Lorna Simpson

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Lorna Simpson
LornaSimpsonApr09 cropped.jpg
Simpson in April 2009
Lorna Simpson

1960 (1960)
EducationUniversity of California-San Diego, MFA, 1985; School of Visual Arts, New York City, BFA, 1983
Known forPhotography, Film, Video
MovementConceptual photography
Awards2010 ICP Infinity Award in Art, International Center of Photography, New York City

[1]Lorna Simpson (born 13 August 1960) is an African-American photographer and multimedia artist who made her name in the 1980s and 1990s with artworks such as Guarded Conditions and Square Deal.[2] Her works have been included in numerous exhibitions both nationally and internationally. She is best known for her photo-text installations, photocollages, and films.

Early life and education[edit]

Lorna Simpson was born on August 13, 1960 in Brooklyn, New York.[2] She attended the High School of Art and Design. Her parents – a Jamaican-Cuban father and African-American mother –[3] had moved from the Midwest to New York[4] and took her to numerous plays, museums, concerts and dance performances.[5] In the summers, Simpson took courses at the Art Institute of Chicago while visiting her grandmother.[4]

Simpson later attended the School of Visual Arts in New York where she received a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Photography in 1983.[6] During that time, she interned at the Studio Museum in Harlem, seeing up close the practice of David Hammons, among others, who was an artist in residence.[3] After receiving her BFA, she traveled to Europe and Africa, developing skills in documentary photography, her earliest works. While traveling, she became inspired to expand her work beyond the field of photography in order to challenge and engage the viewer. Later, she worked as a graphic designer.[4]

While earning her Master of Fine Arts degree from the University of California at San Diego in 1985[6] Simpson worked on expanding her ideas further. Her education in San Diego was somewhere between Photography and Conceptual art, and her teachers included conceptualist Allan Kaprow, performance artist Eleanor Antin, filmmakers Babette Mangolte, Jean-Pierre Gorin and poet David Antin.[7] What emerged was her signature style of "photo-text". In these photos Simpson inserted graphic text into studio-like portraiture. In doing this Simpson brought an entirely new conceptual meaning to the works. These works generally related to the perception of African-American women within American culture.[2]


Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Simpson was showing work through solo exhibitions all over the country, and her name was synonymous with photo-text artworks. In her early work around the 80s and 90s, she tries to portray African American women in a way that is not derogatory or actual representations of the women portrayed.[8] Some artists that have influenced her work include David Hammons, Adrian Piper, and Felix-Gonzalex Torres; and even some writers like Ishmael Reed, Langston Hughes, Ntozake Shange, Alice Walker, and Toni Morrison because of their rhythmical voice.[9] She was awarded a National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship in 1985, and in 1990, she became the first African-American woman to exhibit at the Venice Biennale.[10] She was also the first African American woman to have a solo exhibition in the Museum of Modern Art with her Projects 23 exhibition.[11] In 1990, Simpson had one woman exhibitions at several major museums, including the Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado, the Portland Art Museum, Portland, Oregon, and the Museum of Modern Art, New York.[12][13] At the same time, her work was included in The Decade Show: Frameworks of Identity in the 1980s, an exhibition presented by The Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, The New Museum of Contemporary Art, and The Studio Museum in Harlem.[11] Simpson has explored various media and techniques, including two-dimensional photographs as well as silk screening her photographs on large felt panels, creating installations, or producing as video works such as Call Waiting (1997).[14]

The figure slowly started to disappear from Simpson's work around the end of 1992; where her focus was about wide-ranging aesthetic issues. Her interest in the human body remained during this time however she was trying to work through these issues without the image of the figure.[15] In 1997, Simpson received the Artist-in-Residence grant from the Wexner Center for the Arts in Columbus, Ohio, where exhibited her works in photography. By the 2000s she had started exploring the medium of video installations in order to avoid a paralysis brought on by outside expectations. In 2001 she was awarded the Whitney Museum of Art Award, and in 2007, her work was featured in a 20-year retrospective at the Whitney Museum of American Art in her hometown of New York City.[2][14][16]

