.1%. The Gallup Organisation noted that EcooM and the Belarusian Republican Youth Union are government-controlled and both released their exit poll results before noon on election day even though voting stations did not close until 8 pm.
Belarusian authorities vowed to prevent any large-scale demonstrations following the election (such as those that marked the Orange Revolution in Ukraine). Despite their efforts, the opposition had the largest number of demonstrators in years, with nightly protests in Minsk continuing for a number days after the election. The largest protest occurred on election night; reporters for the Associated Press estimated that approximately 10,000 people turned out. Election observers from the Russia-led Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) differed on the Belarusian election. The OSCE declared on 20 March 2006 that the "presidential election failed to meet OSCE commitments for democratic elections." Lukashenko "permitted State authority to be used in a manner which did not allow citizens to freely and fairly express their will at the ballot box... a pattern of intimidation and the suppression of independent voices... was evident throughout the campaign." The heads of all 25 EU countries declared that the election was "fundamentally flawed". In contrast, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs declared, "Long before the elections, the OSCE's Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights had declared that they [the elections] would be illegitimate and it was pretty biased in its commentaries on their progress and results, thus playing an instigating role." Lukashenko later stated that he had rigged the election results, but against himself, in order to obtain a majority more typical of European countries. Although he had won 93.5% of the vote, he said, he had directed the government to announce a result of 86%.
Some Russian nationalists, such as Dmitry Rogozin and the Movement Against Illegal Immigration, stated that they would like to see Lukashenko become President of Russia in 2008. Lukashenko responded that he would not run for the Russian presidency, but that if his health was still good, he might run for reelection in 2011.
Third term (2006–11)
In September 2008, parliamentary elections were held. Lukashenko had allowed some opposition candidates to stand, though in the official results, opposition members failed to get a seat out of the available 110. OSCE observers described the vote as "flawed", including "several cases of deliberate falsification of results". Opposition members and supporters demonstrated in protest. According to the Nizhny Novgorod-based CIS election observation mission, the findings of which are often dismissed by the West, the elections in Belarus conformed to international standards. Lukashenko later commented that the opposition in Belarus was financed by foreign countries and was not needed.
2010 presidential election
Lukashenko was one of ten candidates registered for the presidential election held in Belarus on 19 December 2010. Though originally envisaged for 2011, an earlier date was approved "to ensure the maximum participation of citizens in the electoral campaign and to set most convenient time for the voters". The run-up to the campaign was marked by a series of Russian media attacks on Lukashenko. The Central Election Committee said that all nine opposition figures were likely to get less than half the vote total that Lukashenko would get. Though opposition figures alleged intimidation and that "dirty tricks" were being played, the election was seen as comparatively open as a result of desire to improve relations with both Europe and the US.
On election day, two presidential candidates were seriously beaten by police in different opposition rallies. On the night of the election, opposition protesters chanting "Out!," "Long live Belarus!" and other similar slogans attempted to storm the building of the government of Belarus, smashing windows and doors before riot police were able to push them back. The number of protesters was reported by major news media as being around or above 10,000 people. At least seven of the opposition presidential candidates were arrested.
Several of the opposition candidates, along with their supporters and members of the media, were arrested. Many were sent to prison, often on charges of organizing a mass disturbance. Examples include Andrei Sannikov, Alexander Otroschenkov, Ales Michalevic, Mikola Statkevich, and Uladzimir Nyaklyayew. Sannikov's wife, journalist Irina Khalip, was put under house arrest. Yaraslau Ramanchuk's party leader, Anatoly Lebedko, was also arrested.
The CEC said that Lukashenko won 79.65% of the vote (he gained 5,130,557 votes) with 90.65% of the electorate voting. The OSCE categorized the elections as "flawed" while the CIS mission observers praised them as "free and transparent". However, the OSCE also stated that some improvements were made in the run-up to the election, including the candidates' use of television debates and ability to deliver their messages unhindered. Several European foreign ministers issued a joint statement calling the election and its aftermath an "unfortunate step backwards in the development of democratic governance and respect for human rights in Belarus."
