|7th President of the Khmer Republic|
March 10, 1972 – April 1, 1975
|Prime Minister||Sisowath Sirik Matak
Son Ngoc Thanh
Hang Thun Hak
|Preceded by||Cheng Heng|
|Succeeded by||Peter Khoy Saukam (acting)|
|23rd Prime Minister of Cambodia|
August 14, 1969 – March 11, 1971
Cheng Heng (acting)
|Deputy||Sisowath Sirik Matak|
|Preceded by||Penn Nouth|
|Succeeded by||Sisowath Sirik Matak|
October 25, 1966 – May 1, 1967
|Preceded by||Norodom Kantol|
|Succeeded by||Son Sann|
|Leader of the Social Republican Party|
June 15, 1972 – April 1, 1975
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|Minister of Defense|
|Prime Minister||Son Sann
November 13, 1913|
Kampong Leav, Prey Veng, Cambodia
|Died||November 17, 1985 (aged 72)
Fullerton, California, U.S.
|Resting place||Loma Vista Memorial Park
Fullerton, California, U.S.
|Political party||Social Republican Party|
|Sangkum (until 1970)|
|Service/branch|| Royal Cambodian Army
Khmer National Army
|Years of service||1952–1975|
|Commands||Commander-in-Chief of the Khmer National Armed Forces|
|Battles/wars||First Indochina War|
Marshal Lon Nol (Khmer: លន់ នល់, also លន់ ណុល; November 13, 1913 – November 17, 1985) was a Cambodian politician and general who served as Prime Minister of Cambodia twice (1966–67; 1969–71), as well as serving repeatedly as Defense Minister. He led the military coup of 1970 against Prince Norodom Sihanouk and became the self-proclaimed President of the newly created Khmer Republic, ruling until 1975. He was the founder and leader of the short-lived Social Republican Party, and commander-in-chief of the Khmer National Armed Forces.
Nol was born in Prey Veng Province on November 13, 1913, to a family of mixed Khmer-Chinese descent. His father Lon Hin was the son of a Khmer Krom from Tay Ninh Province who later served as a district chief in Siem Reap and Kampong Thom, after making a name for himself 'pacifying' bandit groups in Prey Veng. His maternal grandfather was a Chinese immigrant from Fujian province who later became the governor of Prey Veng. Nol was educated in the relatively privileged surroundings of the Lycée Chasseloup-Laubat in Saigon, followed by the Cambodian Royal Military Academy.
Employment in the colonial government
Nol found employment with the French colonial civil service in 1937. He became a magistrate, and soon proved himself as an efficient enforcer of French rule against a series of anti-colonial disturbances in 1939. By 1946, he had risen to the post of Governor of Kratie Province. He became an associate of King Norodom Sihanouk, and by the late 1940s, when he set up a right-wing, monarchist, pro-independence political group, was becoming increasingly involved in the developing Cambodian political scene. Joining the army in 1952, he carried out military operations against the Viet Minh.
After independence, Nol's nationalist Khmer Renovation party (along with small right-wing parties headed by Sam Sary and Dap Chhuon) became the core of the Sangkum, the organisation set up by Sihanouk to participate in the 1955 elections. Sangkum won the elections and Sihanouk became Prime Minister.
In the administration of Sihanouk, 1955–70
Nol was appointed the Army Chief of Staff in 1955, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces in 1960, as well as serving as Defence Minister. At the time, he was a trusted supporter of Sihanouk, his police being instrumental in the suppression of the small, clandestine communist movement in Cambodia. He was appointed deputy Premier in 1963. While Sihanouk – in an attempt to distance his country from the effects of the Vietnam War – was pursuing a foreign policy of "extreme neutrality", which involved association with China and toleration of North Vietnamese activity on the eastern borders, Nol remained friendly towards the United States, and indicated that he regretted the ending of US aid after 1963.
The 1966 parliamentary elections represented a major shift in the balance of power towards Lon Nol and the rightist elements of the Sangkum, as conservative and right-wing candidates were overwhelmingly elected. Lon Nol became Prime Minister, and the following year his troops were used by Sihanouk to carry out a savage repression of a leftist-inspired revolt, the Samlaut Uprising, in Battambang Province.
