Lidice

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Lidice
Municipal office
Municipal office
Flag of Lidice
Coat of arms of Lidice
Lidice is located in Czech Republic
Lidice
Lidice
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 50°8′37″N 14°11′25″E / 50.14361°N 14.19028°E / 50.14361; 14.19028Coordinates: 50°8′37″N 14°11′25″E / 50.14361°N 14.19028°E / 50.14361; 14.19028
Country Czech Republic
RegionCentral Bohemian
DistrictKladno
First mentioned1318
Area
 • Total4.75 km2 (1.83 sq mi)
Elevation
343 m (1,125 ft)
Population
 (2021-01-01)[1]
 • Total569
 • Density120/km2 (310/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
273 54
Websitewww.obec-lidice.cz

Lidice ([lɪɟɪtsɛ], German: Liditz) is a municipality and village in Kladno District in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 600 inhabitants. It lies 22 kilometres (14 mi) northwest of Prague.

Lidice is built near the site of the previous village of the same name, which was completely destroyed on 10 June 1942 on orders from Adolf Hitler and Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler in reprisal for the assassination of Reich Protector Reinhard Heydrich.[2]

History[edit]

The first written mention of Lidice is from 1318. After the industrialisation of the area, many of its people worked in mines and factories in the neighbouring cities of Kladno and Slaný.

Lidice was chosen as a target for reprisals in the wake of the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, because its residents were suspected of harbouring local resistance partisans and were falsely associated with aiding team members of Operation Anthropoid.[3][4] Altogether, about 340 people from Lidice were murdered in the German reprisal (192 men, 60 women and 88 children). The village of Lidice was set on fire and the remains of the buildings destroyed with explosives. After the war ended, only 153 women and 17 children returned.[5] They were rehoused in a new village of Lidice that was built overlooking the original site, built using money raised by the Lidice Shall Live campaign, initiated by Sir Barnett Stross and based in north Staffordshire in the United Kingdom.[6][7] The first part of the new village was completed in 1949.

Culture[edit]

An art gallery, which displays permanent and temporary exhibitions, is in the new village 500 metres (1,600 ft) from the museum. The annual children's art competition attracts entries from around the world.[8]

In culture[edit]

In 1943, the Czech composer Bohuslav Martinů wrote the musical work, Memorial to Lidice [cs].

In 2017, to mark the 75th anniversary of the tragedy, the English composer Vic Carnall wrote his Opus 17, In Memoriam: the Village of Lidice (Czechoslovakia / June, 1942), a work for solo piano.

In recent years numerous films have highlighted the events of the village's razing in 1942. The 1975 film Operation Daybreak, 2011 film Lidice and Anthropoid from 2015 all detail the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich and the subsequent massacre and razing of the village.

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Lidice is twinned with:

  • England Coventry, England, United Kingdom.[9] A pedestrianised shopping area in Coventry is named Lidice Place.
  • Italy Marzabotto, Italy.[10] There is the Marzabottská street in Lidice.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 30 April 2021.
  2. ^ Gerwarth, Robert (2011). Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-300-11575-8.
  3. ^ Williamson, Gordon (1995). Loyalty is my Honor. Motorbooks International. p. 87. ISBN 0-7603-0012-7.
  4. ^ Wechsberg, Joseph (24 June 1948). "The Love Letter That destroyed Lidice". The Milwaukee Journal. p. 20. Retrieved 25 May 2016 – via Google News Archive.
  5. ^ Kaplan, Jan; Nosarzewska, Krystyna (1997). Prague: The Turbulent Century, Koenemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Koeln, p. 241 ISBN 3-89508-528-6
  6. ^ "How Stoke-on-Trent helped Lidice recover from the Nazis". BBC News. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  7. ^ Phillips, Russell (2016). A Ray of Light: Reinhard Heydrich, Lidice, and the North Staffordshire Miners. Shilka Publishing. p. 69. ISBN 9780995513303.
  8. ^ International Children’s Exhibition of Fine Arts Lidice
  9. ^ "Coventry's twin towns and cities - Lidice, Czech Republic". Coventry City Council. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  10. ^ "Patto di gemellaggio con Stazzema". comune.marzabotto.bo.it (in Italian). Marzabotto. Retrieved 28 January 2021.