Simpson's work has been displayed at the Museum of Modern Art, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Miami Art Museum, the Walker Art Center, the Minneapolis Institute of Art, and the Irish Museum of Modern Art,[17] the Whitney and the Studio Museum in Harlem, The Whitney Museum of American Art and the Venice Biennale, where she was the first African American to participate.[18] Her first European retrospective opened at the Jeu de Paume in Paris in 2013, then traveled to Germany, England, and Massachusetts.[19][20][21][22] As of now, Simpson's work can be found in galleries within the Chicago and California areas rather than with galleries in New York.[9] She has also been one of a handful of African-American artists to exhibit at the Jamaica Arts Center in Queens, New York and then to the gallery in Soho.[15]

External image
Black America Again (album cover)

She first exhibited paintings in 2015 at the 56th Venice Biennale, followed by a showing at the Salon 94 Bowery.[23][24]

In 2016 Simpson created the album artwork for Black America Again by Common. During the same year, she was featured in the book In the Company of Women, Inspiration and Advice from over 100 Makers, Artists, and Entrepreneurs.[25] In a 2017 issue of Vogue Magazine, Simpson showcased a series of portraits of 18 professional creative women who hold art central to their lives. The women photographed included Teresita Fernández, Huma Bhabha, and Jacqueline Woodson. Inspired by their resilience, Simpson said of these women, "They don't take no for an answer".[26]

Even at the age of 57, Lorna still pushes her artistic capabilities; with her latest addition to her portfolio being sculpture. In her earlier life, she first built her career upon being a conceptual photographer but then mixed up her media and started to add elements of video, installation, drawing, painting and also film into her pieces.[27] Simpson's goal is to continue to influence the legacy of black artists today by speaking with artists and activists such as the Art Hoe Collective, a group of young women using social media to give marginalized groups a safe platform to broadcast their artwork.[citation needed] When asked about her career Simpson says, "I've always done exactly what I wanted to do, regardless of what was out there. I just stuck to that principle and I'm a much happier person as a result. And I can't imagine trying to satisfy any particular audience.[28]


Simpson first came to prominence in the 1980s for her large-scale works that combined photography and text and defied traditional conceptions of sex, identity, race, culture, history, and memory. Primarily, Simpson is interested in exploring individual identities in her work and the intersectionality of identities. She is well known for her exploration of the black female identity, though she is also interested in all identities, in the American identity, in universal figures, and universality.[29] Simpson is also interested in ambiguity in her work, she includes “gaps and contradictions so that not all the viewer’s questions are answered.” [30] Simpson's ambiguity often allows viewers to think, to take in her work and the larger questions that her work raises. Simpson's “high level of conceptional sophistication and social awareness”[31] has gained her much positive attention, as has her attention and use of political issues in her work. Simpson has “seized on conceptualism’s signature tropes-the grid, seriality, repletion, and, above all, language-in order to examine how our knowledge of the world comes to be organized.”[32] Repetition of figures in “minimalist photographs”[33] and text creates a “interplay of text and images”[29] that “relies on repetition to make clear the difference that racialization makes.”[34] Drawing on this work, she started to create large photos printed on felt that showed public but unnoticed sexual encounters. Recently, Simpson has experimented with film as well as continuing to work with photography.[17] Simpson's “interests in photography [has] always been paralleled by an interest in film, particularly in the way that one structurally builds sequences in film.”[35] Simpson began working in film in 1997 with her work Call Waiting, she's continued such work in subsequent years.

Lorna Simpson, Untitled (2 Necklines), 1989,
2 gelatin silver prints and 11 engraved plastic plaques, 40 x 100 in.,
National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

Simpson's 1989 work, Necklines, shows two circular and identical photographs of a black woman's mouth, chin, neck, and collar bone. The white text, “ring, surround, lasso, noose, eye, areola, halo, cuffs, collar, loop”, individual words on black plaques, imply menace, binding or worse. The final phrase, text on red “feel the ground sliding from under you,” openly suggests lynching, though the adjacent images remain serene, non-confrontational and elegant.[36]

