|38th Governor of California|
November 17, 2003 – January 3, 2011
|Preceded by||Gray Davis|
|Succeeded by||Jerry Brown|
|Chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports|
January 22, 1990 – May 27, 1993
|Preceded by||Dick Kazmaier|
|Born||July 30, 1947|
Thal, Styria, Allied-occupied Austria
|Citizenship||Austria, United States|
(m. 1986; div. 2021)
|Children||5, including Katherine and Patrick|
|Years of service||1965|
Bodybuilding and business career
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (//;[a] German: [ˈaʁnɔlt ˈʃvaʁtsn̩ˌʔɛɡɐ]; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, former bodybuilder, film producer, businessman, and former politician who served as the 38th governor of California from 2003 to 2011. As of 2022, he is the most recent Republican governor of California.
Schwarzenegger began lifting weights at the age of 15 and went on to win the Mr. Universe title at age 20, subsequently winning the Mr. Olympia contest seven times; he remains a prominent figure in bodybuilding, and has written many books and articles on it. The Arnold Sports Festival, considered the second-most important bodybuilding event after Mr. Olympia, is named after him. He appeared in the bodybuilding documentary Pumping Iron (1977). After retiring from bodybuilding, Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film star, with his breakthrough the sword and sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian (1982), a box-office hit that resulted in a sequel in 1984. He then appeared as the title character in the successful sci-fi film The Terminator (1984), reprising similar characters in the sequels Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003), Terminator Genisys (2015), and Terminator: Dark Fate (2019). He starred in other successful action films such as Commando (1985), The Running Man (1987), Predator (1987), Total Recall (1990), and True Lies (1994), in addition to comedy films such as Twins (1988), Kindergarten Cop (1990), Junior (1994), and Jingle All the Way (1996), and the buddy cop action film Red Heat (1988). He is the founder of the film production company Oak Productions.
As a Republican candidate, Schwarzenegger was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis. He received 48.6% of the vote, 17 points ahead of Democrat runner-up Cruz Bustamante. He was sworn in on November 17 to serve the remainder of Davis' term, and was re-elected in the 2006 California gubernatorial election with an increased vote share of 55.9% to serve a full term as governor. In 2011, he reached his term limit as Governor and returned to acting.
Schwarzenegger was nicknamed the "Austrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" or "Schwarzy" during his acting career, and "The Governator" (a portmanteau of "Governor" and "Terminator") during his political career. He married Maria Shriver, a niece of President John F. Kennedy, in 1986. They separated in 2011 after he admitted to having fathered a child with their housemaid in 1997, and their divorce was finalized in 2021.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger was born in Thal, Austria on July 30, 1947, the second son of Gustav Schwarzenegger and his wife, Aurelia (née Jadrny). His mother was of Czech descent, while his paternal great-grandfather, Wenzel Mach, was also Czech and came from the village of Chocov near Mladá Vožice. Wenzel had a child out of wedlock with Kunigunde Schwarzenegger, and the child (Schwarzenegger's paternal grandfather) was originally named Carl Mach but later adopted his mother's surname Schwarzenegger.
Schwarzenegger's father was the local chief of police. After the Anschluss in 1938, he joined the Nazi Party and, in 1939 the Sturmabteilung (SA). In World War II, he served as a military policeman in the invasions of Poland, France and the Soviet Union, including the siege of Leningrad, rising to the rank of Hauptfeldwebel. He was wounded in the Battle of Stalingrad, and was discharged in 1943 following a bout of malaria. According to Holocaust scholar Michael Berenbaum, Gustav Schwarzenegger served "in theaters of the war where atrocities were committed. But there is no way to know from the documents whether he played a role." Gustav's background received wide press attention during the 2003 California gubernatorial recall election in which Schwarzenegger was elected governor.
Gustav Schwarzenegger married Aurelia on October 20, 1945; he was 38 and she was 23. According to Schwarzenegger, his parents were very strict: "Back then in Austria it was a very different world [...] if we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared." He grew up in a Catholic family. Gustav preferred his elder son, Meinhard, over Arnold. His favoritism was "strong and blatant", which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child. Schwarzenegger has said that his father had "no patience for listening or understanding your problems". He had a good relationship with his mother, with whom he kept in touch until her death.
