Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (Sri Lanka)
|Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol
(Deep Penetration Unit)
|Active||Classified – Present|
|Allegiance||Sri Lanka Army|
|Type||Special Forces (Black op)|
|Role||Reconnaissance and sabotage in deep battlespace, mainly targeting of enemy commanders.|
|Part of||Operates under the Directorate of Military Intelligence of the Army|
|Engagements||Sri Lankan Civil War Other classified|
|Lalith JayasingheTuan Nizam Muthaliff|
The Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (LRRP) is a covert operation (black ops) unit of the Sri Lanka Army. This unit is also known as the Deep Penetration Unit (DPU) and as the Mahasohon Brigade (Mahasohona is a demon in Sinhalese folklore hence literally meaning Demon Brigade). Colonel Raj Vijayasiri of the Special Forces is credited as the main figure who introduced the DPU concept and the Mahasohon Brigade to the Special Forces. LRRP units specialize in carrying out reconnaissance and sabotage operations in deep battlespace. In the recent Sri Lankan Civil War, LRRP units have been successful in assassinating several high-level commanders of the LTTE in LTTE-held territory. The unit has also been accused of launching attacks on and killing civilians. The LRRP suffered a setback when a safehouse was raided by the police; they arrested several personnel along with weapons. Before the misunderstanding was later cleared out and the arrested released, the names of the personnel involved in the unit were released to the public media, resulting in the assassination of several of them. The LRRP was later reformed and has resumed its activities following the resumption of hostilities after a ceasefire between the government and the LTTE was cancelled.
The exact number of troops involved with the LRRP is not known, and neither the Sri Lanka Army nor the Sri Lankan government has officially acknowledged its existence. The unit is operated under the Directorate of Military Intelligence of the Army. It is believed to be composed of personnel from the Commando and Special Forces regiments of the Sri Lanka Army, in addition to ex-LTTE cadres and members of anti-LTTE Tamil groups. These personnel have received specialized training in Sri Lanka and abroad. Allegations have been made that LRRP units received training from US Special Forces. The LRRP was believed to have been led by captain Shahul Hameed Nilam before the ceasefire, with Major Tuan Nizam Muthaliff acting as a deputy commander.
LRRP units have been successful in carrying out several attacks behind enemy lines. Operations use small groups, who go into and out of enemy territory clandestinely through jungle routes and seek their targets. These groups may stay in safehouses or camp in the jungles until they are ready to take their designated target. Many of the attacks launched by LRRP units targeted high-profile LTTE commanders and were carried out in the manner of roadside ambushes. Before the 2002 ceasefire agreement was signed, the government denied allegations from the LTTE that state-backed deep-penetration units were targeting their leaders.
Colonel Shankar, head of the LTTE air wing, was killed in such an attack on 6 September 2001. Although his death was speculated to be a result of an internal struggle within the LTTE, the LTTE accused Army LRRP units of launching the attack that killed him. A senior sea tiger commander, Lt. Col. Gangai Amaran, was another high-profile LTTE leader killed by the LRRP. Other LTTE commanders killed in LRRP attacks include Batticaloa District Intelligence Head Lt. Col. Nizam, LTTE Batticaloa-Ampara Communications Chief Major Mano and artillery specialist Major Sathiyaseelan.
Former head of the LTTE political wing, S. P. Tamilselvan’s vehicle was attacked by LRRP units in May 2001. Tamilselvan was not in the vehicle at the time. LRRP units have also made failed assassination attempts on several other LTTE leaders including Col. Karuna, Col. Jeyam and Col. Balraj. The LTTE has accused the LRRP of attempting to carry out attacks even against the LTTE leader, Velupillai Prabhakaran.
Exposure and aftermath
In 2002, a ceasefire agreement was signed between the government and the LTTE and all LRRP activities were ceased. The military believed that the targeting of high-profile LTTE leadership by the LRRP was a prominent factor in prompting the LTTE to agree for negotiations.
On 2 January 2002, a police team led by SP Kulasiri Udugampola raided an LRRP safehouse in Athurugiriya, a suburb close to the capital, Colombo. The unit was accused of planning to assassinate leaders of the recently elected United National Party government. Six personnel were arrested, including Captain Nilam, the leader of the unit. Four soldiers and a former LTTE cadre were also arrested. In addition, a number of weapons were taken into custody, including explosives, anti-tank and thermobaric weapons. Details of this raid and the weapons were made public through media. Attempts by the military hierarchy to get the arrested personnel released failed, and Army commander Lt. Gen. Lionel Balagalla issued a public statement revealing the true nature of this unit. The arrested personnel were released only after interrogation on 13 January, under orders from Defence Minister Tilak Marapana, who expressed outrage over the police raid.
