|Artist||Jérôme Duquesnoy the Elder|
|Year||1619: original version|
1965 : current version
|Dimensions||61 cm (24 in)|
|Location||City of Brussels, Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium|
Manneken Pis (Dutch: [ˌmɑnəkə(m) ˈpɪs] (listen); Dutch for '"Little Pissing Man"') is a landmark 61 cm (24 in) bronze fountain sculpture of a puer mingens in central Brussels (Belgium), depicting a naked little boy urinating into the fountain's basin. It was designed by Jérôme Duquesnoy the Elder (1570–1641), and put in place in 1618 or 1619. The current statue is a replica which dates from 1965. The original is kept in the Brussels City Museum. Manneken Pis is the best-known symbol of the people of Brussels. It also embodies their sense of humour (called zwanze in Brussels' dialect) and their independence of mind.
Manneken Pis is an approximate five minutes' walk from the Grand Place (Brussels' main square), at the junction of Rue du Chêne/Eikstraat and the pedestrian Rue de l'Étuve/Stoofstraat. This site is served by the premetro (underground tram) station Bourse/Beurs (on lines 3 and 4) and the bus stops Grand Place/Grote Markt and Cesar de Paepe.
Origins of Manneken Pis
The earliest mention of the existence of Manneken Pis can be found in an administrative document, dating from 1451–52, about the water lines supplying the fountains of Brussels.[a] From the beginning, the fountain played an essential role in the distribution of drinking water. It stood on a column and poured water into a double rectangular basin of stone. The only representations of this first statue can be found, very schematically, in a painting by Denis Van Alsloot representing Brussels' Ommegang of 1615, as well as in a preparatory drawing to this painting.
The first statue was replaced by a new bronze version, commissioned in 1619. This 61-centimetre-tall (24 in) bronze statue, on the corner of Rue de l'Étuve/Stoofstraat and Rue des Grands Carmes/Lievevrouwbroerstraat, was made by Brussels' sculptor Jérôme Duquesnoy the Elder (1570–1641), father of the architect and sculptor Jérôme Duquesnoy the Younger and the famous sculptor François Duquesnoy. It was probably cast and installed in 1620. During that time, the column supporting the statue and the double rectangular basin collecting water were completely remodeled by the stone cutter Daniel Raessens.
During its history, the statue faced many hazards. It survived undamaged the bombardment of Brussels of 1695 by the French army, but the pipes having been affected, it could not deliver its water for some time. A pamphlet published the same year recounts this episode. This text is the oldest attesting that Manneken Pis had become "an object of glory appreciated by all and renowned throughout the world". It is also the first time that it served as a symbol for the people of Brussels. It is also traditionally said that after the bombardment, it was triumphantly placed again on its pedestal. On that occasion, the following passage from the Bible was inscribed above its head : In petra exaltavit me, et nunc exaltavi caput meum super inimicos meos ("The Lord placed me on a stone base, and now I raise my head above my enemies"). As shown by an engraving by Jacques Harrewijn, dating from 1697, the fountain was no longer located on the street, but in a recess at the corner of Rue du Chêne/Eikstraat and Rue de l'Étuve/Stoofstraat.
In 1770, the column and the double rectangular basin disappeared; the statue was integrated into a new decor, in the form of a stone niche in rockery style, originating from another dismantled fountain of Brussels. The water simply flowed through a grating in the ground, which was replaced by a basin in the 19th century. In its new setting, Manneken Pis gives the impression of being smaller than in its original layout.
The whole structure is protected by railings, the last version of which dates from 1851. The latter prevented access to water, relegating the fountain to a decorative and symbolic role. It is also the case, around the same time, of the other fountains in Brussels. This correlates with efforts by the City of Brussels, starting in 1855, to allow for the distribution of drinking water in homes.
The figure has repeatedly been the object of theft or attempted theft. Legend has it that the statue was removed in 1745 and found in the Flemish town of Geraardsbergen (French: Grammont). As a sign of their appreciation, the people of Brussels gave this city a replica of the statue. In reality, the first attempted theft was made in 1747 by a group of French grenadiers stationed in Brussels. The population rebelled against this deed and threatened a bloody revenge. To calm things down, the King of France, Louis XV, offered a gentleman's gown of brocade, embroidered with gold, to Manneken Pis. He also authorised the statue to carry the sword, and decorated it with the Cross of St. Louis.
