Lagmann mac Gofraid
Lagmann mac Gofraid may have been an early eleventh-century ruler of the Kingdom of the Isles.[note 1] He seems to have been a son of Gofraid mac Arailt, King of the Isles, and was likely a member of the Uí Ímair kindred. According to an eleventh-century source, Lagmann was closely associated with Óláfr Haraldsson, a future King of Norway. According to an eleventh-century source, both men are recorded to have lent assistance to Knútr, son of Sveinn Haraldsson, King of Denmark, although it is possible that this account actually refers to Óláfr's campaigning in England several years beforehand. Lagmann and Óláfr are also recorded to have assisted Richard II, Duke of Normandy. The two are specified to have not only ravaged lands in Brittany on behalf of Richard, but were tasked to counter Richard's opponent Odo II, Count of Chartres. Lagmann's activities on the Continent may have arisen as a result of being forced from the Isles following the death of his possible brother Ragnall mac Gofraid, King of the Isles in 1004 or 1005. Lagmann's son, Amlaíb, is recorded to have perished at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. If Lagmann died at about this time as well, it could account for the record of Hákon Eiríksson assuming control of the Isles.
King of the Isles
According to the eleventh-century Gesta Normannorum Ducum, Knútr (died 1035), son of Sveinn Haraldsson, King of Denmark (died 1014) sought military assistance from a king of the Noricorum named Óláfr, and a king of Suauorum named Lacman. Whilst Óláfr seems to be identical to Óláfr Haraldsson (died 1030), there is otherwise no known Swedish king named Lagmann. In fact, Gesta Normannorum Ducum appears refer to a King of the Isles rather than a King of Sweden, with Suauorum likely being a form of Sudrorum. In Scandinavian sources, the Hebrides and Mann—the islands that made up the Kingdom of the Isles—were known as the Suðreyjar, an Old Norse term meaning "Southern Islands".
The Gaelic personal name Lagmann is derived from the Old Norse lǫgmaðr ("lawman"). The latter word originally referred to a profession, and was later adopted as a personal name. Although the name itself is historically found in the Isles as early the tenth century, it is not attested in Scandinavia proper. Corroboration that there was indeed a contemporaneous potentate from the Isles who bore the name is preserved by the fifteenth–sixteenth-century Annals of Ulster and the twelfth-century Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib. These sources reveal that a prominent Islesmen named Amlaíb, described as the son of Lagmann mac Gofraid, fought and died at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. The patronym accorded to Lagmann in these sources suggests that his father was Gofraid mac Arailt, King of the Isles (died 989), and thus a brother of Ragnall mac Gofraid, King of the Isles (died 1004/1005).[note 2] It is conceivable that Lagmann's son led the Hebridean contingent at Clontarf.
According to the twelfth-century Roman de Rou, and Gesta Normannorum Ducum, after Lagmann and Óláfr assisted Knútr, the two were approached by Richard II, Duke of Normandy, who needed aid battling against Odo II, Count of Chartres. Lagmann and Óláfr are also stated to have campaigned on behalf of the Normans against the Bretons in Brittany where the two sacked Dol. It is possible that a record of this ravaging of Dol—and the unidentified coastal site of Hringsfjǫrðr—is preserved by Víkingarvísur, a piece of contemporary praise poetry composed by Sigvatr Þórðarson, extolling battles fought by Óláfr in England, Scandinavia, and on the Continent. In any event, when Robert II, King of the Franks (died 1031) afterwards intervened between the duke and count, Gesta Normannorum Ducum records that Lagmann and Óláfr were presented with gifts from the king, and persuaded to return home to their own countries.
The exact chronology of the events attributed to Lagmann on the Continent is uncertain. There is reason to suspect that the episode concerning 1014 may be erroneous, and actually refers to Óláfr's otherwise known campaigning with Þorkell inn hávi (fl. 1009–1023) in 1009–1011. Certainly, no English source associates Óláfr with Knútr in 1014, at about the time when the former was active in Scandianvia claiming the Norwegian kingship. Although it is likewise uncertain who ruled the Isles at about the time of the Battle of Clontarf, it is conceivable that Lagmann held a degree of authority on Mann. One possibility is that the record of his actions in England and on the Continent reveal that he had then been exiled from the Isles. Such an expatriation could have come about in the immediate aftermath of the death of his aforesaid brother in 1005. If correct, Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig, High King of Ireland (died 1014) could have seized upon Ragnall's demise and forced Lagmann from the Isles in an attempt to wrest control of realm for himself.
