List of Grand Duchesses of Russia

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This is a list of those members of the Russian Imperial House who bore the title Velikaia Kniaginia (Russian: Великая Княгиня) or Velikaia Knazhna (Russian: Великая Княжна) (usually translated into French and English as Grand Duchess, but more accurately Grand Princess). This courtesy title was borne (usually) by daughters and male-line granddaughters of the Emperors or Empress Regnants of Russia, as well as by wives of Grand Dukes of Russia, all along with the style of Her Imperial Highness as members of the House of the reigning Emperor or Empress Regnant.

For more information on the titles, see List of Grand Dukes of Russia.

Grand Duchesses of Russia of the House of Romanov[edit]

Picture Name Father Born Died Marriage Notes
Anna Petrovna of Russia by anonymous (1740s, Ostankino).jpg
Anna Petrovna Peter Alexeievich 1708 1728 Duke Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp
Elizabeth of Russia (young).jpg
Elizabeth Petrovna Peter Alexeievich 1709 1762 Alexis Grigorievich Razumovsky (uncertain marriage) ascended the throne in 1741 as Empress Elizabeth of Russia
Каравак - Портрет цесаревны Натальи Петровны.jpg
Natalia Alexeievna Alexei Petrovich 1714 1728 deceased unmarried
Anna Leopoldovna by Wedekind.jpg
Anna Leopoldovna Charles Leopold of Mecklenburg 1718 1746 Duke Anton Ulrich of Brunswick assumed title rather than received it
Anna Petrovna Peter Feodorovich 1757 1758 deceased as child
Alexandra Pavlovna by Dm.Levitsky (1790s, Pavlovsk).jpg
Alexandra Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1783 1801 Archduke Joseph of Austria 
Tischbein Elena Pavlovna of Russia.jpg
Elena Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1784 1803 Hereditary Prince Frederick Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 
Maria Pavlovna of Russia by V.Borovikovskiy (1800s, Pavlovsk).jpg
Maria Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1786 1859 Grand Duke Charles Frederick of Saxe-Weimar 
Königin Katharina Württ.jpg
Catherine Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1788 1819 Duke George of Oldenburg
King William I of Württemberg 
Olga Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1792 1795 deceased as child 
Pimen Orlov Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna 2.jpg
Anna Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1795 1865 King William II of the Netherlands 
Maria Alexandrovna Alexander Pavlovich 1799 1800 deceased as child 
Elizabeth Alexandrovna Alexander Pavlovich 1806 1808 deceased as child 
Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaievna, daughter of Tsar Nicholas I.JPG
Maria Nikolaievna Nikolai Pavlovich 1819 1876 Duke Maximilian of Leuchtenberg
Grigori Stroganov 
Olga de Russia Wuerttemberg.jpg
Olga Nikolaievna Nikolai Pavlovich 1822 1892 King Charles I of Württemberg 
Maria Michailovna by Smirnov after T.Neff (1840s).jpg
Maria Mikhailovna Mikhail Pavlovich 1825 1846 died unmarried 
GD Alexandra Nikolaievna of Russia.jpg
Alexandra Nikolaievna Nikolai Pavlovich 1825 1844 Prince Frederik of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) in Denmark 
Elizabeth Mikhailovna by Hau.jpg
Elizabeth Mikhailovna Mikhail Pavlovich 1826 1845 Prince Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg 
Jekatyerina Mihajlovna of Russia.jpg
Catherine Mikhailovna Mikhail Pavlovich 1827 1894 Duke George of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 
Alexandra Mikhailovna Mikhail Pavlovich 1831 1832 deceased as child 
Anna Mikhailovna Mikhail Pavlovich 1834 1836 deceased as child 
Alekszandra Alekszandrovna orosz nagyhercegnő.jpg
Alexandra Alexandrovna Alexander Nikolaievich 1842 1849 deceased as child 
Olga Konsztantyinovna Romanova.jpg
Olga Konstantinovna Konstantin Nikolaievich 1851 1926 King George I of Greece 
Maria Alexandrovna Romanova.jpg
Maria Alexandrovna Alexander Nikolaievich 1853 1920 Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Edinburgh 
Vera Konstantinovna.jpg
Vera Konstantinovna Konstantin Nikolaievich 1854 1912 Duke Eugen of Wurttemberg 
1883 ball - Anastasia Mikh.jpg
Anastasia Mikhailovna Mikhail Nikolaievich 1860 1922 Grand Duke Frederick Francis III of Mecklenburg-Schwerin  
Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna.jpg
Xenia Alexandrovna Alexander Alexandrovich 1875 1960 Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich of Russia 
Elena Vladimirovna Vladimir Alexandrovich 1882 1957 Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark 
Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna.jpg
Olga Alexandrovna Alexander Alexandrovich 1882 1960 Duke Peter of Oldenburg
Nikolai Alexandrovich Kulikovsky 
Maria Pavlovna.jpg
Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich 1890 1950 Prince Wilhelm, Duke of Södermanland
(m. 1908 - div. 1914)
Prince Sergei Mikhailovich Putyatin
Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaievna Emperor Nicholas II 1895 1918 deceased unmarried
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaievna Emperor Nicholas II 1897 1918 deceased unmarried
Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna Emperor Nicholas II 1899 1918 deceased unmarried
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna Crisco edit letters removed.jpg
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaievna Emperor Nicholas II 1901 1918 deceased unmarried
Grand Duchess Maria Kirillovna of Russia.JPG
Princess Maria Kirillovna, Dowager Princess of Leiningen Crown Prince Kirill Vladimirovich 1907 1951 Prince Karl, 6th Prince of Leiningen
m. 1925 - 1946; his death
Born as Princess of Russia and Grand Duchess after her fathers headship of the House of Romanov
Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia2.JPG
Crown Princess Kira Kirillovna of Germany Crown Prince Kirill Vladimirovich 1909 1967 Crown Prince Louis Ferdinand of Germany
m. 1938 - 1967; her death
Born as Princess of Russia and Grand Duchess after her fathers headship of the House of Romanov
Crown Princess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia Crown Prince Vladimir Kirillovich 1953 Prince Franz Wilhelm of Prussia
m. 1976 - div. 1985
Born as Grand Duchess of Russia and later Crown Princess of Russia and Head of the House of Romanov after the death of her father

After 1917 no such daughter was born into the deposed imperial house who would have been entitled to the title grand duchess - i.e., had been a male-line granddaughter of a reigning emperor; although such would have been technically possible, as there lived sons of reigning emperors and their daughters would have been so entitled.