Nol was injured in a car crash later in 1967, and temporarily retired from politics. In 1968, however, he returned as Minister of Defence and in 1969 became Prime Minister a second time, appointing the vocally anti-Sihanouk, and pro-US politician Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak as his deputy.
The 1970 Coup
Sihanouk later claimed that the 1970 coup against him was the result of an alliance between his longstanding enemy, exiled politician Son Ngoc Thanh and Sirik Matak, with CIA support and planning. Although there are indications that Lon Nol approached the US during 1969 to gauge the likelihood of military support for a coup against Sihanouk, there is no concrete evidence of CIA involvement, though it remains possible some military intelligence agents may have had partial responsibility. It seems likely that in setting in motion the events leading up to the coup, Lon Nol initially intended to strengthen his position against the North Vietnamese with the ultimate aim of preventing their troops (and those of the Viet Cong) from operating within Cambodian borders, and wished to apply pressure on Sihanouk to achieve this. However, events rapidly developed far beyond the original plan, and with the encouragement of Sirik Matak – who wished to see Sihanouk deposed as Head of State – Lon Nol was ultimately to engineer Sihanouk's removal.
While Sihanouk was abroad during March 1970, there were anti-Vietnamese riots in Phnom Penh. On 12 March, Lon Nol and Sirik Matak closed the port of Sihanoukville, through which weapons were being smuggled to the Viet Cong, to the North Vietnamese and issued an ultimatum: all North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces were to withdraw from Cambodian soil within 72 hours or face military action.
Lon Nol initially refused to countenance Sihanouk being deposed as Head of State; to force his hand, Sirik Matak played him a tape-recorded press conference from Paris, in which Sihanouk blamed them for the unrest and threatened to execute them both on his return to Phnom Penh. However, the Prime Minister remained uncertain as to whether to instigate a vote in the National Assembly. On the night of 17 March, Sirik Matak, accompanied by three army officers, went to the Prime Minister's residence and compelled a weeping Lon Nol to sign the necessary documents at gunpoint.
A vote was taken in the National Assembly on 18 March in which Sihanouk was stripped of his power. General Lon Nol assumed the powers of the Head of State on an emergency basis. On 28 and 29 March there were large-scale popular demonstrations in favour of Sihanouk in several provincial cities, but Lon Nol's forces suppressed them, causing several hundred deaths. The Khmer Republic was formally declared that October, and Sihanouk – who had formed a government-in-exile, the GRUNK, incorporating the Khmer Rouge communists – was condemned to death in absentia. In the meantime during the Cambodian Campaign of April 1970, US and South Vietnamese forces entered Cambodian territory in pursuit of North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops.
The Khmer Republic and the Civil War
The Khmer Republic (1970–1975) was founded in order to do away with Cambodia's widespread corruption and to restore Cambodia's sovereignty in its eastern regions, occupied by Vietnamese communist insurgents as a result of Sihanouk's "neutrality" policies. Despite its high aims, the republic proved disastrous both militarily and politically. Lon Nol's health started to decline after he suffered a stroke in February 1971. His rule became increasingly erratic and authoritarian: he appointed himself Marshal (a title previously unknown in Cambodia) in April 1971, and in October suspended the National Assembly, stating he would no longer "vainly play the game of democracy and freedom" in wartime. Backed by his forceful, ambitious younger brother General Lon Non, Nol succeeded in reducing the influence of Sirik Matak, In Tam and the other coup leaders. He also insisted on directing many of the Khmer National Armed Forces (French: Forces Armées Nationales Khmères – FANK) operations personally.
In time Lon Nol's regime became completely dependent upon large quantities of American aid that towards the end were not backed by the political and military resolve needed to effectively help the beleaguered republic. By 1975, the government was eventually reduced to holding little more than Phnom Penh and the Preah Vihear Temple in the northern border with Thailand. The FANK was quickly running out of ammunition. Lon Nol was increasingly dependent on the advice of soothsayers and Buddhist mystics: at one point during a Khmer Rouge assault on Phnom Penh, he sprinkled a circular line of consecrated sand in order to defend the city. Finally, on 1 April, he resigned and fled the country into exile, as his name was the first on a list of people the Khmer Rouge had vowed to execute.
