PAC Super Mushshak

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Super Mushshak
A Mushak at IDEAS 2008.jpg
The Super Mushshak on display at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition in Pakistan.
Role Primary trainer
National origin Pakistan
Manufacturer Pakistan Aeronautical Complex
Designer Pakistan Aeronautical Complex
First flight 1995
Introduction 1996
Status In production
Primary users Pakistan Air Force
Royal Saudi Air Force
Iraqi Air Force
Nigerian Air Force
Produced 1995-present
Number built 391+
Developed from PAC MFI-17 Mushshak

The PAC Super Mushshak (Urdu: سپر مشاق) ("Proficient") is a primary trainer aircraft, which is a more advanced, upgraded variant of the MFI-17 Mushshak. It was designed by and is being manufactured at the Aircraft Manufacturing Factory (AMF), Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra, Punjab, Pakistan.



The MFI-15 Safari and MFI-17 Supporter were created from Saab's adaptation of the MFI-9 Junior for basic training for civil and military operators. In 1968 Saab began work on its MFI-15, based on the MFI-9 but with some design changes. Foremost of the changes in the Saab built MFI-15 prototype was the 120 kW (160shp) Lycoming IO-320 piston engine. Like the MFI-9, the MFI-15 retained the unusual braced, mid-mounted and slightly forward-swept wing and rearward-hinged canopy, offering good all-around vision. The prototype made its maiden flight on June 11, 1969. Follow-up testing of the MFI-15 resulted in a more powerful IO-360 engine, while the horizontal tail was relocated to prevent it being damaged by thrown up debris. The first flight of this modified form was in February 1971.

Sold as the MFI-15 Safari, most went to civil customers, however Sierra Leone and Norway took delivery of Safaris for military pilot training. To improve the Safari's military market appeal, Saab developed the MFI-17 Supporter, fitted with six underwing hardpoints for light and practice weaponry, giving it weapons training and light COIN capabilities. First flight was on July 6, 1972. Important were Denmark and Zambia. Production ended in the late 1970s after about 250 Safaris and Supporters had been built, mostly for civil customers.

Pakistan has taken delivery of 18 Supporters, while 92 have been assembled locally by PAC from knocked down kits and a further 149 were built locally by PAC. It is named Mushshak (Proficient) in Pakistani service. In 1981, Pakistan acquired sole manufacturing rights of the Supporter. The development of the MFI-395 in 1995 initiated by the then-managing director of AMF, Air Cdr Muhammad Younas. The aircraft was built by upgrading the MFI-17 with an advanced 260 hp engine, electrical instruments, dual flight control systems and a Bendix RSA fuel injection system.


Fitted with an American 260 hp engine, cockpit air conditioning, electrical instruments, and electric/manual elevator and rudder trim, the aircraft has been developed to meet FAR part 23 certification in normal, utility and aerobatics categories. It has a spacious side-by-side cockpit allowing good contact between the pilot and the co-pilot/observer or between the student and the instructor. The Super Mushshak meets the requirements of a modern primary training syllabus and is an ideal basic trainer for basic flight training and instrument flying.


Military operators[edit]

Map with military Super Mushshak operators in blue
  • Approximately 300 operational with the Pakistan Armed Forces[1]
 Saudi Arabia

Civilian operators[edit]

  • Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority - It was certified by the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority in 2002 [12]
 South Africa
  • Uni Group Holdings (Pvt) Ltd - 5[4]

Specifications (Super Mushshak)[edit]

Data from Pakistan Aeronautical Complex,[13] Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004[14]

General characteristics

  • Crew: two-three (student, instructor and optional passenger)
  • Length: 7.15 m (23.5 ft)
  • Wingspan: 8.85 m (29 ft)
  • Height: 2.60 m (8 ft 0.5 in)
  • Wing area: 11.9 sq m (128 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 760 kg (1,676 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 1,250 kg (2,755 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Textron Lycoming IO-540 V4A5 horizontally opposed 6 cylinder, 194 kW (260 hp)at 2700 RPM (ISA conditions)
  • Propellers: 1× Mccauley or Hartzell, 3 or 2 blade propeller



  • Up to 300 kg (660 lb) external load carrying capability (including pylons).

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era


  • Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.

External links[edit]