List of Hawaiian animals extinct in the Holocene

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Location of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean.

This list of Hawaiian animals extinct in the Holocene features animals known to have become extinct in the last 12,000 years in the Hawaiian Islands.

Many extinction dates are unknown due to a lack of relevant information.

Mammals[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 CE)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Synemporion keana 10th century?[1] Main Hawaiian Islands

Birds[edit]

Undated[edit]

Holocene extinctions of unknown date
Common name/scientific name Range Image
O'ahu icterid-like gaper
Aidemedia chascax
O'ahu[2]
Maui Nui icterid-like gaper
Aidemedia lutetiae
Maui and Moloka'i[2]
Sickle-billed gaper
Aidemedia zanclops
O'ahu[2]
Hoopoe-billed ʻakialoa
Akialoa upupirostris
Kaua'i and O'ahu[2]
Molokai flightless ibis
Apteribis glenos
Moloka'i[3] Apteribis sp. (5212794163).jpg
Turtle-jawed moa-nalo
Chelychelynechen quassus
Kaua'i[4] Chelychelynechen quassus.jpg
King Kong grosbeak
Chloridops regiskongi
O'ahu[2]
Oʻahu grosbeak
Chloridops wahi
O'ahu and Maui[2]
Wood harrier
Circus dossenus
Moloka'i[3]
Stout-legged finch
Ciridops tenax
Kaua'i[2]
High-billed crow
Corvus impluviatus
O'ahu[2] Corvus impluviatus andor Corvus viriosus.jpg
Robust crow
Corvus viriosus
O'ahu and Moloka'i[2] NMNH-USNM PAL 386435 Corvus viriosus.jpg
O'ahu stilt-owl
Grallistrix orion
O'ahu[3]
Molokai stilt-owl
Grallistrix geleches
Moloka'i[3]
Highland finch
Orthiospiza howarthi
Maui[2]
Small Maui crake
Porzana keplerorum
Maui[3]
Liliput crake
Porzana menehune
Moloka'i[3]
Great Oʻahu crake
Porzana ralphorum
O'ahu[3]
Great Maui crake
Porzana severnsi
Maui[3]
Small-billed moa-nalo
Ptaiochen pau
Mount Haleakala, Maui[4] (right)
Oʻahu petrel
Pterodroma jugabilis
O'ahu[3]
Scissor-billed koa-finch
Rhodacanthis forfex
Maui and Kaua'i[5]
Primitive koa-finch
Rhodacanthis litotes
O'ahu and Maui[5]
Maui Nui finch
Telespiza ypsilon
Maui and Moloka'i[2]
Strange-billed finch
Vangulifer mirandus
Maui[2]
Thin-billed finch
Vangulifer neophasis
East Maui[2]
Cone-billed finch
Xestospiza conica
Kaua'i[2]
Ridge-billed finch
Xestospiza fastigialis
O'ahu and Moloka'i[2]

Prehistoric[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 CE)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Maui flightless ibis
Apteribis brevis
170 BCE - 370 CE[6] Maui Apteribis sp. (5212794163).jpg
Nēnē-nui
Branta hylobadistes
1046-1380[7] O'ahu
Giant Hawaii goose
Branta rhuax
1380-1500[8] Hawai'i Big Island Goose.jpg
Kaua'i stilt-owl
Grallistrix auceps
744-202 BCE[7] Kaua'i
Maui stilt-owl
Grallistrix erdmani
1057-1440[7] Maui
Hawaiian eagle
Haliaeetus sp.
1581 BCE[9] Main Hawaiian Islands
Giant nukupuʻu
Hemignathus vorpalis
After c. 1000 BCE-500 CE[10] Hawai'i
Kauaʻi palila
Loxioides kikuchi
2430-207 BCE[11] Kaua'i
Small O'ahu crake
Porzana ziegleri
650-869[7] O'ahu
Kaua'i mole duck
Talpanas lippa
3540-3355 BCE[12] Kaua'i
Maui Nui large-billed moa-nalo
Thambetochen chauliodous
1057-1375[7] Moloka'i and Maui (left)
O'ahu moa-nalo
Thambetochen xanion
440-639[7] O'ahu Thambetochen xanion.jpg

