List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach printed during his lifetime
Johann Sebastian Bach
Compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach printed during his lifetime (1685-1750) include works for keyboard instruments, such as his Clavier-Übung volumes for harpsichord and for organ, and to a lesser extent ensemble music, such as the trio sonata of The Musical Offering, and vocal music, such as a cantata published early in his career. Other works, such as several canons, were printed without an indication by which instruments they were to be performed.
No more than a few works by Johann Sebastian Bach were printed during his lifetime. Extended works for choir and instrumentalists were not printed very often in his day. Bach selected mostly keyboard compositions for publication, which conformed to such contemporary practices, and was instrumental in establishing him as a keyboard composer. His works not only circulated in print: also manuscripts were copied and transmitted. Whether or not a work was selected for print was independent of the quality of the music.
- 1 Context
- 2 Printed music
- 2.1 Mühlhausen council election cantatas
- 2.2 Clavier-Übung I
- 2.3 Canon a 4
- 2.4 Clavier-Übung II
- 2.5 Spiritual songs and arias from Schemelli's Musicalisches Gesang-Buch
- 2.6 Clavier-Übung III
- 2.7 Clavier-Übung IV
- 2.8 Canon triplex a 6
- 2.9 Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her"
- 2.10 Musikalisches Opfer
- 2.11 Schübler Chorales
- 2.12 Kunst der Fuge
- 3 Further reading
- 4 References
- 5 Sources
Whereas earlier composers such as Palestrina, Monteverdi, Praetorius and Schütz had their works printed to ensure that the entire range of their music became more widely known, this was not the case with Bach, who only had a small proportion of his works printed. Christoph Wolff has suggested three reasons: firstly the financial support from municipal councils or noble patrons available to previous generations had diminished in Germany as a result of the Thirty Years War; secondly the expense of printing contrapuntal keyboard music which, at that time in Germany, was more often typeset than engraved; and lastly the low number of potential customers for works that were often technically difficult and unconventional.
Counting by BWV numbers, less than ten percent of the composer's output was printed during his lifetime. Especially the choral works, less than half a percent of over 400 BWV numbers, are under-represented. This was however not exceptional for Bach's time when larger works for chorus and orchestra were less often printed. Bach's own efforts to get his works printed concentrated mostly on his keyboard compositions, which contributed to the fact that, at least until the 19th-century Bach Revival, he was mainly regarded as a keyboard composer. Whether or not a work was selected for print was independent of the quality of the music.
|71||cantata Gott ist mein König||1708|
|439–507||songs and arias in Schemellis Gesangbuch||1736|
|552||Prelude and Fugue in E♭ for organ in Clavier-Übung III||1739|
|645–650||chorale preludes for organ (Schübler Chorales)||1747–1748|
|669–689||chorale preludes for organ in Clavier-Übung III||1739|
|769||Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch" for organ||1747–1748|
|802–805||duets for keyboard instrument in Clavier-Übung III||1739|
|825–830||partitas for harpsichord in Clavier-Übung I||1726–1730, 1731|
|831||French Overture for harpsichord in Clavier-Übung II||1735|
|971||Italian Concerto for harpsichord in Clavier-Übung II||1735|
|988||Goldberg Variations for harpsichord (Clavier-Übung IV)||1741–1742|
|1074||Canon a 4||1728, 1739, 1747|
|1076||Canon triplex a 6||1747|
|1079||The Musical Offering for diverse instruments||1747–1749|
|1080||The Art of Fugue||1751, 1752|
|Anh. 192||cantata for Ratswahl in Mühlhausen (lost)||1709|
Most of the prints of Bach's music which appeared during his lifetime were commissioned by the composer. Bach's personal copies, often containing handwritten corrections or additions, have been recovered for several of his printed works. The German expression for personal copy, Handexemplar, also appears in English-language Bach-scholarship, and is used in the list below when referring to prints once contained in the personal library of Johann Sebastian Bach.
During Bach's lifetime his compositions were mostly distributed amongst his immediate musical associates through manuscript copies. After his death in 1750, manuscript copies of keyboard and vocal works were made by professional copyists and distributed by musical publishing firms, especially Breitkopf (Leipzig), Traeg (Vienna) and Westphal (Hamburg). This in turn led to the appearance of printed editions of his works, beginning with the publication of Bach's four-part chorales in the second half of the eighteenth century. The fact that Bach had published representative samples of his music for keyboard instruments contributed to his fame, and to an increased demand for such works after his death.