The statue was stolen in 1817 by the fugitive Antoine Licas. The perpetrator was heavily punished; he was condemned to forced labour for life, and was first tied for an hour to stocks on the Grand Place. The original statue was broken into 11 pieces during this abduction and was restored by a specialised welder, under the supervision of sculptor Gilles-Lambert Godecharle. The pieces were matched and used to make a mold in which the bronze statue was poured. The statue was then screwed onto a new base marked "1620 – REST 1817".
Things were more serious when it disappeared in 1965; the statue had been broken by the thief and only the feet and ankles remained. In June 1966, the Antwerp magazine De Post received an anonymous phone call, signaling that the body was in the Charleroi Canal. It was found there by divers, sent by the magazine, and was brought back to Brussels on 27 June. Restored once again, the statue was sheltered and the original version is now kept and displayed on the second floor of the Brussels City Museum, at the Maison du Roi/Broodhuis, on the Grand Place.
In late 2018, it was discovered by city technician Régis Callens that the basin of the statue had developed a leak, leading to a reported 1,000–1,500 litres (220–330 imp gal; 260–400 US gal) of water being used per day. The leak occurred for an unknown number of years, unnoticed among the several hundred water features in the City of Brussels and was only later discovered with the help of Shayp water monitoring technology. The statue received a temporary fix in March 2019, with a permanent recirculating system set to be installed. The solution was announced during Brussels Water Week where city officials cited the situation as motivation to check for similar problems in other fountains.
There are several legends behind Manneken Pis, but the most famous is the one about Duke Godfrey III of Leuven. In 1142, the troops of this two-year-old lord were battling against the troops of the Berthouts, the lords of Grimbergen, in Ransbeke (now Neder-Over-Heembeek, a northern part of the City of Brussels). To give themselves courage, the soldiers placed the infant lord in a basket which they hung from a large oak tree overlooking the battlefield. While his men were in dire straits, the little duke rose up in the basket, and from his perch, urinated onto the troops of the Berthouts, who eventually lost the battle. The fountain perpetuates the memory of this victory. The name of Rue du Chêne/Eikstraat ("Oak Tree Street"), at the corner of which the statue is located, recalls the famous tree.
- Another legend states that, in the 14th century, Brussels was under siege by a foreign power. The city had held its ground for some time, so the attackers conceived of a plan to place explosive charges at the city walls. A little boy named Julianske happened to be spying on them, as they were preparing. He urinated on the burning fuse and thus saved the city. There was, at the time (middle of the 15th century, perhaps as early as 1388), a similar statue made of stone. The statue was stolen several times.
- Another story, often told to tourists, tells of a wealthy merchant who, during a visit to the city with his family, had his beloved young son go missing. The merchant hastily formed a search party, which scoured all corners of the city, until the boy was found happily urinating in a small garden. The merchant, as a gift of gratitude to the locals who helped out during the search, had the fountain built.
- Another legend tells that a small boy went missing from his mother, when shopping in the centre of the city. The woman, panic-stricken by the loss of her child, called upon everyone she came across, including the mayor of the city. A citywide search began, and when at last the child was found, he was urinating on the corner of a small street. The story was passed down over time and the statue was erected as a tribute to the well-known legend.
- Another legend tells of the young boy who was awoken by a fire and was able to put out the fire with his urine. In the end, this helped stop the king's castle from burning down.
Manneken Pis is sometimes given the nickname of Petit Julien in French or Julianske in Dutch (both meaning "Little Julien"), which in fact refers to a now-disappeared fountain of Julian (Juliaenkensborre), by mistakenly confusing two well-distinct fountains.
Costumes and folklore
Manneken Pis is dressed in costumes, several times each week, according to a published schedule, which is posted on the railings around the fountain. Since 1954, the costumes are managed by the non-profit association The Friends of Manneken-Pis, who review hundreds of designs submitted each year, and select a small number to be produced and used. His wardrobe consists of around one thousand different costumes, many of which may be viewed in a permanent exhibition inside the City Museum, located on the Grand Place, immediately opposite the Town Hall. In February 2017, a specially designed museum, at 19, rue du Chêne/Eikstraat, called Garderobe MannekenPis, opened its doors.