Early education and bodybuilding beginnings
At school, Schwarzenegger was reportedly academically average but stood out for his "cheerful, good-humored, and exuberant" character. Money was a problem in their household; Schwarzenegger recalled that one of the highlights of his youth was when the family bought a refrigerator. Schwarzenegger's father Gustav was an athlete, and wished for his sons to become a champion in Bavarian curling. Influenced by his father, Schwarzenegger played several sports as a boy.
Schwarzenegger began weight training in 1960 when his football coach took his team to a local gym. At the age of 14, he chose bodybuilding over football as a career. He later said, "I actually started weight training when I was 15, but I'd been participating in sports, like soccer, for years, so I felt that although I was slim, I was well-developed, at least enough so that I could start going to the gym and start Olympic lifting." However, his official website biography claims that "at 14, he started an intensive training program with Dan Farmer, studied psychology at 15 (to learn more about the power of mind over body) and at 17, officially started his competitive career." During a speech in 2001, he said, "My own plan formed when I was 14 years old. My father had wanted me to be a police officer like he was. My mother wanted me to go to trade school."
Schwarzenegger took to visiting a gym in Graz, where he also frequented the local movie theaters to see bodybuilding idols such as Reg Park, Steve Reeves, and Johnny Weissmuller on the big screen. When Reeves died in 2000, Schwarzenegger fondly remembered him: "As a teenager, I grew up with Steve Reeves. His remarkable accomplishments allowed me a sense of what was possible when others around me didn't always understand my dreams. Steve Reeves has been part of everything I've ever been fortunate enough to achieve." In 1961, Schwarzenegger met former Mr. Austria Kurt Marnul, who invited him to train at the gym in Graz. He was so dedicated as a youngster that he broke into the local gym on weekends in order to train even when it was closed. "It would make me sick to miss a workout... I knew I couldn't look at myself in the mirror the next morning if I didn't do it." When Schwarzenegger was asked about his first cinema experience as a boy, he replied: "I was very young, but I remember my father taking me to the Austrian theaters and seeing some newsreels. The first real movie I saw, that I distinctly remember, was a John Wayne movie." In Graz, Schwarzenegger was mentored by Alfred Gerstl, who had Jewish ancestry and later became president of the Federal Council, and befriended his son Karl.
Schwarzenegger's brother, Meinhard, died in a car crash on May 20, 1971. He was driving drunk and died instantly. Schwarzenegger did not attend his funeral. Meinhard was engaged to Erika Knapp, and they had a three-year-old son named Patrick. Schwarzenegger paid for Patrick's education and helped him to move to the U.S. Gustav died of a stroke on December 13, 1972. In Pumping Iron, Schwarzenegger claimed that he did not attend his father's funeral because he was training for a bodybuilding contest. Later, he and the film's producer said this story was taken from another bodybuilder to show the extremes some would go to for their sport and to make Schwarzenegger's image colder to create controversy for the film. However, Barbara Baker, his first serious girlfriend, recalled that he informed her of his father's death without emotion and that he never spoke of his brother. Over time, he has given at least three versions of why he was absent from his father's funeral.
In an interview with Fortune in 2004, Schwarzenegger told how he suffered what "would now be called child abuse" at the hands of his father: "My hair was pulled. I was hit with belts. So was the kid next door. It was just the way it was. Many of the children I've seen were broken by their parents, which was the German-Austrian mentality. They didn't want to create an individual. It was all about conforming. I was one who did not conform, and whose will could not be broken. Therefore, I became a rebel. Every time I got hit, and every time someone said, 'You can't do this,' I said, 'This is not going to be for much longer because I'm going to move out of here. I want to be rich. I want to be somebody.'"
Schwarzenegger served in the Austrian Army in 1965 to fulfill the one year of service required at the time of all 18-year-old Austrian males. During his army service, he won the Junior Mr. Europe contest. He went AWOL during basic training so he could take part in the competition and then spent a week in military prison: "Participating in the competition meant so much to me that I didn't carefully think through the consequences." He entered another bodybuilding contest in Graz, at Steirerhof Hotel, where he placed second. He was voted "best-built man of Europe", which made him famous in bodybuilding circles. "The Mr. Universe title was my ticket to America—the land of opportunity, where I could become a star and get rich." Schwarzenegger made his first plane trip in 1966, attending the NABBA Mr. Universe competition in London. He placed second in the Mr. Universe competition, not having the muscle definition of American winner Chester Yorton.