In his 1732 Musicalisches Lexicon, Johann Gottfried Walther listed all keyboard compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach which had been printed up to that point, that is, the six partitas of Clavier-Übung I. In Bach's obituary, which was published four years after the composer's death, printed and unprinted works are listed separately: the list of engraved compositions contains eight items, all of them instrumental works, and concludes with The Art of Fugue, which had been printed shortly after the composer's death. A comparable list, starting with the same eight items, appeared half a century later in Johann Nikolaus Forkel's Bach-biography. In 1937 Georg Kinsky published an extensive study of Bach's original publications.
The eight publications listed in Bach's obituary included The Art of Fugue which was in fact published shortly after the composer's death. Further, two publications with vocal music and two canons are extant.
Mühlhausen council election cantatas
Gott ist mein König, BWV 71, Bach's council election (Ratswahl) cantata composed for Mühlhausen in 1708, was printed that same year at the expense of the town council. In 1709, the Mühlhausen council paid to have that year's Ratswahl cantata, also by Bach, printed: this cantata, BWV Anh. 192, is, however, lost.
- The Mühlhausen council commissioned the publication of the Ratswahl cantatas. The parts and libretto of the Gott ist mein König cantata, printed in Mühlhausen, are extant.
- Mus. 11495 of the Berlin State Library has a handwritten note by Bach on the front page.
- Autumn 1726: Partita No. 1 in B-flat major, BWV 825.
- Easter 1727: Partita No. 2 in C minor, BWV 826.
- Michaelmas 1727: Partita No. 3 in A minor, BWV 827.
- 1728: Partita No. 4 in D major, BWV 828.
- 1730: Partita No. 5 in G major, BWV 829.
- 1730: Partita No. 6 in E minor, BWV 830.
- According to an announcement published in May 1730, it was originally planned to publish seven suites.
- In 1774 Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, son of Johann Sebastian, sold a print of Clavier-Übung I from his father's personal library to Johann Nikolaus Forkel. In 2008 Andrew Talle identified SH J. S. Bach 56 of the Austrian National Library as the Handexemplar that changed hands in 1774. Previously, Bach scholars such as Walter Emery (1952) and Richard D. P. Jones (1978, 1988, 1997) had assumed that Hirsch III. 37 of the British Library was the only copy of Clavier-Übung I with final corrections as intended by Bach.
Canon a 4
Bach's "Canon mit 4" (canon for four voices), BWV 1074, was published in Georg Philipp Telemann's Der getreue Music-Meister in 1728. This canon was also published with two solutions in Johann Mattheson's Der vollkommene Capellmeister in 1739, and with three solutions in Volume 3 of Lorenz Christoph Mizler's Musikalische Bibliothek in 1747.
The second volume of the Clavier-Übung was first published in 1735, soon followed by a reprint with several corrections. It contained two compositions, specified for performance on a two-manual harpsichord:
- Concerto nach Italienischen Gusto (Italian Concerto), BWV 971
- Ouvertüre nach Französischer Art (French Overture), BWV 831
- Clavier-Übung II was printed in Nürnberg by Christoph Weigel. In the second printing pages 20 to 22 were replaced by new engravings.
- K.8.g.7 of the British Library was Bach's Handexemplar: it is a copy from the first print run with more than hundred corrections in Bach's hand.
Spiritual songs and arias from Schemelli's Musicalisches Gesang-Buch
Georg Christian Schemelli's Musicalisches Gesang-Buch (musical songbook) contains 954 song texts, 69 of which, BWV 439–507, are printed with a setting for singing voice and thoroughbass. Not all 69 melodies were composed by Bach, but he provided (or "improved") an accompaniment for all of them. Schemellis Gesangbuch was published in 1736, and contains some of Bach's probably least known compositions.
