List of taekwondo grandmasters

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Many taekwondo grandmasters are natives of South Korea, the birthplace of the martial art

This list of taekwondo grandmasters includes notable persons who have been recognized as grandmasters of the Korean martial art of taekwondo. There is no single, universally-recognised set of criteria to define a taekwondo grandmaster; different organizations and different styles have their own rules. Those listed below are grouped by system: Kukkiwon (widely known as the World Taekwondo), International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF), and other systems (which includes some persons receiving ranks from taekwondo organisations that predate the other two systems, e.g., the original Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA)) and United Taekwondo Association UWTA.

Kukkiwon (World Taekwondo)[edit]

This list includes persons who:

  1. are ranked at least 9th dan by Kukkiwon (the highest rank normally awarded to living persons within that system);
  2. are notable as individuals; and
  3. are notable for their contribution to taekwondo.
Name Rank Life Residence Prominence References
Grandmaster Man Hee Han 9th dan[citation needed] 1938- United States Grandmaster Han was on the Board of Directors of the Korean Tae Kwon Do Federation in its early days.[citation needed] He helped design the Palgue forms presently used by the World Tae Kwon Do Federation.[citation needed] Grandmaster Man Hee Han is the founder of the Youn Wha Ryu System of martial arts. It is based in traditional Tae Kwon Do, incorporating elements of Hapkido, Karate, Kung Fu and Judo.
Hong, Sung Chon 9th dan 1945– Philippines Kukkiwon Chairman of the Board (2016–). CEO and Chief Instructor of the Philippine Taekwondo Association (1975–) [1]
Choi, Joon 10th dan 1950- United States of America Creator Of Battle Of Columbus, Olympic Coach, Founding father of Oriental Martials Arts College, coached teams in the 3rd World Taekwondo Championship - 1977 in Chicago where the team became 3rd place in the world;, 1988 U. S. National Team Coach for the Seoul Olympics which brought home 11 medals, US women’s Team became 1st place in the world and the Men’s Team became 2nd place in the world.
Chung, Sun Yong 9th dan c. 1940 Portugal Father of Taekwondo in Portugal (1974)

Founded the Portuguese Taelwondo Association

Author of the first Taekwondo book ever published in Portuguese language (1975) also distributed in Brazil

Promoter of Taekwondo in Portuguese speaking countries like Angola, Mozambique, etc.

Received Korean Presidential award.

Lee, Eun Woo 9th dan 1948- South Africa President of Kwanjangdo(KJD) in South Africa and the United Kingdom, Technical Director of the Mozambique Taekwondo Federation and Technical Advisor for Swaziland. Kukkiwon Technical Advisor. [2]
Lee, Moo Yong 10th dan 1938-2016 United States of America 2016 Lifetime Achievement Award from President Obama's Council on Physical Fitness. Promoted to 10th Dan posthumously on 21 February 2017. [3][4]
Ahn, Kyongwon 9th dan 1937– United States of America Founded United Taekwondo Association; former president of the United States Taekwondo Union See main article
Goh, Chae T. 9th dan 1950s- Korea secretary for 8/9 dan testing [5] Co-Grandmaster of the year 1994. Winner, first king of the world competition (YouTube)
Cha, Yong-Kil 9th dan 1946– Germany President of the Jidokwan Europe Federation [6]
Chang, Seong Dong 9th dan 1953– South Korea President of Sangrok World Taekwondo Academy, founder of Taekwondo in India [7]
Choi, Eung Gil 9th dan unknown- United States of America Korean Special Forces Takewondo champion (1975-1977)[8]

Served as Peaceful Unification Advisor for the South Korean Government to improve its relationship with North Korea (1999-2005)[9]

Received the Korean Presidential award for outstanding performance as a peaceful unification advisor.[9]

Founded the "Kick Cancer Out of this World" benefit event which has raised over $120,000 for cancer charities.

Awarded the Korean National Medial of Honor (10/14/2017) by the Government of South Korea.