Lukashenko's inauguration ceremony of 22 January 2011 was boycotted by EU ambassadors, and only thirty-two foreign diplomats attended. During this ceremony, Lukashenko defended the legitimacy of his re-election and vowed that Belarus would never have its own version of the Orange Revolution or Georgia's 2003 Rose Revolution. Effective 31 January 2011, the EU renewed a travel ban, prohibiting Lukashenko and 156 of his associates from traveling to EU member countries, as a result of the crackdown on opposition supporters.
2015 presidential election
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (February 2016)|
Lukashenko promotes himself as a "man of the people." Due to his style of rule, he is often informally referred to as бацька (bats'ka, "daddy"). He was elected chairman of the Belarusian Olympic Committee in 1997. Lukashenko wanted to rebuild Belarus when he took office; the economy was in freefall, due to declining industry and lack of demand for Belarusian goods. Lukashenko kept many industries under the control of the government, and privatization was slowed. In 2001, he stated his intention to improve the social welfare of his citizens and to make Belarus "powerful and prosperous."
The economy of Belarus has been in a state of flux since Lukashenko's election in 1994. His economic policies aimed to prevent issues that occurred in other former Soviet states, such as the establishment of oligarchic structures and mass unemployment. The unemployment rate for the country at the end of 2011 was at 0.6% of the population (of 6.86 million eligible workers), a decrease from 1995, when unemployment was 2.9% with a working-eligible population of 5.24 million. The per-capita Gross national income rose from US$1,423 in 1993 to US$5,830 at the end of 2011. One major economic issue Lukashenko faced throughout his presidency was the value of the Belarusian ruble. For a time it was pegged to major foreign currencies, such as the euro, US dollar and the Russian ruble in order to maintain the stability of the Belarusian ruble. Yet, the currency has experienced free fall and also several rounds of devaluation. A major devaluation took place in 2011 after the government announced that average salaries would increase to US$500. The 2011 devaluation was the largest on record for the past twenty years according to the World Bank. Belarus also had to seek a bailout from international sources, and while it has received loans from China, receiving loans from the IMF and other agencies depend on how Belarus reforms its economy according to standards set by the IMF and other agencies.
Some critics of Lukashenko, including the opposition group Zubr, use the term Lukashism to refer to the political and economic system Lukashenko has implemented in Belarus. The term is also used more broadly to refer to an authoritarian ideology based on a cult of his personality and nostalgia for Soviet times among certain groups in Belarus. The US Congress sought to aid the opposition groups by passing the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004 to introduce sanctions against Lukashenko's government and provide financial and other support to the opposition. Lukashenko supporters argue that his rule spared Belarus the turmoil that beset many other former Soviet countries. Lukashenko commented on the criticism of him by saying: "I've been hearing these accusations for over 10 years and we have got used to it. We are not going to answer them. I want to come from the premise that the elections in Belarus are held for ourselves. I am sure that it is the Belarusian people who are the masters in our state."
Since the November 1996 referendum, Lukashenko has effectively held all governing power in the nation. If the House of Representatives rejects his choice for prime minister twice, he has the right to dissolve it. His decrees have greater weight than ordinary legislation. He also has near-absolute control over government spending; parliament can only increase or decrease spending with his permission. However, the legislature is dominated by his supporters in any event, and there is no substantive opposition to presidential decisions. He also appoints eight members of the upper house, the Council of the Republic, as well as nearly all judges.
Lukashenko's relationship with the EU has been strained, in part by choice and in part by his policies towards domestic opponents. Lukashenko's repression of opponents caused him to be called "Europe's last dictator" and resulted in the EU imposing visa sanctions on him and a range of Belarusian officials. At times, the EU has lifted sanctions as a way to encourage dialogue or gain concessions from Lukashenko. Since the EU adopted this policy of "change through engagement", it has supported economic and political reforms to help integrate the Belarusian state.