Recent[edit]

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Laysan millerbird
Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris
1913[13] Laysan Acrocepahlus familiaris, Rothsch..jpg
Oahu 'akialoa
Akialoa ellisiana
1837[14] O'ahu Akialoa ellisiana.png
Maui Nui 'akialoa
Akialoa lanaiensis
1892[15] Lana'i Akialoa lanaiensis.jpg
Lesser ʻakialoa
Akialoa obscura
1940[16] Hawai'i Hemignathus obscurus1.jpg
Kauaʻi ʻakialoa
Akialoa stejnegeri
1969[17] Kaua'i Hemignathus procerus.jpg
Kioea
Chaetoptila angustipluma
1859[18] Hawai'i, O'ahu, and Maui Chaetoptila angustipluma.jpg
Kona grosbeak
Chloridops kona
1894[19] Hawai'i Chloridops kona.jpg
ʻUla-ʻai-hawane
Ciridops anna
1892[20] Hawai'i Ciridops anna.png
Black mamo
Drepanis funerea
1907[21] Moloka'i and Maui Drepanis funerea-Keulemans.jpg
Hawai'i mamo
Drepanis pacifica
1899[22] Hawai'i Drepanis pacifica-Keulemans.jpg
Lānaʻi hookbill
Dysmorodrepanis munroi
1918[23] Lana'i Dysmorodrepanis.svg
Oʻahu nukupuʻu
Hemignathus lucidus
1838-1841[24] O'ahu Zzznukupuulucidus.jpg
Laysan honeycreeper
Himatione fraithii
1923[25] Laysan Himatione fraithii.jpg
Maui ʻakepa
Loxops ochraceus
1988[26] Maui Maui Ākepa.jpg
Oʻahu ʻakepa
Loxops wolstenholmei
1930[27] O'ahu Oahu Akepa.jpg
Poʻouli
Melamprosops phaeosoma
2004[28] Eastern Maui Poʻouli.jpg
Oʻahu ʻōʻō
Moho apicalis
1837[29] O'ahu Oʻahu ʻōʻō
Bishop's ʻōʻō
Moho bishopi
1981[30] Moloka'i Moho bishopi.jpg
Kauaʻi ʻōʻō
Moho braccatus
1987[31] Kaua'i Kauaioo.jpg
Hawaiʻi ʻōʻō
Moho nobilis
1934[32] Hawai'i Moho nobilis-Keulemans.jpg
Kāmaʻo
Myadestes myadestinus
1985[33] Kaua'i Zzzkamao.jpg
ʻĀmaui
Myadestes woahensis
1825[34] O'ahu
Kākāwahie
Paroreomyza flammea
1961-1963[35] Moloka'i Zzzkakawahie.jpg
Lesser koa finch
Rhodacanthis flaviceps
1891[36] Hawai'i Telespiza flaviceps3.jpg
Greater koa finch
Rhodacanthis palmeri
1896[37] Hawai'i Zzzgreaterkoafinch.jpg
Kauaʻi finch
Telespiza persecutrix
1425-1660[7] Kaua'i and O'ahu
Greater ʻamakihi
Viridonia sagittirostris
1901[38] Wailuku River, Hawai'i Hemignathus sagittirostris.jpg
Laysan rail
Zapornia palmeri
1944[39] Laysan Laysanralle.jpg
Hawaiian rail
Zapornia sandwichensis
1884[40] Eastern Hawai'i and possibly Moloka'i Hawaiirail.jpg


Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Maui nukupuʻu
Hemignathus affinis
1995[13] Maui Zzznukupuuaffinis.jpg
Kauaʻi nukupuʻu
Hemignathus hanapepe
1899[41] Kaua'i Hemignathus lucidus hanapepe.jpg
Olomaʻo
Myadestes lanaiensis
1980[42] Maui, Lana'i, and Moloka'i Zzzolomao.jpg
Oʻahu ʻalauahio
Paroreomyza maculata
1985[43] O‘ahu Zzzoahucreeper.jpg
ʻŌʻū
Psittirostra psittacea
1989[44] Main Hawaiian Islands Psittirostra psittacea deppei1.jpg

Local[edit]

Extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Hawaiian crow
Corvus hawaiiensis
2002[45] Hawai'i and possibly Maui Corvus hawaiiensis FWS.jpg

Insects[edit]

N.B.: "Hawaii" is used for any unknown range within the Hawaiian Islands; "Hawai'i" for the main island to the east only.
Holocene extinctions of unknown date
Common name/scientific name Range Image
Midway noctuid moth
Agrotis fasciata
Hawaii[46] Agrotis-fasciata.jpg
Kona agrotis noctuid moth
Agrotis panoplias
Hawai'i[47] Euxoa panoplias.JPG
Campsicnemus mirabilis Hawaii[48] Emperoptera mirabilis.jpg
Clavicoccus erinaceus Hawaii[49]
Drosophila lanaiensis Hawaii[50]
Confused moth
Helicoverpa confusa
Hawaii[51]
Hilo noctuid moth
Hypena newelli
Hawaii[52]
Lovegrass noctuid moth
Hypena plagiota
Hawaii[53]
Kaholuamano noctuid moth
Hypena senicula
Hawaii[54]
Phyllococcus oahuensis Hawaii[55]


Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Poko noctuid moth
Agrotis crinigera
1926[56] Hawaii
Kerr's noctuid moth
Agrotis kerri
1923[57] Hawaii
Procellaris grotis noctuid moth
Agrotis procellaris
before 1900[58] Hawaii
Dryophthorus distinguendus 1961[59] Main Hawaiian Islands
Genophantis leahi early 1900s[60] Hawaii
Minute noctuid moth
Helicoverpa minuta
before 1911[61] Hawaii
Laysan dropseed noctuid moth
Hypena laysanensis
1911[62] Hawaii
Laysan weevil
Oodemas laysanensis
1964[63] Laysan
Rhyncogonus bryani 1911[64] Laysan
Kona giant looper moth
Scotorythra megalophylla
early 1900s[65] Hawaii Scotorythra megalophylla-Fauna Hawaiiensis1899 flipped.png
Koʻolau giant looper moth
Scotorythra nesiotes
early 1900s[66] Hawaii
ʻOlaʻa peppered looper moth
Tritocleis microphylla
1890s[67] Hawaii


Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Maui agrotis noctuid moth
Agrotis cremata
1912[68] O'ahu and Maui
Laysan noctuid moth
Agrotis laysanensis
1911[69] Laysan Agrotis-laysanensis.jpg
Microreas agrotis noctuid moth
Agrotis microreas
1925[70] Hawai'i Agrotiphila microreas.JPG
Light-loving noctuid moth
Agrotis photophila
1900[71] O'ahu
Kauai agrotis noctuid moth
Agrotis tephrias
1985[72] Kaua'i, Maui, and possibly Hawai'i
Maui upland damselfly
Megalagrion jugorum
1917[73] Maui and Lana'i


Extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Range
Oʻahu deceptor bush cricket
Leptogryllus deceptor
Hawaii[74]

Molluscs[edit]

Undated[edit]