Exile and death
The first priority of the Khmer Rouge after conquering Cambodia and overthrowing the Khmer Republic was to execute all its leaders and high officials without delay, a fate that Lon Nol escaped.
Lon Nol fled from Cambodia to Indonesia and then to the United States; first settling in Hawaii and in 1979 in Fullerton, California. He lived with his second wife Sovanna Lon and several of his nine children until his death from a heart problem on November 17, 1985 at St. Jude Medical Center.
Despite his actions in deposing Sihanouk, Nol was a firm believer in traditional Cambodian hierarchy: after Sihanouk had been removed he prostrated himself at the Queen Mother's feet in order to ask forgiveness. He termed his ideology, a blend of chauvinist nationalism and mysticism, "Neo-Khmerism". He expressed an ambition of reuniting the ethnic Khmers of Cambodia with the Khmer Krom of the Mekong Delta and the Khmer Surin of Thailand, projecting a state of "thirty million" Khmers by the year 2020. Asking his followers to embrace the traditions of what he referred to as Mon-Khmer "holy warriors" (yuthesel), he also encouraged them to refer to him as their "Black Papa", a name referring to the dark skin considered to be the sign of an "authentic" Khmer.
- "Lon Nol's Wife and Son Fined in Child-Abuse Case". The New York Times. April 4, 1981. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Marks, Paul (2000), p. 92-108
- Corfield (1994), p. 1
- Kiernan 2004, p. 24
- Summary of world broadcasts: Far East, Part 3, 24 July 1984, p. FE/7703/C/12 He was given a sumptuous welcome and was even offered the opportunity to visit the grave of his grandfather in Fujian Province. It is worth noting that on this occasion, the Chinese leaders voiced support for Lon Nol's.....
- Kiernan 2004, p. 158
- Shawcross 1979, p. 61
- Kiernan 2004, p. 232
- Norodom Sihanouk, My War with the CIA, Pantheon, 1972, p.37
- Kiernan, B. How Pol Pot came to power, Yale UP, p.300
- Wilfred P. Deac, "Road to the Killing Fields: The Cambodian War of 1970-1975" (Texas A&M University Press, 1997) pp. 61–2;
- Robert Dallek, "Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power," (Harper Collins, 2007), p. 191;
- Steve Heder "Cambodian Communism and the Vietnamse Model, Volume I: Imitation and Independence, 1930-1975," (White Lotus Press, 2004), p. 156.]
- Clymer, K. J. The United States and Cambodia, Routledge, 2004, p.22
- Shawcross 1979, pp. 118–119
- Sutsakhan, Lt. Gen. S. The Khmer Republic at War and the Final Collapse Washington DC: United States Army Center of Military History, 1987, Part 1, p. 42. See also Part 1Part 2Part 3.
- Marlay, R. and Neher, C. Patriots and tyrants, Rowman & Littlefield, 1999, p.165
- Chandler, D. A History of Cambodia, 2000, p.204
- Kiernan 2004, p. 302
- Cady, The History of Postwar Southeast Asia, 1974, p.672
- David P. Chandler, A history of Cambodia, Westview Press; Allen & Unwin, Boulder, Sydney, 1992
- McMillan, Penelope (November 18, 1985). "Ex-Cambodian President Dies in Fullerton". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- Shawcross 1979, p. 128
- Kiernan 2004, p. 348
- Becker, E. When the War Was Over, 1986, p.134
- Corfield, Justin J. (1994). Khmers stand up! – A history of the Cambodian government 1970-1975. Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University. ISBN 0732605652.
- Kiernan, B. (2004). How Pol Pot came to Power. Yale University Press.
- Marks, Paul (2000). "China's Cambodia Strategy". Parameters (Autumn 2000): 92–108. ISSN 0031-1723. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
- Shawcross, W. (1979). Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon, and the Destruction of Cambodia. Simon & Schuster.
Prince Norodom Kantol
|Prime Minister of Cambodia
|Prime Minister of Cambodia
Sisowath Sirik Matak
(Head of State)
|President of Cambodia
(Head of State)