Charles "Wag" Bennett, one of the judges at the 1966 competition, was impressed with Schwarzenegger and he offered to coach him. As Schwarzenegger had little money, Bennett invited him to stay in his crowded family home above one of his two gyms in Forest Gate, London. Yorton's leg definition had been judged superior, and Schwarzenegger, under a training program devised by Bennett, concentrated on improving the muscle definition and power in his legs. Staying in the East End of London helped Schwarzenegger improve his rudimentary grasp of the English language. Living with the Bennetts also changed him as a person: "Being with them made me so much more sophisticated. When you're the age I was then, you're always looking for approval, for love, for attention and also for guidance. At the time, I wasn't really aware of that. But now, looking back, I see that the Bennett family fulfilled all those needs. Especially my need to be the best in the world. To be recognized and to feel unique and special. They saw that I needed that care and attention and love."
Also in 1966, while at Bennett's home, Schwarzenegger had the opportunity to meet childhood idol Reg Park, who became his friend and mentor. The training paid off and, in 1967, Schwarzenegger won the title for the first time, becoming the youngest ever Mr. Universe at the age of 20. He would go on to win the title a further three times. Schwarzenegger then flew back to Munich, where he attended a business school and worked in a health club (Rolf Putziger's gym, where he worked and trained from 1966 to 1968), returning in 1968 to London to win his next Mr. Universe title. He frequently told Roger C. Field, his English coach and friend in Munich at that time, "I'm going to become the greatest actor!"
Schwarzenegger, who dreamed of moving to the U.S. since the age of 10, and saw bodybuilding as the avenue through which to do so, realized his dream by moving to the United States in October 1968 at the age of 21, speaking little English. There he trained at Gold's Gym in Venice, Los Angeles, California, under Joe Weider's supervision. From 1970 to 1974, one of Schwarzenegger's weight training partners was Ric Drasin, a professional wrestler who designed the original Gold's Gym logo in 1973. Schwarzenegger also became good friends with professional wrestler Superstar Billy Graham. In 1970, at age 23, he captured his first Mr. Olympia title in New York, and would go on to win the title a total of seven times.
The immigration law firm Siskind & Susser has stated that Schwarzenegger may have been an illegal immigrant at some point in the late 1960s or early 1970s because of violations in the terms of his visa. LA Weekly would later say in 2002 that Schwarzenegger is the most famous immigrant in America, who "overcame a thick Austrian accent and transcended the unlikely background of bodybuilding to become the biggest movie star in the world in the 1990s".
In 1977, Schwarzenegger's autobiography/weight-training guide Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder became a huge success. In 1977, he posed for the gay magazine After Dark. Due to taking an assortment of courses at Santa Monica College in California (including English classes), as well as further upper division classes at the University of California, Los Angeles as part of UCLA's extension program, Schwarzenegger had by then accumulated enough credits so as to be "within striking distance" of graduation. In 1979, he enrolled in the University of Wisconsin–Superior as a distance education student, completing most of his coursework by correspondence and flying out to Superior to meet professors and take final exams. In May 1980, he formally graduated and received his bachelor's degree in business administration and marketing. He received his United States citizenship in 1983.
|Nickname||The Austrian Oak|
|Height||6 ft 2 in (188 cm)|
|Predecessor||Sergio Oliva ('69), Frank Zane ('79)|
|Successor||Franco Columbu ('76, '81)|
|Mr Universe (amateur)|
|Mr Universe (pro)|
|International Powerlifting Championships|
|German Powerlifting Championships|
|Graz-Paradise Keller Powerlifting Championships|
|Styrian Junior Weightlifting Championships|
|German Austrian Weightlifting Championships|
Schwarzenegger is considered among the most important figures in the history of bodybuilding, and his legacy is commemorated in the Arnold Classic annual bodybuilding competition. He has remained a prominent face in bodybuilding long after his retirement, in part because of his ownership of gyms and fitness magazines. He has presided over numerous contests and awards shows.