Soon after the incident, LTTE began a campaign to eliminate the members of the LRRP and those who were suspected of assisting them. A key informant of the unit, known as Mike, was abducted and killed by the LTTE on 20 January. More than 80 persons involved with the LRRP were assassinated after this. The newly elected government did not take any significant measures to stop it, and requests made by the state intelligence agencies were ignored on the basis that it will affect the ceasefire.
The Army Commander, under the direction of the Defence Minister, appointed a Court of Inquiry to investigate the activities of the LRRP. The conclusion of the court of inquiry was that their activities were legitimate and all military hardware found were obtained through legitimate means. As the public controversy on this incident and the killings continued, President Chandrika Kumaratunga appointed a Commission of Inquiry to probe the safehouse raid. The Commission’s conclusion was that in addition to compromising national security interests, the raid was a "total betrayal and absolute treachery to the nation". The report included a list of officers of the police and army responsible for the incident.
A special team was set up by the Chief of Police to investigate into the actions of Udugampola and several other police officers.
Resumption of hostilities
The ceasefire was cancelled and hostilities resumed in 2006. Since then, the LRRP has been reformed and is actively participating in the ongoing operations against the LTTE. The LRRP has launched several attacks against LTTE leaders. Head of the LTTE military intelligence, Col. Charles, was killed in one such attack. Cheliyan, the deputy leader of the Sea Tigers, was also killed in an LRRP attack.
Attacks on civilians
The LTTE has accused the LRRP of targeting civilians in areas under their control. In June 2008, The LTTE accused LRRP units of killing 26 civilians in three attacks. Military spokesman Brigadier Udaya Nanayakkara denied any involvement in these incidents, stating that the LRRP only targets armed LTTE cadres. Other alleged attacks on civilians include targeting a bus carrying school children, and the killing of Tamil National Alliance member K. Sivanesan. Another notable accusation is the killing of Father M. X. Karunaratnam, the chairman of the North East Secretariat on Human Rights (NESOHR), a pro–LTTE organization that had accused the Sri Lankan military of human rights violations.
On October 20, 2008, registrars attached to the Colombo Magistrate Courts system received a threatening letter, stating that the 'Mahason Brigade' was watching "traitors that stood up for terrorists" (referring to lawyers who represented captured LTTE cadres in court). The authorship of the letters were never verified, thus leading some to dismiss it as the concoction of ultra-nationalistic groups within the Sinhalese community.
- Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol
- Military Assistance Command, Vietnam – Studies and Observations Group
- Lalith Jayasinghe
- Jeyaraj, D. B. S. (12 March 2008). "LRRP infiltration demolishes impregnable Tiger terrain myth". The Bottom Line (Sri Lanka). Archived from the original on 18 March 2012.
- "The Deadly Mahasohon Brigade". Strategy Page. 4 September 2007. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- "True sons of Mother Lanka". Sunday Observer. The Associated Newspapers of Ceylon. 15 August 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- "Shadow War Comes to Colombo". Tamil Guardian. Ilankai Tamil Sangam – Association of Tamils of Sri Lanka in the USA. 2 June 2005. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- Taraki (15 September 2004). "A Second Look at US Assistance to Lanka Against Terrorism". Ilankai Tamil Sangam – Association of Tamils of Sri Lanka in the USA. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- V.S. Sambandan (1 July 2005). "War by other means". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- "LTTE condemns assassination of senior leader". Tamilnet. 26 September 2001. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- Nirupama Subramanian (16 August 2001). "LTTE leaders come under bomb attacks". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- "Sri Lanka’s Long-Range Reconnaissance Patrol". The British Refugee Council, Sri Lanka. Tamilnation.org. 7 April 2003. Retrieved 25 December 2008.[dead link]
- W.A. Sunil (24 January 2002). "Police raid exposes a secret Sri Lankan army assassination squad". World Socialist Website. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- Iqbal Athas. "Tigers crack Mike mystery after Safe House blunder". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- Ruwan Weerakoon (11 October 2008). "Deputy Sea Tiger Leader killed". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- Shihar Aneez (10 June 2008). "Sri Lanka fringe group claims bomb responsibility". Reuters. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- "NESoHR Chairman Fr. Karunaratnam killed in DPU attack". Tamilnet. 20 April 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- Jeyaraj, D.B.S. (23 April 2008). "Killing of "Kili Father": Silencing a messenger". The Bottom Line. Retrieved 8 January 2009.
- LankaENews (author name not published due to probable persecution) (22 October 2008). "Mahason Balakaya back again; Threatening letters to the judiciary". LankaENews. Retrieved 25 October 2012.