Grand Duchesses of Russia by marriage[edit]

Picture Name Husband Date of marriage Born Died Notes
Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.jpg
Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich 25 October 1711 29 August 1694 13 November 1715  
Catherine Alexeievna of Anhalt-Zerbst Peter Fyodorovich 1 September 1745 2 May 1729 17 November 1796 Known to history as 'Catherine the Great';became Empress Consort when her husband succeeded as Emperor Peter III in 1762 and became Empress Regnant 9 July 1762 when deposing her husband
Natalia Alexeievna by A.Roslin (1776, Hermitage).jpg
Natalia Alexeievna of Hesse-Darmstadt Pavel Petrovich 10 October 1773 25 June 1755 26 April 1776 her husband later succeeded as Emperor Pavel I in 1796
Alexander Roslin 015.jpg
Maria Fyodorovna of Württemberg Pavel Petrovich 7 October 1776 25 October 1759 5 November 1828 became Empress when her husband succeeded as Emperor Pavel I in 1796
Elizabeth Alexeevna (Vigee-Le Brun type) by anonymous (19 c., Alferaki Palace, Taganrog).jpg
Elizabeth Alexeievna of Baden Alexander Pavlovich 9 October 1793 24 January 1779 16 May 1826 became Empress when her husband succeeded as Emperor Alexander I in 1801
Anna Fedorovna by E.Vigee-Lebrun.jpg
Anna Fyodorovna of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Konstantin Pavlovich 26 February 1796 23 September 1781 15 August 1860 divorced 1820  
Alexandra FyodorovnaRobertson.jpg
Alexandra Fyodorovna of Prussia Nikolai Pavlovich 13 July 1817 13 July 1798 1 November 1860 became Empress when her husband succeeded as Emperor Nikolai I in 1825
Elena Pavlovna by A.Gral (c.1830, Russian museum).jpg
Elena Pavlovna of Württemberg Mikhail Pavlovich 19 February 1824 9 January 1807 2 February 1873  
Maria Alexandrovna of Hesse-Darmstadt Alexander Nikolaievich 28 April 1841 8 August 1824 3 June 1880 became Empress when her husband succeeded as Emperor Alexander II in 1855
Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg.jpg
Alexandra Iosifovna of Saxe-Altenburg Konstantin Nikolaievich 11 September 1848 8 July 1830 6 July 1911  
Grand Duchess Anastasia Petrovna of Russia.JPG
Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg Nikolai Nikolaievich 6 February 1856 2 June 1838 25 April 1900  
Olga Feodorovna( cecile of Baden ).jpg
Olga Fyodorovna of Baden Mikhail Nikolaievich 28 August 1857 20 September 1839 12 April 1891  
Dagmar 1864.jpg
Maria Fyodorovna of Denmark Alexander Alexandrovich 9 November 1866 26 November 1847 13 October 1928 became Empress when her husband succeeded as Emperor Alexander III in 1881
Maria Pavlovna of Russia.jpg
Maria Pavlovna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Vladimir Alexandrovich 28 August 1874 14 May 1854 6 September 1920  
Elizabeth Mavrikievna of Saxe-Altenburg Konstantin Konstantinovich 27 April 1884 25 January 1865 24 March 1927  
Elizaveta Federovna.gif
Elizabeth Fyodorovna of Hesse-Darmstadt Sergei Alexandrovich 15 June 1884 1 November 1864 17 or 18 July 1918  
Princess Alexandra of Greece and Denmark (August 30, 1870–September 24, 1891).jpg
Alexandra Georgievna of Greece Pavel Alexandrovich 17 June 1889 30 August 1870 24 September 1891  
Milica Nikolajevna.jpg
Militsa Nicolaievna of Montenegro Peter Nikolaievich 26 July 1889 26 July 1866 5 September 1951  
Maria da Grécia2.jpg
Maria Georgievna of Greece George Mikhailovich 12 May 1900 3 March 1876 14 December 1940  
Vitoria Melita.JPG
Victoria Fyodorovna of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Kirill Vladimirovich 8 October 1905 25 November 1876 2 March 1936  
Anasztaszija Nyikolajevna of Montenegro.jpg
Anastasia Nikolaievna of Montenegro Nikolai Nikolaievich 29 April 1907 4 January 1868 25 January 1929  
Princess Leonida Bagration of Georgia Crown Prince Vladimir Kirillovich 13 August 1948 6 October 1914 23 May 2010 Wife and Mother of the Heads of the Russian Imperial Family in exile
Imperial Standard of the Grand Duchess.

Although male grand dukes of Russia (sons or male-line grandsons of reigning emperors) existed after 1917, when the imperial house was deposed, none of them contracted an equal marriage after that date; so the title grand duchess was not gained by marriage thereafter - though it would have been technically possible.

Note that a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess as a translation is not necessarily associated with a Grand Duchy; see the relevant articles for more information.

A Russian Grand Duchess was styled as, Her Imperial Highness.

See also[edit]