Easy for Who to Say, Simpson's work from 1989, displays five identical silhouettes of black women from the shoulders up wearing a white top that is similar to women portrayed in other of Simpson's works. The women's faces are obscured by a white-colored oval shape each with one of the following letters inside: A, E, I, O, U. Underneath the corresponding portraits are the words: Amnesia, Error, Indifference, Omission, Uncivil. In this work Simpson alludes to the racialization in ethnographic cinema and the revocation of history faced by many people of color.[37] Also, the letters covering the faces suggest “intimate multiplicity of positions she might occupy and attitudes she might assume-”,[38] these potential thoughts are stopped, abruptly, by the words, “undermining not only the subjective position the figure would seek but also her grasp on any recognizable position at all.”[38]

Simpson's work Guarded Conditions, created in 1989, was one in a series in which Simpson has assembled fragmented Polaroid images of a female model whom she has regularly collaborated with. The body is fragmented and viewed from behind, while the back of the model's head is sensed as being in a state of guardedness towards possible hostility she can anticipate as a result of the combination of her sex and the color of her skin. The complex historical and symbolic associations of African-American hairstyles are also brought into play. The message of the text and the formal treatment of the image reinforce a sense of vulnerability. One can also note that the figures, though in similar poses, differ slightly in the placement of the figure's feet, hair, and hands. These subtle differences might suggest, “the model’s shifting relationship to herself.”[39] The fragmentation and serialization of bodily images disrupts and denies the body's wholeness and individuality. In attempting to read the work the viewer is provoked into confronting histories of appropriation and consumption of the black female body.[40] Many critics associate this work with the slave auction, as a reminder that black “enslaved women were removed from the circle of human suffering so that they might become circulating objects of sexual and pecuniary exchange.”[41] These women had no choice but to stand on the auction block and put themselves, their bodies, on display for sell. They become objects, a subject that Simpson often makes the focus of her work.[citation needed]

Simpson also incorporated the complicated relationship that African American women have with their natural hair in her work Wigs (1994). Simpson's Wigs (1994) does not include any figures, instead the lined up wigs suggest scientific specimens.[42] According to the Museum of Modern Art, Learning page, the work has various social and political undertones about the surrounding culture and the beauty standards that the culture produces. As such, the work forces the viewer to question why such beauty standards exists and how they are perpetuated by society.[43]

Though Simpson's work often centered around issues of personal memory, it was not until 2009 that Simpson introduced self-portraiture into her body of work. Her series 1957-2009 included vintage black and white photographs depicting “found pinup-style images of a young African American women” from 1957, juxtaposed against self-portraits in which Simpson reproduced the backdrop and the model's pose in the context of the present day. Simpson thus recreated a narrative of beauty ideals that excluded black women in the 1950s.[44]

In 2009, Simpson created a piece called May, June, July, August '57/'09 #8. In this work, Simpson combined photographs of herself alongside a series of photos that she acquired through eBay. The photos she had bought off eBay were of an unidentified woman, and occasionally a male, in staged and attractive poses. When she received the photos, she hung them on her wall where they stayed for months. Eventually, she decided to recreate the images by taking photos of herself in the same pose and clothing as the woman in the photos in 2009.[45]

Simpson's work often portrays black women combined with text to express contemporary society's relationship with race, ethnicity and sex. In many of her works, the subjects are black women with obscured faces, causing a denial of gaze and the interaction associated with visual exchange. Simpson's use of “turned-back figures” was used to not only “refuse the gaze” but to also “to deny any presumed access to the sitter’s personality, and to refute both the classificatory drives and emotional projections typically satisfied by photographic portraiture of black subjects.” [46] It has also been suggested that these figures “stand for a generation’s mode of looking and questioning photographic representation”[35] Through repetitive use of the same portrait combined with graphic text, her "anti-portraits" have a sense of scientific classification, addressing the cultural associations of black bodies.[47]

In a 2003 video installation, Corridor, Simpson sets two women side-by-side; a household servant from 1860 and a wealthy homeowner from 1960.[48] Both women are portrayed by artist Wangechi Mutu, allowing parallel and haunting relationships to be drawn.[16] She has commented, "I do not appear in any of my work. I think maybe there are elements to it and moments to it that I use from my own personal experience, but that, in and of itself, is not so important as what the work is trying to say about either the way we interpret experience or the way we interpret things about identity."[14]