Lukashenko's relationship with Russia, once his powerful ally and vocal supporter, has significantly deteriorated. The run-up to the 2010 Belarusian presidential election was marked by a series of Russian media attacks on Lukashenko. Throughout July state-controlled channel NTV broadcast a multi-part documentary entitled "The Godfather" highlighting the suspicious disappearance of a number of opposition leaders during the late 1990s. Lukashenko called the media attack "dirty propaganda".
His policies have been praised by some other world leaders and are seen as a model for at least one country. In response to a question about Belarus's domestic policies, President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela said "We see here a model social state like the one we are beginning to create." Chairman of the Chinese Standing Committee of National People's Congress Wu Bangguo noted that Belarus has been rapidly developing under Lukashenko. Lithuanian MPs have also praised the Belarusian economy and its contribution to the Lithuanian economy; Stanislovas Gedraitis said that he was in awe of the Belarusian progress created mostly by the efforts of the national leader.
During the 2014 crisis in Ukraine, Alexander Lukashenko became a critic of Russian policy and interferences in Ukraine's internal affairs. Lukashenko criticized the Donbass status referendums and the idea of federalization, and proclaimed support for the government in Kiev. During the 9 May celebration, Lukashenko spoke in Belarusian instead of Russian for the first time. Later he arranged a meeting between Ukraine's president Petro Poroshenko and Russian president Vladimir Putin. The Polish newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza has written about Lukashenko's transformation from " the last dictator in Europe to acceptable peacemaker".
In 2015, Lukashenko sought to improve trade relations between Belarus and Latin America.
In 1995, Lukashenko was accused of making a remark which praised Adolf Hitler: "The history of Germany is a copy of the history of Belarus. Germany was raised from ruins thanks to firm authority and not everything connected with that well-known figure Hitler was bad. German order evolved over the centuries and attained its peak under Hitler."
In October 2007, Lukashenko was accused of making anti-Semitic and anti-Israel comments; addressing the "miserable state of the city of Babruysk" on a live broadcast on state radio, he stated: "This is a Jewish city, and the Jews are not concerned for the place they live in. They have turned Babruysk into a pigsty. Look at Israel – I was there and saw it myself ... I call on Jews who have money to come back to Babruysk." Members of the US House of Representatives sent a letter to the Belarusian ambassador to the US, Mikhail Khvostov, addressing Lukashenko's comments with a strong request to retract them, and the comments also caused a negative reaction from Israel. Consequently, Pavel Yakubovich, editor of Belarus Today, was sent to Israel, and in a meeting with the Israel Foreign Ministry said that Lukashenko's comment was "a mistake that was said jokingly, and does not represent his positions regarding the Jewish people" and that he was "anything but anti-Semitic," and had been "insulted by the mere accusation." The Belarusian Ambassador to Israel, Igor Leshchenya, stated that the president had a "kind attitude toward the Jewish people", and Sergei Rychenko, the press secretary at the Belarusian Embassy in Tel Aviv, said parts of Lukashenko's comments had been mistranslated.
On 4 March 2012, two days after EU leaders (including openly gay German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle) had called for new measures to pressure Lukashenko over alleged human rights abuses in Belarus at a summit in Brussels, Lukashenko provoked diplomatic rebuke from Germany after commenting that it was "better to be a dictator than gay" in response to Westerwelle having referred to him as "Europe's last dictator" during the meeting.
Lukashenko married Galina Zhelnerovich, his high school sweetheart, in 1975. Later that year his oldest son, Viktor, was born. Their second son, Dzmitry, was born in 1980. Galina lives separately in the family's house in the village near Shklov. Though they are still legally married, Galina Lukashenko has been estranged from her husband since shortly after he became president. His son Viktor is a 'national security aide'; according to one foreign tabloid newspaper Lukashenko has dismissed him in public as "a useless weakling who will soon become even weaker".