- Prelude in E-flat major, BWV 552/i
- German Kyrie and Gloria settings, BWV 669–677
- Catechism chorales, BWV 678–689
- Four duets, BWV 802–805
- Fugue E-flat major, BWV 552/ii
In 1741 or 1742 another Clavier-Übung volume was published, the Aria with diverse variations for double manual harpsichord, later known as the Goldberg Variations, BWV 988. Not thus numbered in the print it was the fourth Clavier-Übung publication. This publication does not carry a reference to Johann Gottlieb Goldberg: the music was published over half a century before the perhaps exaggerated anecdote involving Goldberg was printed in Forkel's biography of Bach.
- Ms. 17669 at Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF). Contains corrections by Bach, and his autograph of BWV 1087.
Canon triplex a 6
Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her"
The Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her", BWV 769, for organ, were published on the occasion of Bach's admission to Mizler's Society of the Musical Sciences in 1747.
- The Canonic Variations were published by Balthasar Schmid in Nürnberg. Variations I–III and V were engraved in 1746, and the set was complete with the insertion of Var. IV in 1747. Emans & Hiemke (2015) give 1748 as the publication date of the printed version.
- The original print of the Canonic Variations was not a performance version: for instance for the first three variations it contained only the first notes of the canonic response, to be elaborated in canon from the principal melody line. Bach produced such performance version, BWV 769a, in a separate autograph which survives in P 271 of the Berlin State Library. A print version of the Canonic Variations with some autograph corrections by Bach went lost at the end of World War II.
The Musical Offering, BWV 1079, was published in 1747, after Bach's visit to Frederick the Great in Potsdam. The work is written for diverse instruments, and includes a trio sonata for flute, violin and continuo.
The Schübler Chorales, BWV 645–650, is a set of chorale preludes for organ, published around 1748 as Sechs Chorale von verschiedener Art (Six Chorales of Various Kinds) by Johann Georg Schübler.
- There is some doubt whether Bach commissioned the publication, which mainly, perhaps even exclusively, consists of arrangements of cantata movements which he had composed a few decades earlier. The work was published in Zella St. Blasii, and the engraver apparently prepared the print unsupervised by the composer. Likely Bach at least chose the six pieces, determined their sequence in the publication, and gave some instruction on how they were to be arranged.
- Bach's Handexemplar is part of the Scheide Collection at the Princeton University Library. It contains several corrections by Bach, but misses the title page and the first page of music.
Kunst der Fuge
In preparation for print when the composer died (1750): The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080. The printed versions (1751 and 1752) contain BWV 668a, a variant of the chorale prelude "Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein", BWV 668. Both instrumentation and performance order of the fugues and canons contained in this work remain subject to debate amongst scholars.
- Kinsky, Georg (1937). Die Originalausgaben der Werke Johann Sebastian Bachs: Ein Beitrag zur Musikbibliographie (in German). Vienna, Leipzig, Zurich: Reichner.
- Wolff 1991, p. 371–373.
- Wolff 1991, p. 340 and endnote 1 pp. 430–431.
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, p. 227.
- Talle 2008.
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, pp. 228–229.
- Walther 1732.
- Bach & Agricola 1754, pp. 167–168.
- Forkel 1802, pp. 50–53.
- Forkel & Terry 1920, pp. 116–123.
- Wolff 1991a, p. 340 and endnote 1 pp. 430–431.
- Forkel & Terry 1920, footnotes pp. xxvii, 15 (No. 1), 115 (No. 1) and 116 (No. 1).
- Bach 1708.
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, p. 228.
- Work 1503 at Bach Digital website.
- Forkel & Terry 1920, p. 116.
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, p. 228–230.
- Schneider 1907, p. 95.
- Bach 1726.
- Bach 1727a.
- Bach 1727b.
- Bach 1728.
- Bach 1730.
- Lost source: original print of BWV 830 at Bach Digital website.
- Bach 1731.
- Schneider 1907, p. 96.
- Wolff 1991, p. 189.
- Williams 2016, p. 361.
- Talle 2008, pp. 157–158.
- Talle 2008, p. 164.
- A-Wn SH J. S. Bach 56 at Bach Digital website.
- Talle 2008, pp. 158–160.
- GB-Lbl Hirsch III. 37 at Bach Digital library.
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, p. 233.
- D-LEm Becker III.13.86 at Bach Digital website.
- Telemann 1728, p. 68.
- Mattheson 1739, pp. 412–414.