If Lagmann and his son died at about the same time, the lack of a suitable native candidate to succeed as King of the Isles may account for the record of the region falling under the control of the Norwegian Hákon Eiríksson (died 1029/1030). Evidence that Knútr installed Hákon as overlord of the Isles may be preserved by the twelfth-century Ágrip af Nóregskonungasǫgum. The historicity of this event is uncertain, however, and Hákon's authority in the Isles is not attested by any other source. If Hákon had indeed possessed overlordship of the Isles, his eventual demise in 1029 or 1030 may well have paved the way for the rise of Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of Dublin and the Isles (died 1064/1065), a man who may have been a son of Lagmann's brother, and who first appears on record in about 1031.
- Since the 2000s, academics have accorded Lagmann various personal names in English secondary sources: Lacman, Lagman, Lagmann, Lagmann Godfreysson, and Lagmann Gudrødsson.
- Another possibility is that Amlaíb's patronym links him with the so-called "Lawmen of the Isles" who are attested in Ireland in the 960s and 970s by the Annals of the Four Masters.
- Albu (2001); Mortensen (2000); Wood Breese (1977).
- Hudson (2002).
- Downham (2007); Hudson (2005); Downham (2004).
- Hudson (2005).
- Downham (2004).
- Downham (2007) pp. 132–133; Hudson (2005) pp. 68, 76–77, 132; Downham (2004) pp. 60–61; Abrams (2003) p. 47 n. 20; Hudson (2002) p. 38; Mortensen (2000) pp. 7, 178–179; Marx (1914) pp. 81–82 § 5.8.
- Crouch (2002) p. 22.
- Downham (2007) pp. 132–133; Hudson (2005) p. 77; Downham (2004) pp. 60–61; Wood Breese (1977) p. 59 n. 71.
- McDonald (2012) p. 152; Hudson (2005) p. 77.
- The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 1014.2; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 1014.2; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489 (n.d.).
- Downham (2007) p. 133; Downham (2004) p. 61; Ó Corráin (1998a) § 16; Ó Corráin (1998b) pp. 308–309.
- Duffy (2013) ch. 4; The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 1014.2; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 1014.2; Downham (2007) pp. 133, 198; Hudson (2005) pp. 77, 98; Downham (2004) p. 61; Jennings (1994) p. 98 n. 58; Todd (1867) pp. 164–165, 164 n. 10, 206–207, 271–272.
- Hudson (2005) p. 77; Downham (2004) pp. 60–61; Todd (1867) pp. 271–272.
- Hudson (2005) p. 77.
- Annals of the Four Masters (2013a) §§ 960.14, 972.13; Annals of the Four Masters (2013b) §§ 960.14, 972.13; Duffy (2013) ch. 4.
- Downham (2013) p. 87.
- Flateyjarbok (1862) p. 21; GKS 1005 Fol (n.d.).
- Hicks (2016) p. 152; Burgess; van Houts (2004) pp. 110–111; Andresen (1877) pp. 98–103.
- Hicks (2016) p. 152; Downham (2007) pp. 134, 189; Hudson (2005) pp. 68, 76–77, 132; Downham (2004) p. 61; Jesch (2004) p. 262; Albu (2001) pp. 72–73; Jesch (2001) pp. 83–84; Mortensen (2000) pp. 177 n. 42, 178–179; van Houts (1984) p. 118; Wood Breese (1977) p. 60 n. 73; Marx (1914) pp. 85–87 § 5.11–12.
- Finlay; Faulkes (2014) p. 14; Finlay (2004) p. 135, 135 n. 379; Jesch (2004) pp. 261–262; Abrams (2003) p. 47 n. 20; Jesch (2001) pp. 83–84; Price (1986–1989) p. 332; Flateyjarbok (1862) p. 21; Sigv Víkv 10 (n.d.).
- The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 977.2; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 977.2; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 488 (n.d.).
- Hudson (2005) p. 76; Downham (2004) p. 61.
- van Houts (1984) pp. 118–119.
- Simek (2010); van Houts (1984) pp. 118–119.
- Downham (2007) p. 197.
- Hudson (2005) p. 132.
- Abrams (2007) p. 181 n. 7; Woolf (2007) p. 246; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) pp. 196–198; Hudson (2005) pp. 130–131; Williams (1997) pp. 101–102.