Lukashenko fathered an illegitimate son, Nikolai, who was born in 2004. Though never confirmed by the government, it is widely believed that the child's mother is Irina Abelskaya – the two had an affair when she was Lukashenko's personal doctor. It has been reported by Western observers and media that Nikolai, nicknamed "Kolya", is being groomed as Lukashenko's successor. According to Belarusian state media, these speculations were dismissed by Lukashenko, who also denied that he would remain in office for a further thirty years – the time Nikolai will become eligible to stand for election and succeed him.
Lukashenko believes that the president should be a conservative person and avoid using modern electronic gadgets such as an iPad or iPhone. He used to play bayan and football, but abandoned both during his presidency. He is a keen skier and ice hockey forward, who played exhibition games alongside international hockey stars. His two elder sons also play hockey, sometimes alongside their father.
Lukashenko started training in cross-country as a child, and in the 2000s still competed at the national level.
Orders and honors
- Winner of the international premium of Andrey Pervozvanny "For Faith and Loyalty" (1995)
- The Order of José Marti (Cuba, 2000)
- Order of the Revolution (Libya, 2000)
- Special prize of the International Olympic Committee "Gates of Olympus" (2000)
- Order "For Services to the Fatherland", 2nd Class (Russia, 2001)
- Honorary citizen of Yerevan, Armenia (2001)
- Order of St. Dmitry Donskoy, First Degree (2005)
- Medal of the International Federation of Festival Organizations "For development of the world festival movement" (2005)
- Order of St. Cyril (by the Belarusian Orthodox Church) (2006)
- Honorary Diploma of the Eurasian Economic Community (2006)
- Order of St. Vladimir, First Degree (2007)
- Keys to the City of Caracas, Venezuela (2010)
- Order of Distinguished Citizen (Caracas, Venezuela; 2010)
- Order of the Republic of Serbia (2013)
- Ig Nobel Prize (2013) Peace prize by Harvard University
- Order of Alexander Nevsky (2014)
- pronounced [alʲaˈksand(a)r rɨˈɣɔravʲitʂ lukaˈʂɛnka]; 2007 national transliteration Aliaksandr Ryhoravič Lukašenka, BGN/PCGN romanization of Belarusian Alyaksandr Ryhoravich Lukashenka; Taraškievica orthography: Алякса́ндар Рыго́равіч Лукашэ́нка, Łacinka: Alaksandar Ryhoravič Łukašenka;
- Pron. [ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ lʊkɐˈʂɛnkə]; BGN/PCGN romanization of Russian Aleksandr Grigorevich Lukashenko
- "Belarus – Government". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
- Office of the Press secretary (20 October 2004). "Statement on the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004". The White House. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- Rausing, Sigrid (7 October 2012). "Belarus: inside Europe's last dictatorship". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Belarus's Lukashenko: "Better a dictator than gay"". Berlin. Reuters. 4 March 2012.
...German Foreign Minister's branding him 'Europe's last dictator'
- "Profile: Alexander Lukashenko". BBC News (BBC). 9 January 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
'..an authoritarian ruling style is characteristic of me [Lukashenko]'
- "Essential Background – Belarus". Human Rights Watch. 2005. Retrieved 26 March 2006.
- "Human rights by country – Belarus". Amnesty International Report 2007. Amnesty International. 2007. Archived from the original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- "COUNCIL DECISION 2012/642/CFSP concerning restrictive measures against Belarus" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. Council of the European Union. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- Department of the Treasury (5 December 2012). "Belarus Sanctions". Government of the United States. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- Скандал! Лукашенко изменил биографию (видео и фото) » UDF.BY | Новости Беларуси | Объединённые демократические силы. UDF.BY. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Официальный интернет-портал Президента Республики Беларусь/Биография. President.gov.by (11 May 1998). Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Малишевский, Виктор; Ульяна Бобоед (15 August 2003). В Минск из Канады летит троюродный племянник Лукашенко. Комсомольской Правды в Белоруссии (in Russian). Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- "Alexander Lukashenko: Dictator with a difference". The Daily Telegraph (London). 25 September 2008. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2008.