Simpson's interest in using audio elements in her works to add “layering” helps to set the tone and mood of a composition. In Corridor music is used to create “an interesting melding visually of two time periods.”[49] The music is sometimes lulling and others sharp, terrifying, and haunting, which correlates with the narrative. Simpson often uses “open-ended narratives”[49] in photography and film because she is interested in “insinuating things”,[49] she does this in Corridor, where “nothing really happens, it’s just a woman going kind of day-to-day, what she does over the course of a day.”[49] A “texture” begins to appear that begins to tell viewers what might be going on, it begins to make viewers question “what’s missing from the picture” and “what [‘s] trying to [be] conveyed.”[49] All of these questions begin to create a setting, a “time frame” or “period of time” to encourage a viewer to create or imagine or figure out a narrative, to figure out “these people lives during a particular period of time that is important politically.”[50] The viewer can then digest that political environment in present day, they can find associations with their own political climate. In the case of Corridor, the women's day-to-day life, and the mood of the video, dark and lonely, are more similar that one might expect. In this case, Simpson is considering identity again while also considering the past and the effect of the past on the present. Simpson is exploring race and class, the work attempts “to explore American identity and constructions of race.”[50]

From 2009 until 2018, Simpson shared a four-story studio with her then-husband James Casebere; the building was David Adjaye's first completed project in the US.[51] In 2014, she spent a three-week residency at collector Pamela Joyner's Sonoma, California, estate.[4] In 2018, she moved into a new studio at the Brooklyn Navy Yard.[52][3]

Art market[edit]

In 2018, Simpson moved from long-time gallery Salon 94 to Hauser & Wirth.[4]

Personal life[edit]

Simpson currently lives and works in Brooklyn.[53] From 2007 until 2018, she was married to fellow artist James Casebere.[4] They have a daughter, Zora Casebere, an artist and Instagram personality.[54] Casebere's Instagram account primarily focuses on hair care and natural style makeup.[54]


List of works[edit]

  • lll (Three Wishbones in a Wood Box). 1994. wooden box containing three wishbones made of ceramic, rubber and bronze inserted in two felt pads. Minneapolis Institute of Art.[59]
  • Back. 1991. 2 colour Polaroids and 3 plastic plaques.[40]
  • Counting. 1991. photogravure and screenprint. Minneapolis Institute of Art.[60]
  • Five Day Forecast. 1991. 5 photographs, gelatin silver print on paper and 15 engraved plaques. Tate Modern, London.[61]
  • Untitled (What should fit here...). 1993. photo-etching, screenprint and hand-applied watercolor. Minneapolis Institute of Art.[62]
  • The Waterbearer. 1996. silver print.[56]
  • Wigs (Portfolio). 1994. portfolio of twenty-one lithographs on felt with seventeen lithographed felt text panels. Museum of Modern Art, New York City.[63]
  • Gestures/Reenactments. 1985. 6 photographs of a black man in white clothes, with text captions underneath.[44]

Selected solo exhibitions[edit]