[8][9]
Choi, Tae-hong 9th dan 1935–2009 United States of America Founded first taekwondo school in Oregon, United States; former Vice-President of the United States Taekwondo Union See main article
Chung, Sun Hwan 9th dan 1940– United States of America Founder of Moo Sool Do and President of World Academy of Martial Arts Association. Korean National Champion (1963-1965). Kukkiwon Advisory Council (2008). Hall of Fame - U.S. Taekwondo Grandmasters Society. Former President, U.S.T.U. Michigan Tae Kwon Do Association. [10][11][12]
Dong, Seung Gyoo 9th dan 1946– United States of America President of Advanced World Martial Arts System; author of several books [13]
Kailian, Gregory S. 9th dan 1946 - United States of America
  • 9th dan (Kukkiwon #05001960)
  • 1st Class Master Instructor (Kukkiwon #1647001)
  • 1st Class Poom/Dan Promotion Test Examiner (Kukkiwon #1020001)
  • "S" Class World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), International Referee
    (WTF IR #013-0625)
  • Author, Sport Taekwondo Referee Primer
Sport Taekwondo Referee Primer
Kil, Sang Sup 9th dan Unknown United States of America Korean National Champion between the years of 1965 and 1968, Founding President of the United States Han Mu Kwan Federation, President of the Michigan Tae Kwon Do Association [14]
Kim, Il-Kwon 9th dan 1942–2015 United States of America Founder and President of the I. K. Kim Ja Be Ryu Tae Kwon Do Organization located in Cincinnati Ohio & President of the World Martial Arts Federation [15]
Kim, Ki Whang 9th dan 1920–1993 United States of America Promoted to 9th dan by the KTA; Chairman of the US Olympic Taekwondo team 1988. Inducted into Taekwondo Hall of Fame 2009 See main article
Lee, Bum-I 9th dan 1938– Germany President of the German-Korean culture Federal e.V. (DKK e.V.). Chairman of Taekwondo Instructor Association in Europe. Chairman of the European Taekwondo delegation in Korea. Highest Dan-grade of Europe (1985) and "father of Taekwondo" in Germany. Lives in Hannover. [16][17]
Lee, Chong Soo 9th dan 1938–2017 Canada Father of Canadian Taekwondo [18]
Lee, Tae Eun 9th dan Unknown Canada Executive Council member of the World Taekwondo Federation; Major player in having WTF Taekwondo recognized as an official Olympic sport; Goodwill Ambassador for the 50th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations between Korea and Canada, from 3 October 2012 – 31 December 2013. Founded his own Taekwondo school in Ottawa. [19][20]
Sell, Edward B 10th dan 1942-2014 United States of America Highest ranked non-oriental Taekwondo black belt in the world. The only registered non-Korean posthumous 10th dan in the Kukkiwon. Only non-Korean honored at the Taekwondo Park in Seoul, Korea. Founder of the United States Chung Do Kwan Association. [21][22]

Edward B. Sell

Lee, Hyeon Kon 9th dan c. 1947– United States of America Chairman of Board of Education of Kukkiwon; former Vice Chairman of Education of the WTF; author of taekwondo textbook [23][24][25]
Lee, Kwan Sung 9th dan c. 194?–2003 United States of America President of Kentucky Taekwondo Association. [26]
Mayes, Myong Sok Namkung 9th dan c. 1954– United States of America Highest-ranked woman in taekwondo, 1988 US Olympic Coach (Women's) [27][28][29]
Nardizzi, Donato 9th dan c. 1960- United Kingdom Former President of ITF England, Chairman of the ITF Children's Education Committee and creator of the Kids Development Program, 2012 Olympic torchbearer.
Nguyen, Dang Phung 9th dan Unknown Australia President of Chang Moo Kwan Australasia, Order of Australia Medal (OAM) 2009 See main article
Paik, Sang Kee 9th dan 1929–2009 United States of America Early student of B. I. Yoon and first Black Belt of Grand Master Ki Whang Kim; created Sa-Sang Kwan system. Inducted into Taekwondo Hall of Fame 2013 See main article
Park, Dong Keun 9th dan c. 1941– United States of America Father of Thai taekwondo; Head Coach of US Olympic taekwondo team in 1988 and 1992 See main article
Pak, Jang Hee 9th dan United States of America Produced 5 Black belt students who have represented the United States National Tae Kwon Do Team, two of whom won gold medals in the Olympic Games.
Park, Yeon Hwan 9th dan 1952– United States of America Korean National Champion 1971–1975; US Olympic Coach; Pan-American Team Coach; author of several reference books See main article
Park, Young Ghil 9th dan 1941– Italy One of Founders of Italian Taekwondo (three Park Brothers - Sun Jae Park, Young Ghil Park, Chung Un Park); current Honorary President of FITA - Italian Taekwondo Federation; current Technical Director of WTF Poomsae Committee [30][31][32][33]
Shin, Jang-Hwan 9th dan 1951– Austria Father of Austrian taekwondo [34]
Lee, Hyeon Kon 9th dan c. 1947– United States of America Chairman of Board of Education of Kukkiwon; former Vice Chairman of Education of the WTF; author of taekwondo textbook. Uses Western and Eastern Medicine concurrently with great success. Became an M.D. in 2000. Published medical scientist in over 10 journals and one book. Life dedicated to helping the sick return to health. [23][24][25]
Ko, Tai Jeong 9th dan 1948 - Denmark Former national coach of Denmark - "Today Ko Tai-Jeong teaches Taekwondo at a Danish højskole (literally: high school) a unique Danish type of boarding school for adults dedicated to lifelong learning. The 9th Dan Grandmaster is also the central figure and role model for Sim Uu, a special interest group under the Danish Taekwondo Federation (and thereby World Taekwondo)" Reference: The Smiling Taekwondo Pioneer.
Park, Suk Byung 9th dan Unknown - South Korea Founder of Jungdo Federation, Korea Judo National Champion (1969-1974), Olympic Head Coach – Netherlands, Yongin University Assistant Professor, Black Belt Man of the Year 1983, 1993, 1999, World Championships – 2nd Place
Nam, Kil, Kim 9th dan Unknown United States of America Founder of the San Diego taekwondo Association founder of the California Tae Kwon Do championship
Robinson, Clint 9th dan Unknown United States of America Co-founder of the United World Taekwondo Association.