- "President Visits New Swimming Complex in Minsk". President of the Republic of Belarus. 20 September 2007. Archived from the original on 10 November 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Biographical profile of the President". President of the Republic of Belarus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
- Spector, Michael (25 June 1994). "Belarus Voters Back Populist in Protest at the Quality of Life". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
- Savchenko, Andrew (15 May 2009). "Borderland Forever: Modern Belarus". Belarus: A Perpetual Borderland. Brill Academic Pub. p. 179. ISBN 978-9004174481.
- Jeffries, Ian (4 March 2004). "Belarus". The Countries of the Former Soviet Union at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century: The Baltic and European States in Transition. Routledge Studies of Societies in Transition (Routledge). p. 266. ISBN 978-0415252300.
- Jeffries, Ian (2004). The Countries of the Former Soviet Union at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century: The Baltic and European States in Transition. Psychology Press. p. 266. ISBN 9780415252300.
- White, Stephen; Korosteleva, Elena; John, Löwenhardt (2005). "Ronald J. Hill". Postcommunist Belarus. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 6–7.
- Country Studies Belarus – Prelude to Independence. Library of Congress. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- Alyaksandr Lukashenka in: Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, 2009
- Central Election Commission of the Republic of Belarus 1995 Referendum Questions (Russian) Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Babkina, Marina (19 November 1996). "Lukashenko Defies Impeachment Move". AP New Archives. Associated Press. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Observers deplore Belarus vote". BBC News. 18 October 2004. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- Центральной комиссии Республики Беларусь по выборам и проведению республиканских референдумов. rec.gov.by (1996)
- Bekus, Nelly (2012). Struggle over Identity: The Official and the Alternative "Belarusianness". Central European University Press. pp. 103–4. ISBN 978-9639776685.
- Belarus: The Last European Dictatorship – Andrew Wilson.
- U.S. Relations With Belarus. US Department of State. 19 February 2014
- Poland's Role in the Development of an 'Eastern Dimension' of the European Union – Andreas Lorek. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
- BBC Belarus appoints new national bank chief. 21 March 1998.
- Maksymiuk, Jan (22 July 1998). "Eu punishes Belarusian leadership". RFE/RL Newsline, Vol. 2, No. 139, 98-07-22 (From: Radio Free Europe/Radio Libert). Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Poor Showing Reportedly Riles Ruler of Belarus". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 20 February 1998. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "The Statement of the Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko". Serbia Info News. Ministry of Information of the Republic of Serbia. 15 April 1999. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Contemporary Belarus: Between Democracy and Dictatorship" (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), with R. Marsh and C. Lawson
- "Lukashenko claims victory in Belarus election". USA Today. 10 September 2001. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
- Standish, M J A (11 January 2006). "Editor's notes." Jane's Intelligence Digest.
- "Saddam aides may flee to Belarus: report". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 24 June 2003. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Profile: Europe's last dictator?". BBC News. 10 September 2001. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Belarus Foreign Minister Sergei Martynov interview for The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung – Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus". Mfa.gov.by. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Observers deplore Belarus vote". BBC News. 18 October 2004. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- Collin, Matthew (3 October 2005). "Belarus opposition closes ranks". BBC News. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- Staff writer (20 March 2006). "Gallup/Baltic Surveys announces impossibility of independent and reliable exit polls under present conditions in Belarus". Charter'97. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Incumbent Declared Winner of Belarus Vote". Athens Banner-Herald. Associated Press. 20 March 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
The gathering was the biggest the opposition had mustered in years, reaching at least 10,000 before it started thinning out, according to AP reporters' estimates.
- Staff Writer (21 March 2006). "CIS, OSCE observers differ on Belarus vote". People's Daily. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
Election observers from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) declared the Belarus presidential vote open and transparent on Monday. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) did not assess the election positively.