Although the proliferation of costumes is of 20th-century origin, the occasional use of costumes dates back almost to the date of casting; the oldest costume on display, in the City Museum, being of 17th-century origin. In 1756, an inventory indicates that Manneken Pis had five complete costumes. From 1918 to 1940, he was offered some thirty costumes. But it was especially after 1945 that the movement took on an exceptional dimension; he had more than 400 costumes in 1994, more than 750 in 2005, and more than 950 in 2016.
Manneken Pis dressed as Dracula (15 March 2002)
Manneken Pis in judo attire (2008)
Replica of the outfit offered by Maximilien Emanuel of Bavaria in 1697 (2009)
In September 2002, a Belgian-born waffle-maker set up a replica in front of his waffle stand in the Orlando Fashion Square mall, in Orlando, Florida. He recalled the legend as "the boy who saved Brussels from fire by extinguishing it with his urine" (confusing the legend with an incident in Gulliver's Travels perhaps). Some shocked shoppers made a formal complaint. Mall officials said that the waffle-shop owner did not follow procedures when he put up the statue and was therefore in violation of his lease.
A working replica of Manneken Pis stands on the platform of Hamamatsuchō Station in Tokyo, Japan. The statue is a great source of pride for station workers who dress it in various costumes—traditional and otherwise—at different times of year.
Statues inspired by Manneken Pis
Since 1987, Manneken Pis has had a female equivalent, Jeanneke Pis, located on the east side of a small alley called Impasse de la Fidélité/Getrouwheidsgang, near Rue des Bouchers/Beenhouwersstraat, representing a little girl squatting in the act of urinating. It feeds a small fountain. It is, however, less illustrious than its masculine counterpart.
In popular culture
- Manneken Pis is granted a humorous tribute in the comic album Asterix in Belgium. For Asterix-related events taking place in Brussels, the sculpture has also been clad in Asterix's trademark garments.
- A promotional expansion for the board game 7 Wonders allows a player to build Manneken Pis as an eighth wonder of the world.
- In 2019, under pressure from owner Hasbro, the Brussels edition of the Monopoly board game censored Manneken Pis with swimming trunks.
- The text mentions daer dmenneken pist in Old Dutch, meaning "where the child pees".
- "Brussels Landmarks and Monuments: Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium". www.world-guides.com. Retrieved 2018-02-02.
- "Manneken Pis Brussels Belgium". Brussels.info. Archived from the original on 2014-04-09. Retrieved 2015-03-08.
- Naomi Miller, Fountains as Metaphor from Fountains, Splash and Spectacle, Water and Design from the Renaissance to the Present, edited by Marilyn Symmes, Thames and Hundson and Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, Smithsonian Institution. 1998
- Willsher, Kim (6 August 2015). "Fake pisstake? Scientists re-examine Belgium's celebrated Manneken Pis". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
- Couvreur, Deknop & Symons 2005, p. 26.
- "Le plus célèbre Bruxellois". www.mannekenpis.brussels. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
- "Manneken-pis – Brussels City Museum". www.brusselscitymuseum.brussels (in French). Retrieved 2017-08-20.
- "ZWANZE : Définition de ZWANZE". www.cnrtl.fr (in French). Retrieved 2018-02-02.
- Deligne 2008.
- Vautier, Houbrechts & Van Sprang 2012.
- Culot et al. 1992, p. 77–79.
- Des Marez 1918, p. 144.
- Des Marez 1918, p. 143.
- Heymans 2003.
- Deligne 2005.
- "Manneken Pis - Symbol of Brussels, history and legend". www.introducingbrussels.com. Retrieved 2018-06-15.
- Couvreur, Deknop & Symons 2005, p. 40.
- DH.be. "Pendant des années, Manneken-Pis a uriné des milliers de litres d'eau potable". www.dhnet.be (in French). Retrieved 2019-03-27.
- "La start-up bruxelloise Shayp fait la chasse aux fuites d'eau". L'Echo (in French). 2018-11-08. Retrieved 2019-09-30.
- News, TBT. "The Brussels Times – Manneken Pis will no longer waste drinking water". Retrieved 2019-03-27.
- Le Roy 1947, p. 14.
- Le Roy 1947, p. 15.
- Deligne 2003.
- Henne & Wauters 1845.
