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Protein CAMP PDB 2FBS.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases CAMP, CAP-18, CAP18, CRAMP, FALL-39, FALL39, HSD26, LL37, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide
External IDs OMIM: 600474 MGI: 108443 HomoloGene: 110678 GeneCards: CAMP
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 3 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 3 (human)[1]
Chromosome 3 (human)
Genomic location for CAMP
Genomic location for CAMP
Band 3p21.31 Start 48,223,347 bp[1]
End 48,225,491 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CAMP 210244 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 3: 48.22 – 48.23 Mb Chr 9: 109.85 – 109.85 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

LL-37 (or CAP-18 for cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, 18 kDa) is a gene encoding for the only member of the human cathelicidin family. Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptides are a family of polypeptides found in lysosomes of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and keratinocytes.[5] Cathelicidins serve a critical role in mammalian innate immune defense against invasive bacterial infection.[6]

Clinical significance[edit]

NOTE: This article appears to be split into two parts; more on cathelicidin's clinical significance can be found on the cathelicidin page.

Patients with rosacea have elevated levels of cathelicidin. Cathelicidin is cleaved into the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 by both kallikrein 5 and kallikrein 7 serine proteases. Excessive production of LL-37 is suspected to be a contributing cause in all subtypes of Rosacea.[7]

Higher plasma levels of LL-37, which are up-regulated by vitamin D, appear to significantly reduce the risk of death from infection in dialysis patients. Patients with a high level of LL-37 were 3.7 times more likely to survive kidney dialysis for a year without a fatal infection.[8] Vitamin D up-regulates genetic expression of cathelicidin, which exhibits broad-spectrum microbicidal activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses.[9][10]

SAAP-148 (a synthetic antimicrobial and antibiofilm peptide) is a modified version of LL-37 that has enhanced antimicrobial activities compared to LL-37. In particular, SAAP-148 was more efficient in killing bacteria under physiological conditions.[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164047 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000038357 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ "Entrez Gene: CAMP cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide". 
  6. ^ Zanetti M (Jan 2004). "Cathelicidins, multifunctional peptides of the innate immunity". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 75 (1): 39–48. doi:10.1189/jlb.0403147. PMID 12960280. 
  7. ^ Reinholz M, Ruzicka T, Schauber J (2012). "Cathelicidin LL-37: an antimicrobial peptide with a role in inflammatory skin disease". Ann Dermatol. 24 (2): 126–35. doi:10.5021/ad.2012.24.2.126. PMC 3346901Freely accessible. PMID 22577261. 
  8. ^ Gombart AF, Bhan I, Borregaard N, Tamez H, Camargo CA, Koeffler HP, Thadhani R (Feb 2009). "Low plasma level of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP18) predicts increased infectious disease mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 48 (4): 418–24. doi:10.1086/596314. PMID 19133797. 
  9. ^ Zasloff M (Jan 2002). "Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms". Nature. 415 (6870): 389–95. doi:10.1038/415389a. PMID 11807545. 
  10. ^ Kamen DL, Tangpricha V (May 2010). "Vitamin D and molecular actions on the immune system: modulation of innate and autoimmunity". Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany). 88 (5): 441–50. doi:10.1007/s00109-010-0590-9. PMC 2861286Freely accessible. PMID 20119827. 
  11. ^ Breij, Anna de; Riool, Martijn; Cordfunke, Robert A.; Malanovic, Nermina; Boer, Leonie de; Koning, Roman I.; Ravensbergen, Elisabeth; Franken, Marnix; Heijde, Tobias van der (2018-01-10). "The antimicrobial peptide SAAP-148 combats drug-resistant bacteria and biofilms". Science Translational Medicine. 10 (423): eaan4044. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aan4044. ISSN 1946-6234. PMID 29321257.