- Kramer, David (21 March 2006). "Ballots on the Frontiers of Freedom: Elections in Belarus and Ukraine". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "West slams Belarus crackdown". CNN. 24 March 2006. Archived from the original on 28 April 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
- Лукашенко: Последние выборы мы сфальсифицировали (in Russian). BelaPAN. 23 November 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Poland, Belarus & Ukraine Report". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 28 November 2006. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Staff writer (28 February 2007). "Rightist Group Promote Belarus Dictator Lukashenko as Russian Presidential Candidate". MosNews. Archived from the original on 28 February 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
- "Belarus clean sweep poll 'flawed'", BBC News, 29 September 2008.
- "CIS: Monitoring The Election Monitors". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2 April 2005. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "CIS observers: Belarus' elections meet international standards" (in Russian). National Center of Legal Information of the Republic of Belarus. 29 September 2008. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "Opposition gewinnt keinen einzigen Sitz – Proteste in Weißrussland". Der Spiegel (in German). 29 September 2008. Archived from the original on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- Belarus leader meets Pope in landmark trip. Agence France-Presse. Google News (27 April 2009). Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- Belarus sets date of presidential election for 19 December 2010. News.belta.by (14 September 2010). Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- RFE/RL. Has Moscow Had Enough Of Belarus's Lukashenka?. (19 July 2010).
- "'Dirty tricks' taint Belarus vote". Al Jazeera. 18 December 2010. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- "Activist fears over Belarus vote". Al Jazeera. 19 December 2010. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- "'Hundreds of protesters arrested' in Belarus". BBC News. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 21 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- "Police break up opposition rally after Belarus poll". BBC News. 19 December 2010. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- "Two Belarus presidential candidates say attacked by special forces". RIA Novosti. 19 December 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- "Спецназ избил двух кандидатов в президенты Белоруссии; Некляев без сознания". Gazeta.ru. 19 December 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- "Protesters try to storm government HQ in Belarus". BBC News. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- "Belarus president re-elected". Al Jazeera. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- "Protesters try to storm government HQ in Belarus". BBC. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 26 January 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "Belarus' Lukashenko re-elected, police crackdown". Reuters. 19 December 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "Hundreds arrested in Belarus protests". Financial Times. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "BBC News – Leading Belarus dissident Sannikov gets UK asylum". Bbc.co.uk. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- "Center for Public Scholarship :: Alexander Otroschenkov". Newschool.edu. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- "RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY | Media Advisory – Exiled Belarusian presidential candidate Ales Michalevic to visit Toronto". Newswire.ca. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1 June 2011). "Jailed Belarusian opposition leader not allowed to see wife, father". Refworld. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- Foreign Policy and Security Research (15 November 2011). "Swedish PEN awards prize to Uladzimir Nyaklyayew". forsecurity.org. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- Taylor, Jerome (15 February 2013). "Captive Belarusian journalist Irina Khalip allowed to visit husband in Britain – Europe – World". The Independent. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- Interview by Stephen Browne (21 February 2011). "BELARUSIAN DISSIDENT JAROSLAV ROMANCHUK". TheAtlasSphere.com. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- СООБЩЕНИЕ об итогах выборов Президента Республики Беларусь (PDF) (in Russian). Central Election Commission of Belarus. 5 January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- "Belarus vote count 'flawed' says OSCE | RIA Novosti". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- "Belarus still has considerable way to go in meeting OSCE commitments, despite certain improvements, election observers say". OSCE. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- Lukashenko the Loser. Joint letter of Foreign Ministers of Germany, Sweden, Poland and Czech Republic. NYTimes (24 December 2010)
- Lukashenko Growls at Inauguration, The Moscow Times (24 January 2011)
- "32 foreign diplomats to attend Lukashenko inauguration | World | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- Dempsey, Judy (2 January 2011). U.S. and E.U. Join to Show Support for Belarus Opposition. New York Times
- The European Union has News for Belarus’s Alexander Lukashenko: You’re Grounded. macleans.ca (17 February 2011).
- COUNCIL DECISION 2011/69/CFSP. Official Journal of the European Union. (31 January 2011).
- "NOC RB". National Olympic Committee of the Republic of Belarus. 2002. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Lukashenko's first term as president". Brussels Review. 16 March 2006. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2007.