Holocene extinctions of unknown date
Common name/scientific name Range Image
Achatinella casta Hawaii[75] Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MOLL.373456 - Achatinella casta Newcomb, 1854 - Achatinellidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Achatinella dimorpha Hawaii[76] Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MOLL.373497 - Achatinella dimorpha Gulick, 1858 - Achatinellidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Achatinella juncea Hawaii[77]
Achatinella livida Hawaii[78] Zoological Illustrations Achatinella livida.jpg
Amastra albolabris Hawaii[79]
Amastra cornea Hawaii[80]
Amastra crassilabrum Hawaii[81]
Amastra elongata Hawaii[82] Zoological Illustrations Achatinella acuta.jpg
Amastra forbesi Hawaii[83]
Amastra pellucida Hawaii[84]
Amastra porcus Hawaii[85]
Amastra reticulata Hawaii[86]
Amastra subrostrata Hawaii[87]
Amastra subsoror Hawaii[88] Amastra subsoror.jpg
Amastra tenuispira Hawaii[89]
Amastra umbilicata Hawaii[90]
Auriculella expansa Hawaii[91]
Auriculella uniplicata Hawaii[92]
Carelia cochlea Hawaii[93] Carelia cochlea (5126873778).jpg
Carelia dolei Hawaii[94] Carelia dolei (5213222236).jpg
Carelia evelynae Hawaii[95]
Carelia hyattiana Hawaii[96]
Carelia lirata Hawaii[97]
Carelia lymani Hawaii[98]
Carelia mirabilis Hawaii[99]
Carelia necra Hawaii[100]
Carelia pilsbryi Hawaii[101]
Carelia sinclairi Hawaii[102]
Lyropupa perlonga Hawaii[103]
Newcombia philippiana Hawaii[104]

Recent[edit]