- Mizler 1747, pp. 482ff and "Tab. II. part III. Tom. III. Bibl. mus." (in musical annex).
- Forkel & Terry 1920, p. 117.
- Original print of Clavier-Übung II (BWV 971 and 831), 1st printing at Bach Digital website.
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, p. 230.
- Original print of Clavier-Übung II (BWV 971 and 831), 2nd printing at Bach Digital website.
- Bach 1735.
- Wolff 1991, p. 375.
- Talle 2008, p. 165.
- GB-Lbl K.8.g.7 at Bach Digital website
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, p. 231.
- Schemelli 1736.
- Brilliant Classics, CD No. 99361/5 and 99361/6 (CD 14 and 15 from "Bach Edition")
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, pp. 230–231.
- Bach 1739.
- Work 0632 at Bach Digital website.
- Bach 1845.
- Forkel & Terry 1920, p. 118.
- Bach 1741–1742.
- Forkel & Terry 1920, pp. 118–120.
- Work 1273 at Bach Digital website
- Bach 1747.
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, pp. 232–233.
- Breig 2010, pp. 18–20.
- Forkel & Terry 1920, pp. XXIV, 112–113 and 120.
- Schneider 1907, p. 93.
- Bach 1747–1748.
- Wolff 1991b, p. 375.
- Breig 2010, p. 19.
- RISM No. 467300891
- Lost source: Original print of BWV 769 (#2, with corrections) at Bach Digital website
- Forkel & Terry 1920, pp. 120–121.
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, p. 232.
- Schneider 1907, p. 101.
- Bach 1747–1749.
- Work 1265 at Bach Digital website.
- Forkel & Terry 1920, p. 117–118.
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, pp. 231–232.
- Bach c. 1748.
- Wolff 1991, p. 343.
- Breig 2010, pp. 17–18.
- US-PRscheide BWV 645-650 at Bach Digital website
- Forkel & Terry 1920, p. 121–123.
- Emans & Hiemke 2015, p. 233–234.
- Bach 1751–1752.
- Work 1266 at Bach Digital website.
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1708). Glückwünschende Kirchen Motetto, als bey solennen Gottesdienste in der Haupt-Kirchen B. M. V. der gesegnete Raths-Wechsel am 4. Februarii dieses M.D.C.C.VIII. Jahres geschach (in German). Mühlhausen: Tobias David Brückner. RISM No. 00000990003393 – facsimile: Mus. 11495 R at Berlin State Library (D-B Mus. 11495 at Bach Digital website).
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1726). Clavier Ubung bestehend in Praeludien, Allemanden, Couranten, Sarabanden, Giquen, Menuetten, und andern Galanterien; Denen Liebhabern zur Gemüths Ergoezung verfertiget: Partita I. Leipzig. RISM No. 00000990003430.
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1727a). Clavier Ubung bestehend in Praeludien, Allemanden, Couranten, Sarabanden, Giquen, Menuetten, und andern Galanterien; Denen Liebhabern zur Gemüths Ergoezung verfertiget: Partita II. Leipzig. RISM No. 00000990003431.
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1727b). Clavier Ubung bestehend in Praeludien, Allemanden, Couranten, Sarabanden, Giquen, Menuetten, und andern Galanterien; Denen Liebhabern zur Gemüths Ergoezung verfertiget: Partita III. Leipzig. RISM No. 00000990003432.
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1728). Clavier Ubung bestehend in Praeludien, Allemanden, Couranten, Sarabanden, Giquen, Menuetten, und andern Galanterien; Denen Liebhabern zur Gemüths Ergoezung verfertiget: Partita IV. Leipzig. RISM No. 00000991013402.
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1730). Clavier Ubung bestehend in Praeludien, Allemanden, Couranten, Sarabanden, Giquen, Menuetten, und andern Galanterien; Denen Liebhabern zur Gemüths Ergoezung verfertiget: Partita V. Leipzig. RISM No. 00000990003433.
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1731). Clavir Ubung bestehend in Praeludien, Allemanden, Couranten, Sarabanden, Giguen, Menuetten, und andern Galanterien; Denen Liebhabern zur Gemüths Ergoetzung verfertiget: Opus 1. Leipzig. RISM No. 00000990003434 – facsimiles: D-LEb Peters PM 1402 at Bach Digital website; Kenny 2274 at Baldwin Wallace University; 2 B122p 1731 at Juilliard School; Mus.2405.T.46 at SLUB.