- "Belarus – Industry". Country Studies. Library of Congress. 1995. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
- Karatnycky, Adrian; Alexander J. Motyl; Amanda Schnetzer (2001). Nations in Transit, 2001. Transaction Publishers. p. 101. ISBN 0-7658-0897-8.
- "Lukashenko Sworn in as Belarusian President". People's Daily. 21 September 2001. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
- "The official internet-portal of the President of the Republic of Belarus/State Policy". President.gov.by. 11 May 1998. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Labour". Belstat.gov.by. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Belarus | Data". World Bank. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "National Bank to peg Belarusian ruble to foreign currency system in 2009 – Economy / News / Belarus Belarusian Belarus today | Minsk BELTA – Belarus Belarusian Belarus today | Minsk BELTA". News.belta.by. 17 June 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
- "Belarus Plans New Ruble Devaluation | RIA Novosti". RIA Novosti. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Ruble devaluation spreads panic among Belarusians". People's Daily. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Belarus eyes new IMF loans – Xinhua | English.news.cn". Xinhua News Agency. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "BBC News – RBS agrees to end work for Belarus". BBC. 29 August 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- Potupa, Aleksandr (2 May 1997). "Lukashism" has the potential to spread beyond Balarus. Prism Volume: 3 Issue: 6.
- Dubina, Yuras (1998). "A museum to commemorate victims of communism". Belarus Now. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
Belarusian MPs propose to dedicate a section in the future museum to Lukashism
- "Beware of Lukashism!". Zubr. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- Pavlov, Nikolai (27 March 2006). "Belarus protesters go on trial as new rallies loom". Belarus News and Analysis. Archived from the original on 9 October 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- The Belarus Democracy Act of 2004. house.gov. 20 October 2004
- Staff writer (9 January 2007). "Profile: Alexander Lukashenko". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- Czachor, Rafał (2011) Polityka zagraniczna Republiki Białoruś w latach 1991–2011. Studium politologiczne, Wydawnictwo DWSPiT, Polkowice, p. 299, ISBN 978-83-61234-72-2
- Makhovsky, Andrei. "Belarus leader calls for dialogue with European Union". Reuters. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- RFE/RL. Is Lukashenka In The Kremlin's Crosshairs?. (8 July 2010).
- RFE/RL. Lukashenka Calls Russian Media Attacks 'Dirty Propaganda' . (29 July 2010).
- "Chavez forges ties with Belarus". BBC News. 25 July 2005. Archived from the original on 16 November 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
- "China Praises Lukashenko for His Successful Opposition to the West". The China Times. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Lithuanian MPs praise Lukashenko – Charter'97 :: News from Belarus – Belarusian News – Republic of Belarus – Minsk". Charter97.org. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- Sinitsyn, Maksim (22 May 2014) Лукашенко предупредил Россию о войне. utro.ru.
- Z diktátora mírotvorcem: Lukašenko vydělá na pořádání schůzky Putina s Porošenkem. novinky.cz. 25 August 2014
- "Lukashenko highlights Belarus' cooperation with Latin America". Belarusian News. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Bigotry in Belarus". The Jerusalem Post. 20 October 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- In 1926 there were 21,558 Jews in Babruysk or 42% of the town's population; by 1989, they numbered just over 4% and by 1999 a mere 0.6%. See Jewish Heritage Research Group in Belarus
- Sofer, Ronny (18 October 2007). "Belarus president attacks Jews". Ynet News (Yedioth Internet). Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 19 October 2007.
- "Kirk-Hastings Letter Calls on Belarusian President to Apologize for Blatantly Anti-Semitic Remarks". Office of Rep. Mark Steven Kirk. 2007. Archived from the original on 3 November 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
- "FM Livni condemns anti-Semitic remarks made by Belarusian President". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 18 October 2007. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 19 October 2007.