- "Manneken Pis: costumes worn by the statue of the urinating toddler in Brussels". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- "New Brussels museum displays costumes of Manneken Pis statue". Reuters. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
- Fun, Everything is (2017-03-10). "GardeRobe MannekenPis". Brussels Museums. Retrieved 2019-12-15.
- "Manneken Pis in Brussels to be dressed as Kyivska Rus prince". en.censor.net.ua. 22 August 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- "List of costume | Manneken Pis". www.manneken-pis.be. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
- "HLN Bizar - Manneken Pis plaste Maltees bier (1122097)". Hln.be. Retrieved 2011-12-08.
- This costume was gifted by the Association des Descendants des Lignages de Bruxelles
- "Et si le Manneken Pis de Bruxelles n'était pas unique?". RTBF Info (in French). 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
- Hoffmann, Bill (September 19, 2002). "WEIRD BUT TRUE". New York Post.
- "Manneken Pis at Hamamatsuchō Station, Tokyo - Japan Guide". Japan Guide. 2015-01-07. Retrieved 2017-09-09.
- "Jeanneke Pis". visit.brussels. Retrieved 2018-06-15.
- "Peeing statues". Retrieved 2018-06-15.
- Manneken-Pis as Asterix (Asterix in Belgium) (May 31, 2017)
- "7 Wonders: Manneken Pis Promo | Board Game". BoardGameGeek. Retrieved 2011-12-08.
- "Monopoly censors Manneken Pis on Brussels edition box". The Telegraph. 20 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- Couvreur, Manuel; Deknop, Anne; Symons, Thérèse (2005). Manneken-Pis : Dans tous ses états. Historia Bruxellae (in French). 9. Brussels: Musées de la Ville de Bruxelles. ISBN 978-2-930423-01-2.
- Culot, Maurice; Hennaut, Eric; Demanet, Marie; Mierop, Caroline (1992). Le bombardement de Bruxelles par Louis XIV et la reconstruction qui s'ensuivit, 1695–1700 (in French). Brussels: AAM éditions. ISBN 978-2-871430-79-7.
- Deligne, Chloé (2003). Bruxelles et sa rivière : Genèse d'un territoire urbain (12e-18e siècle). Studies in European Urban History (in French). 1. Turnhout: Brepols. ISBN 978-2-503513-82-9.
- Deligne, Chloé (2005). Bruxelles sortie des eaux : Les relations entre la ville et ses cours d'eau du Moyen Age à nos jours (in French). Brussels: Musées de la Ville de Bruxelles. ISBN 978-2-960037-31-9.
- Deligne, Chloé (2008). "Edilité et politique : Les fontaines urbaines dans les Pays-Bas méridionaux au Moyen Age". Histoire urbaine (in French). Société française d'histoire urbaine. 32: 77–96. doi:10.3917/rhu.022.0077.
- Des Marez, Gustave (1918). Guide illustré de Bruxelles (in French). 1. Brussels: Touring Club Royal de Belgique.
- Emerson, Catherine (2015). Regarding Manneken Pis: Culture, Celebration and Conflict in Brussels. Leeds: Taylor & Francis Ltd. ISBN 978-1-909662-30-8.
- Henne, Alexandre; Wauters, Alphonse (1845). Histoire de la Ville de Bruxelles (in French). 3. Brussels.
- Heymans, Vincent (2003). Monument à Manneken-Pis : Etude historique du monument et de ses abords (in French). Brussels: Ville de Bruxelles, cellule Patrimoine Historique.
- Le Roy, Georges (1947). Manneken-Pis. Brussels: A. De Boeck.
- Vautier, Dominique; Houbrechts, David; Van Sprang, Sabine (2012). "Un dessin de Van Alsloot retrouvé et la première fontaine de Manneken-Pis". Archives et bibliothèques de Belgique (in French). 95. Brussels: 129–142. Cite journal requires
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manneken Pis van Brussel.|
- manneken-pis.be, Manneken Pis website
- Brussels.be, Official website with calendar of costume changes
- Ilotsacre.be, Manneken Pis: virtual visit, pictures and costumes
- VisitOnWeb.com, Manneken Pis in 360 degrees
- Manneken Pis on BALaT - Belgian Art Links and Tools (KIK-IRPA, Brussels)