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1735). Zweyter Theil der Clavier Übung bestehend in einem Concerto nach italienischem Gusto und einer Overture nach Französischer Art, vor ein Clavicymbel mit zweyen Manualen: Denen Liebhabern zu Gemüths-Ergötzung verfertiget. Nürnberg: Christoph Weigel Jr. RISM No. 00000990003441 – facsimile (2nd printing, c. 1736): DMS 224676(2) at Berlin State Library (D-B DMS 224676 (2) Rara at Bach Digital website).
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1739). Dritter Theil der Clavier Übung bestehend in verschiedenen Vorspielen über die Catechismus- und andere Gesaenge, vor die Orgel: Denen Liebhabern, und besonders denen Kennern von dergleichen Arbeit, zur Gemüths Ergezung. Leipzig. RISM No. 00000990003442 – facsimiles: D-LEb Peters PM 1403 and US-PRu M 3.1. B2 C5. 1739q (Ex.) at Bach Digital website; SA.82.F.15 at Austrian National Library (A-Wn SA.82.F.15 at Bach Digital website).
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1741–1742). Clavier Ubung bestehend in einer Aria mit verschiedenen Veraenderungen vors Clavicimbal mit 2 Manualen: Denen Liebhabern zu Gemüths-Ergetzung verfertiget. Nürnberg: Balthasar Schmid. RISM No. 00000990003445 – facsimiles: MS-17669 at Gallica (Handexemplar, BNF 39780493d); D-LEb Peters PM 1400 at Bach Digital website; Kenny 548 at Baldwin Wallace University. templatestyles stripmarker in
|postscript=at position 331 (help)
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1747). Canon triplex a 6 Voci. Facsimile: MS64460-4° R/XVIII/Bach/2 at Austrian National Library (A-Wn MS 64460 at Bach Digital website).
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1747–1748). Einige canonische Veraenderungen über das Weynacht-Lied: Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her. vor die Orgel mit 2. Clavieren und dem Pedal. Nürnberg: Balthasar Schmid. RISM No. 00000990003419 – facsimiles: Am.B. 80 at Berlin State Library; M3.3 .B118v at University of Rochester; Kenny 1512 at Baldwin Wallace University; mu 6406.1830 H. & Fr. Rungs Musik-Arkiv No 1535, U 20 and mu 6407.2832 Weyses Samling, U 20 at Royal Library, Denmark; Ohki N-7 (4) at Nanki Music Library, Tokyo.
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1747–1749). Musicalisches Opfer (in German). Johann Georg Schübler. RISM No. 00000990003474 – facsimiles: Am.B 73 at Berlin State Library (D-B Am.B 73, Fascicle 1 and Fascicle 2 at Bach Digital website); Am.B 74 at Berlin State Library (D-B Am.B 74 at Bach Digital website); BWV 1079 at Baldwin Wallace University.
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (c. 1748). Sechs Chorale von verschiedener Art auf einer Orgel mit 2 Clavieren und Pedal vorzuspielen. Zella: Johann Georg Schübler. RISM No. 00000990003418 – facsimiles: D-LEb Peters PM 5694 at Bach Digital website; DMS O. 80758 at Berlin State Library (D-B DMS O. 80758 Rara at Bach Digital website); SH.J.S.Bach.40 at Austrian National Library (A-Wn SH J. S. Bach 40 at Bach Digital website).
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1751–1752). Die Kunst der Fuge (in German). RISM No. 00000991013428 (first edition, 1751) and RISM No. 00000991013429 (second edition, with preface by Marpurg, 1752) – facsimiles: mu 6406.2030 H. & Fr. Rungs Musik-Arkiv No 226A, U 315 at Royal Library, Denmark (1751 edition, DK-Kk mu 6406.2030 H. & Fr. Rungs Musik-Arkiv No 226A, U 315 at Bach Digital website); Mus. O. 17364 at Berlin State Library (1752 edition, D-B Mus. O. 17364 Rara at Bach Digital website); BWV 1080 at Baldwin Wallace University (1752 edition, US-BER Kenney 1814, Vault: M 24.B2 at Bach Digital website).