Since 1975 Grandmaster Robinson has trained thousands of students to the highest levels of expertise in the Korean-based martial art.

See main article
Cho, Woon Sup 9th dan 1952 Norway President of Traditional Taekwond Union (TTU)
Cho, Byung Kon 9th dan 1947- United States of America Student of Grand Master Pong Ki Kim and Grand Master Kop Soo Kwon
  • Kukkiwon #05000166 - Issued: 2001-09-08
  • Founder: Wisconsin Governors Cup
  • Founder: Virginia Governors Cup
  • Author: Korean Culture, Tourism and Language
  • Author: Star Taekwon-Do Master's Course
  • Author: Martial Arts Dynamic Marketing and Management Seminar
  • Author: International Discipline in the Martial Arts Seminar
  • Author: A Health Revolution
  • Secretary General for Korean-American Foundation (KAF)
  • Past President of the Virginia State Tae Kwon Do Association
  • Former Secretary General for US Taekwondo Martial Arts Commission
  • Former Flexibility Consultant for Green Bay Packers
[35][36]

TaeKwonDo Times Magazine Issue March 1991

Grandmaster Faye Louise Allman 9th dan 1980- United Kingdom Student of Grand Master Pong Ki Kim and Grand Master Kop Soo Kwon
  • Kukkiwon #05000166 - Issued: 2001-09-08
  • Founder: Wisconsin Governors Cup
  • Founder: Virginia Governors Cup
  • Author: Korean Culture, Tourism and Language
  • Author: Star Taekwon-Do Master's Course
  • Author: Martial Arts Dynamic Marketing and Management Seminar
  • Author: International Discipline in the Martial Arts Seminar
  • Author: A Health Revolution
  • Secretary General for Korean-American Foundation (KAF)
  • Past President of the Virginia State Tae Kwon Do Association
  • Former Secretary General for US Taekwondo Martial Arts Commission
  • Former Flexibility Consultant for Green Bay Packers
UK Taekwondo Mastery Assosiation
Kim, Yang Woong 9th dan January 1943 - Salzburg (Austria) Former trainer of the South Korean National Team, former Trainer of the Austrian National Team, Kukkiwon Award for his Life Contributions to Tea Kwon Do, Technical Competition Director for the Austrian Tak Kwon Do Association (ÖSVT); Hosted the Austrian Tae Kwon Do Championchip in 2015
Sell, Brenda Jean ( Brenda Sell ) 9th dan January 1955 - Lakeland, Florida (USA)
*Kukkiwon Certificate number: 05001899
*first female to be awarded the World Taekwondo Federation certification for international level referee credentials
*Highest ranked non-asian Kukkiwon female in the world
*President of the United States Chung Do Kwan Association
See Wikipedia page for all sources

Richard Chun 9th Dan -November 2017 United States of America

Grandmaster Soo Woong Lee 9th Dan-United States of America

International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF)[edit]

This list includes persons who:

  1. are ranked 9th dan by the ITF (and thus officially recognised as 'Grand Masters' within that system);[37]
  2. are notable as individuals; and
  3. are notable for their contribution to taekwondo.
Name Rank Life Residence Prominence References
Weiss, Earl William 9th dan 1955- United States One of the last people to test for master's rank under Choi Hong Hi, Earl Weiss is a 9th dan black belt in the ITF style of Taekwon-Do. Weiss is a prolific author on the topic of Taekwon-Do and is a frequent contributor to publications such as Totally TaeKwonDo magazine.
Grand Master Richard Kang 9th dan unknown United States Grand Master Richard Kang - 9th Dan Black Belt Taekwondo, Black Belt BJJ, and Certified Muay Thai Instructor. Grand master at Kangs MMA in Maryland. staff:

Senior Master Martin Kang - 6th Dan Black Belt Taekwondo Master Pat Shepherd - 5th Dan Black Belt Taekwondo and Blue Belt BJJ Master Ian Ishida - 5th Dan Black Belt Taekwondo, Blue Belt BJJ, and Yellow Belt Kumdo Master David Barnette - 4th Dan Black Belt Taekwondo, Blue Belt BJJ, and White Belt Kumdo Mister Victor Almeida - 2nd Dan Black Belt Taekwondo, White Belt BJJ, and White Belt Kumdo Mister Martavious Rodgers - Brown Belt Taekwondo, White Belt BJJ, and White Belt Kumdo 9th Dan Black Belt Taekwondo, Black Belt BJJ, and Certified Muay Thai Instructor

[citation needed]
Bos, Willem Jacob 9th dan 1952– Italy President of the All European Taekwon-Do Federation 2004–2006; Technical Director for the Italian Taekwon-Do Federation 1992– [38][39]
Choi, Chang Keun 9th dan c. 1940– Canada Leading campaign to reunite the ITF; one of the KTA's 12 original masters See main article
Choi, Hong Hi 9th dan 1918–2002 Canada Played major role in establishing Taekwon-Do; inaugural president of the KTA; founded the ITF; co-led the KTA's 12 original masters See main article
Choi, Jung Hwa 9th dan 1951– Canada President of one of the three ITF organisations; son of H. H. Choi; involvement in Korean political controversy. Choi Jung Hwa was born on Cheju Island, Korea on 22 May 1951 and has studied Taekwon-Do since the age of 7, not only under his father, but also under many high ranking and pioneering Taekwon-Do Masters during their visits and stays with General Choi. He served many years on the ITF Executive Board and, later on, Choi Jung Hwa would assist General Choi on many of his International Seminars throughout the world, and later would be appointed by the ITF to conduct these International courses on General Choi’s behalf. Grandmaster Choi held the post as Secretary General of the ITF for several years until elected as General Choi’s successor to the presidency by the ITF members in 2001 at the ITF Congress. Choi Jung Hwa was promoted to 9th-degree Black Belt in 2004 and to the rank of Grandmaster, is the only son of the founder of Taekwon-Do General Choi Hong Hi. [40][41][42][43]
Hwang, Kwang Sung 9th dan K-9-1 on 12/08/1997 Born 1942, Taegu, Korea United States of America Manchester, Connecticut GM Hwang was one of the first three instructors that General Choi, Hong Hi promoted to the rank of 9th Dan. The list consisted of FGM Rhee, Ki Ha UK-9-1, GM Hwang Kwang Sung K-9-1, and GM Charles "Chuck" Seriff A-9-1 who was also the first non-Asian to receive this honor.

GM Hwang began studying at the age of 11 and received his 1st Degree in Tang Soo Do in 1957, his 2nd Degree in 1961, his 3rd Degree from the I.T.F. K-3-40 September 18, 1968, staying loyal to General Choi Hong Hi through the years. He was at General Choi's side where he transcribed General Choi's last words. GM Hwang retired a captain in the ROK Army where he had instructed The Korean Tiger Division, The Korean Army, The U.S. Marines, U.S. Army, Marine, and the Vietnamese Army receiving many Commendations. GM Hwang simultaneously served as special assistant to General Choi, official spokesman of the ITF, chairman of the ITF promotion and merger committees, and Secretary General of the ITF. GM Hwang also served as the head of the KoreAmerica Taekwon-Do Union as requested by General Choi Hong Hi. GM Hwang is now head of the International Taekwon-Do Federation Unified. His mission is to carry on his previous duties as requested by General Choi to work to unify all who practice Taekwon-Do.