  • Lorna Simpson: Projects 23, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1990
  • Lorna Simpson, For the Sake of the Viewer, Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago; Contemporary Art Museum Honolulu; Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati; Henry Art Gallery, University of Washington. Seattle; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1992-1994
  • Lorna Simpson: Recent Work, John Berggruen Galley, San Francisco, 1993
  • Works by Lorna Simpson, Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 1993
  • Wigs, Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego, 1994
  • Lorna Simpson: New Works, Rhono Hoffman Gallery, Chicago, 1994
  • Standing in the Water, Whitney Museum of American Art at Phillip Morris, New York; Fabric Workshop, Philadelphia, 1994
  • Lorna Simpson: Wigs, Albrecht Kemper Museum of Art, Saint Joseph, MO, 1996
  • Lorna Simpson: New Work Series, Miami Art Museum, 1997
  • Lorna Simpson: Interior/Exterior, Full/Empty, Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1997-1998
  • Lorna Simpson: Call Waiting, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, 1998
  • Scenarios: Recent Works by Lorna Simpson, Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, MA; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor; National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, DC; Sean Kelly Gallery, New York, 1991-2001
  • CCA Kitakyushu Project Gallery, Kitakyushu, Japan, 2000
  • Lorna Simpson: Easy to Remember, Weatherspoon Art Museum, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, 2002
  • Lorna Simpson: Cameos and Appearances, Whitney Museum of American Art, 2002[64]
  • Consejo Nacional Para la Cultura y las Artes, Mexico City, 2003
  • Compostela: Lorna Simpson, Centro Galego de Arte Contemporanea, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 2004
  • Lorna Simpson, Corridor, Wohnmaschine, Berlin, 2004
  • Lorna Simpson: 31, Prefix Institute of Contemporary Art, Toronto, 2005
  • Lorna Simpson, organized by American Federation of the Arts; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; Miami Art Museum; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Kalamazoo Institute of Art, Kalamazoo, MI; Gibbes Museum, Charlestown, SC, 2006-2007[56]
  • 30 Americans, the Rubell Family Collection, Miami, North Carolina Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Chrysler Museum of Art, Milwaukee Art Museum, Frist Center for the Visual Arts, Contemporary Arts Center (New Orleans), Arkansas Arts Center, Detroit Institute of Arts, Cincinnati Art Museum, and Tacoma Art Museum, 2008.[65][66][67]
  • Lorna Simpson: Momentum, Salon 94 Bowery, New York, 2011.[68]
  • Lorna Simpson: Gathered, The Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art at the Brooklyn Museum, 2011.[69]
  • Lorna Simpson, organized by the Foundation for the Exhibition of Photography, Minneapolis and Lausanne, Switzerland; Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris; Haus der Kunst, Munich; Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, MA, 2013 (The first European retrospective of Simpson's work in 2013, which traveled to the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art in 2014).[19][20]


  • Simon, Joan. "Lorna Simpson." New York: Prestel Publishing, 2013. Print.
  • Als, Hilton (2013). Lorna Simpson: Works on Paper. Aspen, CO: Aspen Art Museum Press. ISBN 9780934324632.
  • Momin, Shamim; Enwezor, Okwui; Simpson, Lorna; Posner, Helaine; Als, Hilton; Isaac Julien; Golden, Thelma (2006). Lorna Simpson. New York: Abrams, in association with the American Federation of Arts. ISBN 0-8109-5548-2.
  • Simpson, Lorna; Willis, Deborah; Grundberg, Andy (1992). Lorna Simpson. San Francisco: The Friends of Photography. ISBN 0-933286-60-0.
  • Simpson, Lorna; Wright, Beryl J.; Hartman, Saidiya V. (1992). Lorna Simpson: for the sake of the viewer. New York: Universe Pub. ISBN 0-87663-637-7.
  • Rogers-Lafferty, Sarah; Simpson, Lorna (1997). Lorna Simpson: interior/exterior, full/empty. Columbus, Ohio: Wexner Center for the Arts/The Ohio State University. ISBN 1-881390-17-9.
  • Gili, Marta (2002). Lorna Simpson. Ediciones Universidad Salamanca. ISBN 84-95719-08-8.
  • Jones, Kellie; Simpson, Lorna; Golden, Thelma; Iles, Chrissie (2002). Lorna Simpson. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Phaidon. ISBN 0-7148-4038-6.
  • Simpson, Lorna; Gili, Marta; Fernández-Cid, Miguel (2004). Compostela: Lorna Simpson: Centro Galego de Arte Contemporánea, 5 marzo - 30 maio 2004, Santiago de Compostela. Santiago de Compostela, Spain: Xunta de Galicia. ISBN 84-453-3752-1.

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Brockington, Horace. "Logical Anonymity: Lorna Simpson, Steve McQueen, Stan Douglas." International Review of African American Art 15 No. 3 (1998): 20-29.