For many years, he wrote a monthly column for the bodybuilding magazines Muscle & Fitness and Flex. Shortly after being elected governor, he was appointed the executive editor of both magazines, in a largely symbolic capacity. The magazines agreed to donate $250,000 a year to the Governor's various physical fitness initiatives. When the deal, including the contract that gave Schwarzenegger at least $1 million a year, was made public in 2005, many criticized it as being a conflict of interest since the governor's office made decisions concerning regulation of dietary supplements in California. Consequently, Schwarzenegger relinquished the executive editor role in 2005. American Media Inc., which owns Muscle & Fitness and Flex, announced in March 2013 that Schwarzenegger had accepted their renewed offer to be executive editor of the magazines.
One of the first competitions he won was the Junior Mr. Europe contest in 1965. He won Mr. Europe the following year, at age 19. He would go on to compete in many bodybuilding contests, and win most of them. His bodybuilding victories included five Mr. Universe wins (4 – NABBA [England], 1 – IFBB [USA]), and seven Mr. Olympia wins, a record which would stand until Lee Haney won his eighth consecutive Mr. Olympia title in 1991.
During Schwarzenegger's early years in bodybuilding, he also competed in several Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting contests. Schwarzenegger's first professional competition was in 1963 and he won two weightlifting contests in 1964 and 1965, as well as two powerlifting contests in 1966 and 1968.
In 1967, Schwarzenegger won the Munich stone-lifting contest, in which a stone weighing 508 German pounds (254 kg / 560 lb) is lifted between the legs while standing on two footrests.
- Clean and press – 264 lb (120 kg)
- Snatch – 243 lb (110 kg)
- Clean and jerk – 298 lb (135 kg)
- Squat – 545 lb (247 kg)
- Bench press – 520 lb (240 kg)
- Deadlift – 683 lb (310 kg)
Schwarzenegger's goal was to become the greatest bodybuilder in the world, which meant becoming Mr. Olympia. His first attempt was in 1969, when he lost to three-time champion Sergio Oliva. However, Schwarzenegger came back in 1970 and won the competition, making him the youngest ever Mr. Olympia at the age of 23, a record he still holds to this day.
He continued his winning streak in the 1971–74 competitions. He also toured different countries selling vitamins, as in Helsinki, Finland in 1972, when he lived at the YMCA Hotel Hospiz (nowadays Hotel Arthur) on Vuorikatu and presented vitamin pills at the Stockmann shopping center. In 1975, Schwarzenegger was once again in top form, and won the title for the sixth consecutive time, beating Franco Columbu. After the 1975 Mr. Olympia contest, Schwarzenegger announced his retirement from professional bodybuilding.
Months before the 1975 Mr. Olympia contest, filmmakers George Butler and Robert Fiore persuaded Schwarzenegger to compete and film his training in the bodybuilding documentary called Pumping Iron. Schwarzenegger had only three months to prepare for the competition, after losing significant weight to appear in the film Stay Hungry with Jeff Bridges. Although significantly taller and heavier, Lou Ferrigno proved not to be a threat, and a lighter-than-usual Schwarzenegger convincingly won the 1975 Mr. Olympia.
Schwarzenegger came out of retirement, however, to compete in the 1980 Mr. Olympia. Schwarzenegger was training for his role in Conan, and he got into such good shape because of the running, horseback riding and sword training, that he decided he wanted to win the Mr. Olympia contest one last time. He kept this plan a secret in the event that a training accident would prevent his entry and cause him to lose face. Schwarzenegger had been hired to provide color commentary for network television when he announced at the eleventh hour that, while he was there, "Why not compete?" Schwarzenegger ended up winning the event with only seven weeks of preparation. Having been declared Mr. Olympia for a seventh time, Schwarzenegger then officially retired from competition. This victory (subject of the documentary The Comeback) was highly controversial, though, as fellow competitors and many observers felt that his lack of muscle mass (especially in his thighs) and subpar conditioning should not have allowed him to win against a very competitive lineup that year. Mike Mentzer, in particular, felt cheated and withdrew from competitive bodybuilding after that contest.