[44][45][46]
Howard, Robert 9th dan c. 1938– Ireland President of the Republic of Ireland Taekwon-Do Association; helped establish taekwondo in Ireland; first European man promoted to 9th dan [47][48][49][50]
Cariati, Joe 9th dan unknown Canada Barrett Francis

9th dan. Student of Grand Master Anthony Phelan. 3rd Irishman to be promoted to 9th dan, ITF congress September 2017, in Pyongyang. Chief instructor to south east of Ireland.

  • 9th dan
  • Head instructor of Woodbridge Taekwondo Group
  • President of International Chang-Hon Taekwondo Federation (ICTF)
[51][52]
Kong, Young Il 9th dan 1943– United States of America One of the few promoted to 9th dan by H. H. Choi; one of the KTA's 12 original masters See main article
Massar, Frank 9th dan 1958– United Kingdom Founded Massar Taekwondo Association See main article
Nam, Tae Hi 9th dan 1929–2013 United States of America Father of Vietnamese taekwondo; pivotal performance in martial arts demonstration 1954; co-led the KTA's 12 original masters See main article
Nardizzi, Donato 9th dan 1960- United Kingdom President of ITF England, Chairman of the ITF Children Development Committee, co-author of the study book and instructor manual of the Taekwondo Kids Development Program, 2012 Olympic Torchbearer. See main article
Yogendranathan, Satheshghanna 9th dan 1987- Canada President of BBC Club, Chairman of the OKM Committee, author of the study book and instructor manual of the Plug Walk, 2018 ROD Torchbearer, loves to juggle balls. See main article
Dang, Huy Duc 9th dan 1944– United States of America Director of Martial Arts Training Center, South Vietnam National Police Force Headquarters; one of the few promoted to 9th dan by H. H. Choi [53][54][55]
Nguyen, Van Binh 9th dan 1936– United States of America Chairman of ITF Masters Promotion Committee; President of ITF-USA; pioneer of taekwondo in Vietnam [56][57][58]
Park, Jong Soo 9th dan 1941– Canada One of the KTA's 12 original masters See main article
Rhee, Ki Ha 9th dan 1938– United Kingdom Father of British and Irish taekwondo; one of the few promoted to 9th dan by H. H. Choi; one of the KTA's 12 original masters See main article
Sereff, Charles 9th dan 1933– United States of America One of the few promoted to 9th dan by H. H. Choi; founded the United States Taekwon-Do Federation [59][60][61]
Tran, Trieu Quan 9th dan 1952–2010 Canada President of one of the three ITF organisations from 2003 to 2010 See main article
Trajtenberg, Pablo 9th dan c. 1955– Argentina President of one of the three ITF organisations after T. Q. Tran's death in 2010 [62][63][64][65]
Kirschbaum, Len G. 9th dan 1955- United States of America President of IOTF and Founder of the International Academy of TKD. Delegate for H.H. Choi for special certification seminars for ITF. [citation needed]
O'Toole, Brendan 9th dan ? Ireland President of the Irish National Taekwon-do Association (INTA). [66]
Harkness, Peter 9th Dan ? UK President of United KIngdom Taekwondo Council

Other taekwondo systems[edit]

This list includes persons who:

  1. have been widely recognized masters of taekwondo for at least 30 years;
  2. are notable as individuals; and
  3. are notable for their contribution to taekwondo.
Name Rank Life Residence Prominence References
Robbins, Gerard E 9th dan 1954– United States of America Founded TAEKWONDO HALL OF FAME ®; first person of African descent to receive 9th dan from Korea See main article
Cho, Hee Il 9th dan 1940– United States of America Founded Action International Martial Arts Association; wrote several taekwondo books See main article
Lee, Haeng Ung 10th dan July 20, 1936 – October 5, 2000 United States of America Founded American Taekwondo Association; first grandmaster of the ATA; author of The Way of Traditional Taekwondo [67]
Cho, Sihak Henry 9th dan 1934–2012 United States of America Pioneer of taekwondo in the United States of America; wrote several books; contributed karate article in World Book Encyclopedia (1976) See main article
Kim, Pyung-soo 10th dan 1939 - United States of America One of only two students that tested and promoted to 5th Dan at the first Korean Tae Soo Do Association exam in 1962. First correspondent from South Korea to Black Belt Magazine(1964–68). Founder of The International Chayon-Ryu Martial Arts Association. Author of three Taekwondo Books (Ohara Publications): Palgue 1-2-3 of Taekwondo Hyung, Palgue 4-5-6 of Taekwondo Hyung, Palgue 7-8 of Taekwondo Hyung, and one Taekwondo book published in Russia. See main article
Choi, Kwang Jo 9th dan 1942– United States of America Founded Choi Kwang-Do; one of the KTA's 12 original masters See main article
Han, Cha Kyo 9th dan 1934–1996 United States of America One of the KTA's 12 original masters See main article
Kim, Hong Sik 9th dan unknown United States of America Studied under Gen. Choi before coming to the US in 1971. He served as an instructor with the Korean National Police Agency. Served in the Oregon Army National Guard as a Colonel. Founder of Kim's United Taekwon-Karate Center. Life long student of martial arts including western boxing, Judo, Sumo and Taekwon-do.
Hwang, Kwang Sung 9th dan c. 1942– United States of America One of the few promoted to 9th dan by H. H. Choi [61][68]
Kyong Lee 9th dan Canada Founded Wanin Do [citation needed]
Park, Jung Tae 9th dan c. 1943–2002 Canada One of the KTA's 12 original masters See main article
Rhee, Chong Chul 8th dan c. 1935– Australia Considered as the Father of Australian taekwondo; founded Rhee Taekwon-Do; one of the KTA's 12 original masters See main article
Rhee, Jhoon Goo 10th dan 1932–2018 United States of America Father of American taekwondo [citation needed]
Kirschbaum, Len G. 9th dan 1955- United States of America Founder of Original Taekwon-Do Federation (IOTF) on June 17, 2002. Served as special ITF seminar instructor and loyal student of Taekwon-Do founder, General Choi Hong Hi. [citation needed]
Cheah, Wee Hin (Steven) 8th dan Australia Considered one of the fathers of Australian taekwon-do, founded Cheah Taekwon-Do, learned TaeKwon-Do in Malaysia under Gen. Choi and C.K Choi. [citation needed]
Oliver, David 9th dan United Kingdom Tae Kwon-Do Association of Great Britain (T.A.G.B.) Chairman [69]
Jay "Flying Tiger" Blanton "10th "dan" 1959- United States Founder of Mang Ho Ryu Tae Kwon Do System in 1993. Tae Kwon Do System was named by Grandmaster Kang Rhee, Memphis, Tennessee United States. Grandmaster Jay "Flying Tiger" Blanton has wrote 2- books on Prevailing Against being bullied,1- book on his Tae Kwon Do Martial Arts system history and his training, and an Anti-Bullying Program for schools, colleges,etc. He has been in many martial arts magazines, newspapers, TV news and talk shows. Has won many awards for his community work with bullying and working with Veterans with P.T.S.D. Grandmaster Kang Rhee was the Instructor of Elvis Presley and Bill "Super Foot" Wallace and many others.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Kwanjangdo - Martial Arts Academy". www.kwanjangdo.com. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  3. ^ "Untitled". www.mooyonglee.com. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  4. ^ "Grand Master Moo Yong Lee". United Tae Kwon Do. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Grandmaster Cha Yong-Kil Retrieved on 17 December 2012.
  7. ^ "SANGROK World Taekwondo Academy". sangrokgym.com.
  8. ^ a b "Masters & Instructors". USTMA. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  9. ^ a b c "TKDTimes_March2007" (PDF).
  10. ^ "140G-17". chungsunhwan.com.
  11. ^ "Grandmaster Sun Hwan Chung - Hall of Fame Induction". usgrandmasters.com. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
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  14. ^ Grandmaster Sang Sup Kil Tae Kwon Do (c. 2013). Retrieved on 20 November 2013.
  15. ^ Grandmaster Grand Master Il-Kwon Kim Retrieved on 10 Feb 2013.
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  17. ^ Grandmaster LEE, BUM-I (9th Dan) (2009). Retrieved on 28 March 2016.
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  19. ^ "Tae E. Lee Taekwondo // About Us: Grandmaster Tae E. Lee". www.TaeLee.ca. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  20. ^ "Tae E. Lee Taekwondo // Home". www.TaeLee.ca. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
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  24. ^ a b Richmond Sunlight: House Resolution no. 503 (Virginia General Assembly, 10 May 2006). Retrieved on 24 February 2010.
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  33. ^ Kang, S.-W. (2009): Choue re-elected as WTF head The Korea Times (14 October 2009). Retrieved on 20 May 2010.
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  38. ^ Biography GM 9th degree Black Belt ITF: [2].
  39. ^ Organization chart of the Italian Taekwondo Federation F.I.TAE.: [3].
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  48. ^ [5] Archived 25 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
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