- Bach, Johann Sebastian (1845). Griepenkerl, Friedrich Konrad; Roitzsch, Ferdinand August (eds.). Johann Sebastian Bach's Compositionen für die Orgel: Kritisch-korrecte Ausgabe (in German). III. Leipzig: C. F. Peters.
- Mattheson, Johann (1739). Der vollkommene Capellmeister (in German). Hamburg: Herold.
- Mizler, Lorenz Christoph (1747). Musikalische Bibliothek ... Des dritten bandes Dritter Theil. Mit zwölf Kupfertafeln. Musikalische Bibliothek (in German). III, 3. Leipzig: Mizler.
- Schemelli, Georg Christian (1736). Musicalisches Gesang-Buch, Darinnen 954 geistreiche, sowohl alte als neue Lieder und Arien, mit wohlgesetzten Melodien, in Discant und Baß, befindlich sind: Vornehmlich denen Evangelischen Gemeinen im Stifte Naumburg-Zeitz gewidmet (in German). Leipzig: Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf. RISM No. 00000990003407 – facsimiles: 1077430 Liturg. 1372 o at Bavarian State Library; szMJMq_zmygC at Google Books; Musicalisches Gesang-Buch (Schemelli, Georg Christian): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP).
- Telemann, Georg Philipp (1728). Der getreue Music-Meister (in German). Hamburg. RISM No. 00000990063956 – facsimiles: VM7-3878 at Gallica (BNF 397929328); Mus.2392.B.1 at SLUB; M B/4987 at Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg. templatestyles stripmarker in
|postscript=at position 216 (help)
- Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel; Agricola, Johann Friedrich (1754). "C. Der dritte und letzte ist der im Orgelspielen Weltberühmte HochEdle Herr Johann Sebastian Bach, Königlich-Pohlnischer und Churfürstlich Sächsicher Hofcompositeur, und Musikdirector in Leipzig". In Mizler, Lorenz Christoph (ed.). Musikalische Bibliothek ... Des vierten bandes Erster Theil. Mit vier Kupfertafeln. Musikalische Bibliothek (in German). IV, 1. Leipzig: Mizler. pp. 158–176.
- Breig, Werner (2010). "Introduction" (PDF). Complete Organ Works - Breitkopf Urtext (New Edition in 10 Volumes), Vol. 6: Clavierübung III / Schübler-Choräle / Canonische Veränderungen über "Vom Himmel hoch". Breitkopf & Härtel. pp. 14–20.
- Emans, Reinmar; Hiemke, Sven (2015), "Editionen der Werke Johann Sebastian Bachs", in Emans, Reinmar; Krämer, Ulrich (eds.), Musikeditionen im Wandel der Geschichte (in German), Walter de Gruyter, pp. 227–260, ISBN 3110434350
- Forkel, Johann Nikolaus (1802). Ueber Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke. Leipzig: Hoffmeister und Kühnel.
- Forkel, Johann Nikolaus; Terry, Charles Sanford (1920). Johann Sebastian Bach: His Life, Art and Work – translated from the German, with notes and appendices. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe.
- Schneider, Max (1907). "Verzeichnis der bis zum Jahre 1851 gedruckten (und der geschrieben im Handel gewesenen) Werke von Johann Sebastian Bach". Bach-Jahrbuch 1906. Bach-Jahrbuch (in German). Breitkopf & Härtel. pp. 84–113.
- Talbot, Michael (2011). "Bach, Johann Sebastian". The Vivaldi Compendium. Boydell Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN 184383670X.
- Talle, Andrew (2008). "A Print of Clavierübung I from J.S. Bach's Personal Library". In Stauffer, George; Butler, Gregory (eds.). About Bach. University of Illinois Press. pp. 157–168. ISBN 0-252-03344-2.
- Walther, Johann Gottfried (1732). "Bach (Joh. Sebastian)". Musicalisches Lexicon oder Musicalische Bibliothec (in German). Leipzig: W. Deer. p. 64.
- Williams, Peter (2016). Bach: A Musical Biography. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1316531384.
- Wolff, Christoph (1991). Bach: Essays on His Life and Music. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674059263.