Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible

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The non-canonical books referenced in the Bible include Biblical apocrypha and Deuterocanonical books (which are accepted as part of the Biblical canon by most non-Protestant Christians), pseudepigrapha, writings from Hellenistic and other non-Biblical cultures, and lost works of known or unknown status. For the purposes of this article, referenced can mean direct quotations, paraphrases, or allusions, which in some cases are known only because they have been identified as such by ancient writers, or the citation of a work or author.

Hebrew Bible references[edit]

The Hebrew Bible, also known as the Tanakh by Jews, and called the Old Testament by Christians, or the Protocanonical books.

Deuterocanonical references[edit]

Book of Tobit

Sirach[17] (verse numbers vary slightly between versions)

2 Maccabees

New Testament references[edit]

Some suggest that Nestle's Greek New Testament lists some 132 New Testament passages that appear to be verbal allusions to paracanonical books.[19]

Pagan authors quoted or alluded to:[20][21]

  • Menander, Thais 218 (1 Cor. 15:33)
  • Epimenides (Acts 17:28), and de Oraculis (Titus 1:12-13, where Paul introduces Epimenides as "a prophet of the Cretans," see Epimenides paradox)
  • Aratus, Phaenomena 5, (Acts 17:28)

Non-canonical books quoted or alluded to:[20]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b oble lase (2014-12-01), Ancient Book of Jasher/Audio Version, retrieved 2016-06-18 
  2. ^ Sometimes called The Book of the Wars of Yahweh. One source says "The quotation is in lyrical form, so it is possibly a book of poetry or a hymnal...Moses quoted it, so the date of its composition must have been prior to the completion of the Pentateuch, perhaps during the wanderings in the wilderness. Nothing else is known about it, and it survives only in Moses’ quotation."[1]
  3. ^ Also called The Book of Statutes or 3 Samuel.
  4. ^ Also called The Book of the Acts of Solomon
  5. ^ Also called The Book of the Annals of King David or The Chronicles of King David, which could be a reference to the rest of 1 Chronicles.[2]
  6. ^ a b c "Are There Lost Books of the Bible?". 
  7. ^ Also called Gad the Seer or The Acts of Gad the Seer
  8. ^ Also called The Prophesy of Ahijah the Shilonite [3].
  9. ^ Also called The Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah.
  10. ^ Also called The Book of Jehu the son of Hanani
  11. ^ Also called Midrash on the Book of Kings
  12. ^ Also called The Vision of the Prophet Isaiah. May be identical to the pseudepigraphal Ascension of Isaiah. May also refer to the existing Book of Isaiah
  13. ^
  14. ^ Also called The Acts of the Seers
  15. ^ Also called The Book of Records of the Chronicles or The Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Media and Persia
  16. ^ a b c d e f See footnote to the Biblical passage in The Jerusalem Bible, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1966
  17. ^ Other names include: Ecclesiasticus or Wisdom of Jesus Ben Sira
  18. ^ Rollston, Chris A. (April 2001). "Ben Sira 38:24–39:11 and The Egyptian Satire of the Trades". Journal of Biblical Literature. 120 (Spring): 131–139. doi:10.2307/3268597. 
  19. ^ Ewert, David (1 July 1990). "A General Introduction to the Bible: From Ancient Tablets to Modern Translations". Zondervan – via Google Books. 
  20. ^ a b Holloway, Gary (1 January 1996). "James & Jude". College Press – via Google Books. 
  21. ^ Charlesworth, James H. (24 October 1985). "The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament". CUP Archive – via Google Books. 
  22. ^ a b Witherington, Ben (9 January 2008). "Letters and Homilies for Hellenized Christians: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary on 1-2 Peter". InterVarsity Press – via Google Books. 
  23. ^ Porter, Stanley E.; Pearson, Brook W. (19 December 2004). "Christian-Jewish Relations Through the Centuries". A&C Black – via Google Books. 
  24. ^ Martin, Ralph P. 2 Corinthians Word Biblical Commentary 40,