  1. ^ Simpson, Lorna (1997). Lorna Simpson: Interior/Exterior, Full/Empty. Columbus, OH: Wexner Center for the Arts/The Ohio State University. ISBN 1-881390-17-9.
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  3. ^ a b c Siddhartha Mitter (June 13, 2019), Lorna Simpson Embraces the Blues New York Times.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Julie L. Belcove (February 23, 2018), Acclaimed artist Lorna Simpson on courage, race and gender Financial Times.
  5. ^ "Interview with Lorna Simpson". Aperture Foundation NY. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  6. ^ a b "BIO - Lorna Simpson Studio". lsimpsonstudio.com. Retrieved 2019-04-08.
  7. ^ Cotter, Holland (2007-03-02). "Lorna Simpson - Art - Review". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  8. ^ Elder, Nika (Spring 2018). "Lorna Simpson's Fabricated Truths". Art Journal. 77 (1): 33. doi:10.1080/00043249.2018.1456248.
  9. ^ a b Smucker, Ronica (31 December 1995). "Hurricane Alice, Providence". Scholarly Journal. 11 (2): 1. ProQuest 220554360.
  10. ^ Arango, Jorge (May 2002). "At home with Lorna Simpson: a major player in the world of photography and video composes her personal sanctuary - home." Essence.
  11. ^ a b Butler, Cornelia H.; Schwartz, Alexandra, eds. (2010). Modern women : women artists at the Museum of Modern Art. New York: Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 9780870707711. OCLC 501397424.
  12. ^ Robinson, Jontyle Theresa (1997). Simpson, Lorna. St. James Guide to Black Artists. Detroit: St. James Press. p. 488.
  13. ^ Robinson, Jontyle Theresa (1997). Simpson, Lorna. St. James Guide to Black Artists. Detroit: St. James Press. p. 489.
  14. ^ a b c Bell, Jennie (2007-03-07). "Lorna Simpson". ARTINFO. Retrieved 2008-04-23. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ a b Copeland, Huey (Summer 2005). "Bye, Bye Black Girl". Art Journal. 64 (2): 62–77. doi:10.2307/20068384. JSTOR 20068384.
  16. ^ a b Cotter, Holland (2007-03-02). "Exploring Identity as a Problematic Condition." The New York Times.
  17. ^ a b "Exhibitions". lsimpsonstudio.com. Lorna Simpson Studio. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  18. ^ Arango, Jorge (May 2002). "At Home with Lorna Simpson". Essence. 33 (1): 174.
  19. ^ a b "Lorna Simpson". Le Jeu de Paume. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
  20. ^ a b "Baltic Plus | Lorna Simpson". balticplus.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
  21. ^ "Phillips Academy - Lorna Simpson at the Addison". addison.andover.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  22. ^ "Lorna Simpson". Haus der Kunst. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  23. ^ "This Is How Lorna Simpson Makes a Painting | artnet News". artnet News. 2016-09-08. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  24. ^ Familiar-Studio.com, Familiar. "Lorna Simpson - Salon 94". Salon94. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  25. ^ Bonney, Grace (2016). In the Company of Women. New York, NY: Workman Publishing Company. ISBN 9781579655976.
  26. ^ Beck, Koa; Simpson, Lorna (March 18, 2017). "These Women in the Arts Don't Take No for an Answer". Vogue. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
  27. ^ Belcove, Julie (February 23, 2018). "Acclaimed artist Lorna Simpson on courage, race and gender". Trade Journals. ProQuest 2121967664.
  28. ^ Fusco, Coco. "Lorna Simpson". BOMB. Retrieved 2019-03-22.
  29. ^ a b Fusco, Coco (October 1, 1997). "Lorna Simpson". BOMB. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  30. ^ Brown, Caroline (2012). The Black Female Body in American Literature and Art: Performing Identity. Routledge. pp. (qtd. in Brown 76).
  31. ^ Enwezor, Okwui; Posner, Helaine; Als, Hilton; Julien, Isaac; Golden, Thelma; Momin, Shamim M. (2006). Lorna Simpson. Abrams, in association with the American Federation of Arts. p. 5.
  32. ^ Copeland, Huey (2013). Bound to Appear. Chicago and London. p. 73.
  33. ^ Smucker, Ronica (1995). "Interview with Lorna Simpson". Hurricane Alice. 11 (2): 10. ProQuest 220554360.
  34. ^ Copeland, Huey (2013). Bound to Appear: Art, Slavery, and the Site of Blackness in Multicultural America. University of Chicago Press. p. 74.