- Driscoll (2008) p. 97 n. 78; Woolf (2007) p. 246; Hudson (2005) pp. 130–131.
- Woolf (2007) p. 246.
- Downham (2007) p. 193 fig. 12; Hudson (2005) p. 130 fig. 4.
- Hudson (2005) p. 132.
- Andresen, H, ed. (1877). Maistre Wace's Roman de Rou et de Ducs de Normandie. Heilbronn: Gebr. Henninger – via Internet Archive.
- "Annals of the Four Masters". Corpus of Electronic Texts (3 December 2013 ed.). University College Cork. 2013a. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "Annals of the Four Masters". Corpus of Electronic Texts (16 December 2013 ed.). University College Cork. 2013b. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "Annals of Tigernach". Corpus of Electronic Texts (13 April 2005 ed.). University College Cork. 2005. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- "Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 488". Early Manuscripts at Oxford University. Oxford Digital Library. n.d. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
- "Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489". Early Manuscripts at Oxford University. Oxford Digital Library. n.d. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- Burgess, GS; van Houts, E, eds. (2004). The History of the Norman People: Wace's Roman de Rou. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. ISBN 1 84383 007 8.
- Driscoll, MJ, ed. (2008). Ágrip af Nóregskonungasǫgum: A Twelfth-Century Synoptic History of the Kings of Norway. Viking Society for Northern Research Text Series (series vol. 10) (2nd ed.). London: Viking Society for Northern Research. ISBN 978 0 903521 75 8.
- Finlay, A; Faulkes, A, eds. (2014). Snorri Sturluson: Heimskringla. Vol 2, Óláfr Haraldsson (the Saint). London: Viking Society for Northern Research. ISBN 978-0-903521-89-5.
- Flateyjarbok: En Samling af Norske Konge-Sagaer med Indskudte Mindre Fortællinger om Begivenheder i og Udenfor Norse Same Annaler. Vol. 2. Oslo: P.T. Mallings Forlagsboghandel. 1862 – via Internet Archive.
- "GKS 1005 Fol". Handrit.is. n.d. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- Marx, J, ed. (1914). Gesta Normannorum Ducum. Rouen: A. Lestringant.
- "Sigv Víkv 10I". The Skaldic Project. n.d. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "The Annals of Tigernach". Corpus of Electronic Texts (2 November 2010 ed.). University College Cork. 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- "The Annals of Ulster". Corpus of Electronic Texts (29 August 2008 ed.). University College Cork. 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "The Annals of Ulster". Corpus of Electronic Texts (15 August 2012 ed.). University College Cork. 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- Todd, JH, ed. (1867). Cogad Gaedel re Gallaib: The War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer – via Internet Archive.
- Abrams, L (2003). "England, Normandy and Scandinavia". In Harper-Bill, C; van Houts, E. A Companion to the Anglo-Norman World. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. pp. 63–85. ISBN 0 85115 673 8.
- Abrams, L (2007). "Conversion and the Church in the Hebrides in the Viking Age". In Smith, BB; Taylor, S; Williams, G. West Over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300. The Northern World: North Europe and the Baltic c. 400–1700 AD. Peoples, Economics and Cultures (series vol. 31). Leiden: Brill. pp. 169–193. ISBN 978 90 04 15893 1. ISSN 1569-1462.
- Albu, E (2001). The Normans in Their Histories: Propaganda, Myth and Subversion. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-656-8 – via Google Books.
- Crouch, D (2002). The Normans: The History of a Dynasty. London: Hambledon Continuum. ISBN 1 85285 387 5.
- Downham, C (2004). "England and the Irish-Sea Zone in the Eleventh Century". In Gillingham, J. Anglo-Norman Studies. Vol. 26, Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2003. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. pp. 55–73. ISBN 1-84383-072-8. ISSN 0954-9927.
- Downham, C (2007). Viking Kings of Britain and Ireland: The Dynasty of Ívarr to A.D. 1014. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-903765-89-0.
- Downham, C (2013). "Irish Chronicles as a Source for Rivalry Between Vikings, A.D. 795–1014". No Horns on Their Helmets? Essays on the Insular Viking-Age. Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, and Scandinavian Studies (series vol. 1). Aberdeen: Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies and The Centre for Celtic Studies, University of Aberdeen. pp. 75–89. ISBN 978-0-9557720-1-6. ISSN 2051-6509.