Schwarzenegger has acknowledged using performance-enhancing anabolic steroids while they were legal, writing in 1977 that "steroids were helpful to me in maintaining muscle size while on a strict diet in preparation for a contest. I did not use them for muscle growth, but rather for muscle maintenance when cutting up." He has called the drugs "tissue building".
In 1999, Schwarzenegger sued Willi Heepe, a German doctor who publicly predicted his early death on the basis of a link between his steroid use and later heart problems. Since the doctor never examined him personally, Schwarzenegger collected a US$10,000 libel judgment against him in a German court. In 1999, Schwarzenegger also sued and settled with Globe, a U.S. tabloid which had made similar predictions about the bodybuilder's future health.
List of competitions
|Year||Competition||Location||Result and notes|
|1965||Junior Mr. Europe||Germany||1st|
|1966||Best Built Man of Europe||Germany||1st|
|1966||International Powerlifting Championship||Germany||1st|
|1966||NABBA Mr. Universe amateur||London||2nd to Chet Yorton|
|1967||NABBA Mr. Universe amateur||London||1st|
|1968||NABBA Mr. Universe professional||London||1st|
|1968||German Powerlifting Championship||Germany||1st|
|1968||IFBB Mr. International||Mexico||1st|
|1968||IFBB Mr. Universe||Florida||2nd to Frank Zane|
|1969||IFBB Mr. Universe amateur||New York||1st|
|1969||NABBA Mr. Universe professional||London||1st|
|1969||Mr. Olympia||New York||2nd to Sergio Oliva|
|1970||NABBA Mr. Universe professional||London||1st (defeated his idol Reg Park)|
|1970||AAU Mr. World||Columbus, Ohio||1st (defeated Sergio Oliva for the first time)|
|1970||Mr. Olympia||New York||1st|
|1972||Mr. Olympia||Essen, Germany||1st|
|1973||Mr. Olympia||New York||1st|
|1974||Mr. Olympia||New York||1st|
|1975||Mr. Olympia||Pretoria, South Africa||1st (subject of the documentary Pumping Iron)|
|1980||Mr. Olympia||Sydney||1st (subject of the documentary The Comeback)|
- Height: 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)
- Contest weight: 235 lb (107 kg)—the lightest in 1980 Mr. Olympia: around 225 lb (102 kg), the heaviest in 1974 Mr. Olympia: around 250 lb (110 kg)
- Off-season weight: 260 lb (118 kg)
- Chest: 57 in (1,400 mm)
- Waist: 34 in (860 mm)
- Arms: 22 in (560 mm)
- Thighs: 28.5 in (720 mm)
- Calves: 20 in (510 mm)
Schwarzenegger wanted to move from bodybuilding into acting, finally achieving it when he was chosen to play the title role in Hercules in New York (1970). Credited under the stage name "Arnold Strong", his accent in the film was so thick that his lines were dubbed after production. His second film appearance was as a deaf-mute mob hitman in The Long Goodbye (1973), which was followed by a much more significant part in the film Stay Hungry (1976), for which he won the Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actor. Schwarzenegger has discussed his early struggles in developing his acting career: "It was very difficult for me in the beginning – I was told by agents and casting people that my body was 'too weird', that I had a funny accent, and that my name was too long. You name it, and they told me I had to change it. Basically, everywhere I turned, I was told that I had no chance."
Schwarzenegger drew attention and boosted his profile in the bodybuilding film Pumping Iron (1977), elements of which were dramatized. In 1991, he purchased the rights to the film, its outtakes, and associated still photography. In 1977, he made guest appearances in single episodes of the ABC sitcom The San Pedro Beach Bums and the ABC police procedural The Streets of San Francisco. Schwarzenegger auditioned for the title role of The Incredible Hulk, but did not win the role because of his height. Later, Lou Ferrigno got the part of Dr. David Banner's alter ego. Schwarzenegger appeared with Kirk Douglas and Ann-Margret in the 1979 comedy The Villain. In 1980, he starred in a biographical film of the 1950s actress Jayne Mansfield as Mansfield's husband, Mickey Hargitay.