- "News in Brief". Haaretz. 31 October 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
- "Belarus to send envoy to Israel". The Jerusalem Post. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
- Germany rebukes Lukashenko over anti-gay comment | euronews, world news. Euronews.com (5 March 2012). Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- World News – 'Better a dictator than gay,' Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko says. MSN.com (5 March 2012). Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- The comb-over Soviet-style tyrant who could soon be one of the West's favourite allies, Daily Mail (19 July 2008)
- ЛЯШКЕВИЧ, Анна. "Галина Лукашенко: Саша – необыкновенный человек". Комсомольская правда в Белоруссии (in Russian) (БелаПАН). Retrieved 26 December 2008.
- Parfitt, Tom (6 April 2009). "Belarus squirms as son follows in dictator's steps". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- Walker, Shaun (29 June 2012). "Who's that boy in the grey suit? It's Kolya Lukashenko – the next dictator of Belarus...". The Independent. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Haddadi, Anissa (29 June 2012). "The Belarus Boy Wonder: Nikolai Lukashenko, 7, Anointed to become President". International Business Times (IBTimes Co.). Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "Lukashenko denies reports he is grooming Nikolai as his successor". Belarusian News. BELTA. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Д.Медведев объяснил, почему заменил iPad блокнотом. rbc.ru. 15 May 2013
- Александр Лукашенко разучился играть на баяне. km.ru. 15 January 2013
- Ветераны «Сборной звезд мира» проведут товарищескую игру. sports.ru. 12 December 2008.
- Лукашенко – звезда мирового хоккея. sports.ru. 20 December 2008
- Лукашенко забил шайбу. Команда Президента Беларуси играет и выигрывает в Казахстане 10:8. centrasia.ru. 22 December 2004
- Президент-хоккей Александра Лукашенко. ng.ru. 1 October 2003
- Александр Лукашенко выиграл лыжные соревнования. vsesmi.ru. 3 March 2007.
- Bandy players from Ulyanovsk are going to play in games of the Bandy World Championship in 2016
- Лауреаты Международной премии Андрея Первозванного "За Веру и Верность". 1993–2005 годы (in Russian). Фонд Святого Всехвального апостола Андрея Первозванного. 1995. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- А.Г. Лукашенко награжден орденом Хосе Марти. Вечерний Минск (in Russian). 5 September 2000. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- Белоруссия (in Russian). Zatulin.ru. 15 November 2000. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- Олимпийский приз для Беларуси (in Russian). Пресс-центр НОКа. 12 June 2006. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Президент России". Archive.kremlin.ru. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Honorary Citizens of Yerevan" (in Russian). City of Yerevan, Armenia. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- Korobov, Pavel (11 May 2005). Патриарх наградил Александра Лукашенко (in Russian). Religare.ru. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- Президент Беларуси Александр Лукашенко удостоен медали "За развитие мирового фестивального движения" (in Russian). Embassy of the Republic of Belarus in the Russian Federation. 18 July 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- Александр Лукашенко награжден орденом Белорусской Православной Церкви (in Russian). Maranatha. 26 September 2006. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- В Минске прошло заседание Межгосударственного Совета ЕврАзЭС (in Russian). President of the Republic of Belarus. 23 June 2006. Archived from the original on 10 November 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Александр Лукашенко награжден орденом Святого Владимира I степени". Патриархия.ru (in Russian). 5 June 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Presidente Chávez se reúne con su par bielorruso Lukashenko". Mre.gov.ve. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Jorge Rodríguez | Alcalde de Libertador " " Alcalde Jorge Rodríguez entrega llaves de la Ciudad de Caracas al Presidente Lukashenko". Jorgerodriguez.psuv.org.ve. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Ukazi o odlikovanjima" (in Serbian). predsednik.rs. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Meeting with President Tomislav Nikolić of the Republic of Serbia". president.gov.by. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Putin signed the decree about Lukashenko's rewarding with the Order of Alexander Nevsky". itar-tass.com. 30 August 2014
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexander Lukashenko.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alexander Lukashenko|
- President's official site (English) (Russian) (Belarusian) (Polish)
- BBC – Profile: Alexander Lukashenko
as Chairperson of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus
|President of Belarus