- Duffy, S (2013). Brian Boru and the Battle of Clontarf. Gill & Macmillan – via Google Books.
- Finlay, A, ed. (2004). Fagrskinna, a Catalogue of the Kings of Norway: A Translation with Introduction and Notes. The Northern World: North Europe and the Baltic c. 400–1700 AD. Peoples, Economics and Cultures (series vol. 7). Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90 04 13172 8. ISSN 1569-1462.
- Forte, A; Oram, RD; Pedersen, F (2005). Viking Empires. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82992-2.
- Hicks, LV (2016) . "The Concept of the Frontier in Norman Chronicles". In Stringer, KJ; Jotischky, A. Norman Expansion: Connections, Continuities and Contrasts. Milton Park, Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 143–164. ISBN 978-1-409-44838-9 – via Google Books.
- Hudson, BT (2002). "The Scottish Gaze". In McDonald, R. History, Literature, and Music in Scotland, 700–1560. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 29–59. ISBN 0-8020-3601-5 – via Google Books.
- Hudson, BT (2005). Viking Pirates and Christian Princes: Dynasty, Religion, and Empire in the North Atlantic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516237-0 – via Google Books.
- Jennings, A (1994). Historical Study of the Gael and Norse in Western Scotland From c.795 to c.1000 (PhD thesis). University of Edinburgh – via Edinburgh Research Archive.
- Jesch, J (2001). Ships and Men in the Late Viking Age: The Vocabulary of Runic Inscriptions and Skaldic Verse. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. ISBN 0 85115 826 9.
- Jesch, J (2004). "Vikings on the European Continent in the Late Viking Age". In Adams, J; Holman, K. Scandinavia and Europe, 800–1350: Contact, Conflict, and Coexistence. Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe (series vol. 4). Turnhout: Brepols Publishers. pp. 255–268. doi:10.1484/M.TCNE-EB.3.4113. ISBN 2-503-51085-X.
- McDonald, RA (2012). "The Manx Sea Kings and the Western Oceans: The Late Norse Isle of Man in its North Atlantic Context, 1079–1265". In Hudson, B. Studies in the Medieval Atlantic. The New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 143–184. doi:10.1057/9781137062390.0012. ISBN 978-1-137-06239-0 – via Palgrave Connect.
- Mortensen, LB (2000). "The Anchin Manuscript of Passio Olavi (Douai 295), William of Jumièges, and Theodoricus Monachus: New Evidence for Intellectual Relations Between Norway and France in the 12th Century". Symbolae Osloenses: Norwegian Journal of Greek and Latin Studies. 75 (1): 165–189. doi:10.1080/003976700300005929. eISSN 1502-7805. ISSN 0039-7679.
- Ó Corráin, D (1998a). "The Vikings in Scotland and Ireland in the Ninth Century". Chronicon: An Electric History Journal. 2. ISSN 1393-5259.
- Ó Corráin, D (1998b). "The Vikings in Scotland and Ireland in the Ninth Century". Peritia. 12: 296–339. doi:10.1484/j.peri.3.334. ISBN 2-503-50624-0. ISSN 0332-1592.
- Price, NS (1986–1989). "The Vikings in Brittany" (PDF). Saga-Book. 22: 319–433. ISSN 0305-9219 – via Viking Society Publications.
- Simek, S (2010). "Olaf II Haraldsson". In Rogers, CJ. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195334036 – via Oxford Reference. (subscription required (. ))
- van Houts, EMC (1984). "Scandinavian Influence in Norman Literature of the Eleventh Century". In Brown, RA. Anglo-Norman Studies. Vol. 6, Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1983. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. pp. 107–122. ISBN 0 85115 197 3.
- Williams, DGE (1997). Land Assessment and Military Organisation in the Norse Settlements in Scotland, c.900–1266 AD (PhD thesis). University of St Andrews – via Research@StAndrews:FullText.
- Woolf, A (2007). From Pictland to Alba, 789–1070. The New Edinburgh History of Scotland (series vol. 2). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1233-8.
- Wood Breese, L (1977). "The Persistence of Scandinavian Connections in Normandy in the Tenth and Early Eleventh Centuries". Viator. 8: 47–62. doi:10.1484/J.VIATOR.2.301563. ISSN 0083-5897.
Lagmann mac Gofraid
Ragnall mac Gofraid
|King of the Isles1||Succeeded by
|Notes and references|
|1. It is uncertain if Lagmann and Hákon ruled as King of the Isles.|