Manuel Micheltorena

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Manuel Micheltorena
Manuel Micheltorena.jpg
California Lone Star Flag 1836.svg 25th Governor of Alta California
In office
31 December 1842 – 22 February 1845
PresidentAntonio López de Santa Anna
Preceded byJuan Bautista Alvarado
Succeeded byPío Pico
Personal details
Joseph (José) Manuel María Joaquin Micheltorena y Llano[1][2]

8 June 1804[1]
Oaxaca City, Oaxaca, Mexico[1]
DiedSeptember 7, 1853(1853-09-07) (aged 49)
ProfessionPolitician, soldier
Military service
AllegianceMexico Mexico
Branch/serviceMexico-branch-colour Infantry(red).gif Mexican infantry
RankGral bgdr.gif General
Battles/warsBattle of Providencia

Joseph Manuel María Joaquin Micheltorena y Llano (8 June 1804 – 7 September 1853)[3] was a brigadier general of the Mexican Army, adjutant-general of the same, governor, commandant-general and inspector of the department of Alta California, then within Mexico.[4] Micheltorena was the last non-Californian Mexican governor before Californian native son Pío Pico took office.


Micheltorena was born in 1804 in Oaxaca de Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico, into a prominent Basque family.[5] His parents were Army Captain Joseph Eusebio Micheltorena (who in 1819 was included among a list of notable foreigners in Mexico),[6] and Catarina Gertrudis Llano. He was baptized at five days old at Oaxaca Cathedral. His grandparents were Joseph de Micheltorena (Mixteltorena) and María Encarnación de Herrera (paternal), and Joseph Augustín de Llano and María Romero (maternal).[1]


Micheltorena was appointed governor of California by Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna and served from 30 December 1842, until his ouster in 1845.

Micheltorena was instrumental in the privatisation of California land by rancho land grants. With his loyalties firmly seated in Mexico City, he faced criticism, opposition, and eventually war from the Californios in Alta California.

He led a team of soldiers, that included criminals and other people of mixed ancestry who were derisively referred to by some as cholos,[7] to fight wealthy Mexican landowners challenging governor Micheltorena and the Mexican government. Micheltorena lost to Juan Bautista Alvarado and the Californios in the 1845 Battle of Providencia.


  1. ^ a b c d Mexico, Select Baptisms, 1560-1950
  2. ^ Robles, Graciela Alessio; Oliver, Angélica; Cortez, Ana María (1984). Catálogo del Fondo Vito Alessio Robles (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. p. 43. Retrieved 1 August 2018. ...y general de brigada José Manuel Micheltorena y Llano...
  3. ^ "José Manuel Micheltorena". Omnibiography. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  4. ^ Manuel Micheltorena (22 December 1842). "Translation Of Sutter General Land Title". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  5. ^ Douglass, William A.; Bilbao, Jon (2005). Amerikanuak: Basques in the New World. University of Nevada Press. p. 196. ISBN 9780874176254. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  6. ^ de Zúñiga y Ontiveros, Mariano José (1819). Calendario manual y guia de forasteros en Méjico para el año de 1820, bisiesto (in Spanish). p. 170. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  7. ^ Hubert Howe Bancroft (1886). History of California: 1840-1845. History Company. p. 363.

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