  35. ^ a b Fusco, Coco (1 October 1997). "Lorna Simpson". BOMB. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  36. ^ National Gallery of Art (2005-05-04). "National Gallery of Art Acquires Important Contemporary Works by Brodthaers, Lewitt, Morris, and Simpson." Archived 2007-06-10 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ Rony, Fatimah Tobing (1996-01-01). The Third Eye: Race, Cinema, and Ethnographic Spectacle. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822318407.
  38. ^ a b Copeland, Huey (2012). Bound to Appear: Art, Slavery, and the Site of Blackness in Multicultural America. University of Chicago Press. p. 75.
  39. ^ Copeland, Huey (2012). Bound to Appear: Art, Slavery, and the Site of Blackness in Multicultural America. University of Chicago Press. p. 65.
  40. ^ a b Reckitt, Helena (2001). Art and feminism. London; New York, NY: Phaidon. p. 139. ISBN 0714835293.
  41. ^ Copeland, Huey (2012). Bound to Appear: Art, Slavery, and the Site of Blackness in Multicultural America. University of Chicago Press. p. 67.
  42. ^ "Lorna Simpson. Wigs (Portfolio). 1994 | MoMA". The Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 2019-10-18.
  43. ^ "MoMA | Lorna Simpson. Wigs. 1994". www.moma.org. Retrieved 2019-10-18.
  44. ^ a b Simon, Joan (2013). Lorna Simpson. Foundation for the Exhibition of Photography., Jeu de paume (Gallery : France), Haus der Kunst München. Munich. ISBN 9783791352664. OCLC 813941714.
  45. ^ "MoMA | Lorna Simpson. May, June, July, August '57/'09 #8. 2009". www.moma.org. Retrieved 2019-03-14.
  46. ^ Copeland, Huey (2012). Bound to Appear: Art, Slavery, and the Site of Blackness in Multicultural America. University of Chicago Press. p. 9.
  47. ^ Tate. "Twenty Questions (A Sampler), Lorna Simpson 1986 | Tate". Tate. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  48. ^ "Corridor (2003)". Vimeo. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  49. ^ a b c d e Greenfield-Sanders, Timothy; Mitchell, Elvis (2008). The Black List. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. p. 78.
  50. ^ a b Greenfield-Sanders, Timothy; Mitchell, Elvis (2008). The Black List. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. p. 79.
  51. ^ Antwaun Sargent (Spring 2017), Lorna Simpson at Her David Adjaye–Designed Studio Galerie Magazine.
  52. ^ Julie Baumgardner (February 28, 2018), A new show by artist Lorna Simpson summons fire, ice and history in reverse Wallpaper.
  53. ^ "Lorna Simpson Biography – Lorna Simpson on artnet". www.artnet.com.
  54. ^ a b "Meet the Art Royalty Daughter Whose Hair Instagrams Speak to a New Generation". Vogue.
  55. ^ Robinson, Jontyle Theresa (1997). Simpson, Lorna. St. James Guide to Black Artists. St. James Press.
  56. ^ a b c d "Simpson, Lorna". Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  57. ^ Vincent, Alice (12 May 2014). "Richard Mosse wins Deutsche Börse Photography Prize 2014". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  58. ^ "Mary Beard, Ed Ruscha, and Lorna Simpson Awarded Getty Medals". www.artforum.com. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  59. ^ "lll (Three Wishbones in a Wood Box)". collections.artsmia.org. Minneapolis Institute of Art. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  60. ^ "Counting". collections.artsmia.org. Minneapolis Institute of Art. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  61. ^ "Lorna Simpson, Five day forecast". Tate. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  62. ^ "Untitled (What should fit here...)". collections.artsmia.org/. Minneapolis Institute of Art. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  63. ^ "Wigs (Portfolio)". www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning. Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  64. ^ Glueck, Grace (2002-10-25). "ART IN REVIEW; Lorna Simpson -- '31' and 'Cameos and Appearances'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-03-19.
  65. ^ "30 Americans participate in one extraordinary exhibit". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
  66. ^ "30 Americans". rfc.museum. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
  67. ^ "Lorna Simpson". rfc.museum. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
  68. ^ "Salon 94". Salon94. Retrieved 2019-03-19.
  69. ^ "Brooklyn Museum: Lorna Simpson: Gathered". www.brooklynmuseum.org. Retrieved 2017-03-11.