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Achatinella abbreviata 1963[105] Hawaii Achatinella abbreviata both.jpg
O'ahu treesnail
Achatinella apexfulva
2019[106] O'ahu Zoological Illustrations Achatinella pica.jpg
Achatinella buddii early 1900s[107] Hawaii Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MOL.239208 - Achatinella buddii Newcomb, 1854 - Achatinellidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Achatinella caesia early 1900s[108] Hawaii
Achatinella decora early 1900s[109] Hawaii Zoological Illustrations Achatinella perversa.jpg
Achatinella elegans 1952[110] Hawaii
Achatinella juddii 1958[111] Hawaii
Achatinella lehuiensis 1922[112] Hawaii
Achatinella papyracea 1945[113] Hawaii
Achatinella spaldingi 1938[114] Hawaii
Achatinella thaanumi 1900s[115] Hawaii
Achatinella valida 1951[116] Hawaii Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MOLL.373594 - Achatinella valida Pfeiffer, 1855 - Achatinellidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Carelia anceophila 1930[117] Hawaii
Carelia bicolor 1970[118] Hawaii Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MOL.239413 - Carelia bicolor (Jay, 1839) - Amastridae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Carelia cumingiana 1930[119] Hawaii
Carelia glossema 1930[120] Hawaii
Carelia kalalauensis 1944-1947[121] Hawaii
Carelia knudseni 1930[122] Hawaii
Carelia olivacea 1930[123] Hawaii
Carelia paradoxa 1930[124] Hawaii
Carelia periscelis 1930[125] Hawaii
Carelia tenebrosa 1930[126] Hawaii
Carelia turricula 1930[127] Hawaii Carelia turricula (5212624317).jpg
Partulina crassa 1914[128] Hawaii Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MOLL.373646 - Partulina crassa (Newcomb, 1854) - Achatinellidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ziegler, A. C., Howarth, F. G., & Simmons, N. B. (2016). A second endemic land mammal for the Hawaiian Islands: a new genus and species of fossil bat (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae). American Museum novitates, nº 3854.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o James, H. F., & Olson, S. L. (1991). Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs, (46), 1-88.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Olson, S. L., & James, H. F. (1991). Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs, (45), 1-88.
  4. ^ a b Young, H. G., Tonge, S. J., & Hume, J. P. (1996). Review of Holocene wildfowl extinctions. Wildfowl, 47(47), 167-181.
  5. ^ a b James, H. F., & Olson, S. L. (2005). The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidini: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the linnean Society, 144(4), 527-541.
  6. ^ James, H. F., Stafford, T. W., Steadman, D. W., Olson, S. L., Martin, P. S., Jull, A. J., & McCoy, P. C. (1987). Radiocarbon dates on bones of extinct birds from Hawaii. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 84(8), 2350-2354.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Turvey, Sam (2009). Holocene extinctions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953509-5. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  8. ^ Paxinos, Ellen E., et al. (2002) mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 99, no 3, p. 1399-1404.
  9. ^ Hailer, F., James, H.F., Olson, S.L., & Fleischer, R.C. (2015). Distinct and extinct: genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 83, 40-43
  10. ^ James, H. F., & Olson, S. L. (2003). A giant new species of nukupuu (Fringillidae: Drepanidini: Hemignathus) from the island of Hawaii. The Auk, 120(4), 970-981.
  11. ^ James, H. F., & Olson, S. L. (2006). A new species of Hawaiian finch (Drepanidini: Loxioides) from Makauwahi Cave, Kaua ‘i. The Auk, 123(2), 335-344.
  12. ^ Iwaniuk, A.N., Olson, S.L., & James, H.F. (2009). Extraordinary cranial specialization in a new genus of extinct duck (Aves: Anseriformes) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa.
  13. ^ a b Hume, J.P. (2017) Extinct Birds. Bloomsbury Publishing, 560 pages.
  14. ^ "Oahu Akialoa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Retrieved 2022-07-04.
  15. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Akialoa lanaiensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T103823431A119549974. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103823431A119549974.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  16. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Akialoa obscura". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22728910A119550231. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22728910A119550231.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  17. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Akialoa stejnegeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T103823250A119550506. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103823250A119550506.en. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  18. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Chaetoptila angustipluma". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22704348A93964400. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22704348A93964400.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  19. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Chloridops kona". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728825A94998118. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728825A94998118.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
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  21. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Drepanis funerea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720852A94686803. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720852A94686803.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  22. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Drepanis pacifica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720848A94686625. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720848A94686625.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  23. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Dysmorodrepanis munroi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22720738A111776369. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22720738A111776369.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  24. ^ Pyle, R.L., and P. Pyle. 2017. The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status. B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, U.S.A. Version 2 (1 January 2017) http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/birds/rlp-monograph/pdfs/08-DREP/NUKU.pdf
  25. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Himatione fraithii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T103829706A119553201. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103829706A119553201.en.
  26. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Loxops ochraceus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T103824084A104236054. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T103824084A104236054.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  27. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Loxops wolstenholmei". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017: e.T103824105A117232993. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103824105A117232993.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  28. ^ BirdLife International (2019). "Melamprosops phaeosoma". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T22720863A153774712. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T22720863A153774712.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  29. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Moho apicalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22704329A111776064. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22704329A111776064.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  30. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Moho bishopi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22704335A93963979. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22704335A93963979.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  31. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Moho braccatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22704323A93963628. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22704323A93963628.en.
  32. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Moho nobilis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22704342A93964244. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22704342A93964244.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  33. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Myadestes myadestinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22708559A94165256. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22708559A94165256.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  34. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Myadestes woahensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22708564A111775767. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22708564A111775767.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  35. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Paroreomyza flammea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22720823A119118273. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22720823A119118273.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  36. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Rhodacanthis flaviceps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720745A94681389. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720745A94681389.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  37. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Rhodacanthis palmeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720749A94681538. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720749A94681538.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  38. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Viridonia sagittirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720784A94682950. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720784A94682950.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  39. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Zapornia palmeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22692672A93363618. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22692672A93363618.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  40. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Zapornia sandwichensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22692693A93364994. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22692693A93364994.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  41. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Hemignathus hanapepe". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T103823616A125584125. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T103823616A125584125.en. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
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