Schwarzenegger's breakthrough film was the sword and sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, which was a box-office hit. This was followed by a sequel, Conan the Destroyer, in 1984, although it was not as successful as its predecessor. In 1983, Schwarzenegger starred in the promotional video Carnival in Rio. In 1984, he made his first appearance as the eponymous character in James Cameron's science fiction action film The Terminator. It has been called his acting career's signature role. Following this, Schwarzenegger made another sword and sorcery film, Red Sonja, in 1985. During the 1980s, audiences had an appetite for action films, with both Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone becoming international stars. The two rivals attacked each other in the press, and tried to surpass the other with more on-screen killings and larger weapons. Schwarzenegger's roles reflected his sense of humor, separating him from more serious action hero films. He made a number of successful action films in the 1980s, such as Commando (1985), Raw Deal (1986), The Running Man (1987), Predator (1987), and Red Heat (1988).
Twins (1988), a comedy with Danny DeVito, also proved successful. Total Recall (1990) netted Schwarzenegger $10 million (equivalent to $19.8 million today) and 15% of the film's gross. A science fiction script, the film was based on the Philip K. Dick short story "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale". Kindergarten Cop (1990) reunited him with director Ivan Reitman, who directed him in Twins. Schwarzenegger had a brief foray into directing, first with a 1990 episode of the TV series Tales from the Crypt, entitled "The Switch", and then with the 1992 telemovie Christmas in Connecticut. He has not directed since.
Schwarzenegger's commercial peak was his return as the title character in Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), which was the highest-grossing film of the year. Film critic Roger Ebert commented that "Schwarzenegger's genius as a movie star is to find roles that build on, rather than undermine, his physical and vocal characteristics." In 1993, the National Association of Theatre Owners named him the "International Star of the Decade". His next film project, the 1993 self-aware action comedy spoof Last Action Hero, was released opposite Jurassic Park, and did not do well at the box office. His next film, the comedy drama True Lies (1994), was a popular spy film and saw Schwarzenegger reunited with James Cameron.
That same year, the comedy Junior was released, the last of Schwarzenegger's three collaborations with Ivan Reitman and again co-starring Danny DeVito. This film brought him his second Golden Globe nomination, this time for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy. It was followed by the action thriller Eraser (1996), the Christmas comedy Jingle All The Way (1996), and the comic book-based Batman & Robin (1997), in which he played the villain Mr. Freeze. This was his final film before taking time to recuperate from a back injury. Following the critical failure of Batman & Robin, his film career and box office prominence went into decline. He returned with the supernatural thriller End of Days (1999), later followed by the action films The 6th Day (2000) and Collateral Damage (2002), both of which failed to do well at the box office. In 2003, he made his third appearance as the title character in Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, which went on to earn over $150 million domestically (equivalent to $211 million today).
In tribute to Schwarzenegger in 2002, Forum Stadtpark, a local cultural association, proposed plans to build a 25-meter-tall (80 ft) Terminator statue in a park in central Graz. Schwarzenegger reportedly said he was flattered, but thought the money would be better spent on social projects and the Special Olympics.
His film appearances after becoming Governor of California included a three-second cameo appearance in The Rundown and the 2004 remake of Around the World in 80 Days. In 2005, he appeared as himself in the film The Kid & I. He voiced Baron von Steuben in the Liberty's Kids episode "Valley Forge". He had been rumored to be appearing in Terminator Salvation as the original T-800; he denied his involvement, but he ultimately did appear briefly via his image being inserted into the movie from stock footage of the first Terminator movie. Schwarzenegger appeared in Sylvester Stallone's The Expendables, where he made a cameo appearance.
Return to acting
In January 2011, just weeks after leaving office in California, Schwarzenegger announced that he was reading several new scripts for future films, one of them being the World War II action drama With Wings as Eagles, written by Randall Wallace, based on a true story.
On March 6, 2011, at the Arnold Seminar of the Arnold Classic, Schwarzenegger revealed that he was being considered for several films, including sequels to The Terminator and remakes of Predator and The Running Man, and that he was "packaging" a comic book character. The character was later revealed to be the Governator, star of the comic book and animated series of the same name. Schwarzenegger inspired the character and co-developed it with Stan Lee, who would have produced the series. Schwarzenegger would have voiced the Governator.
On May 20, 2011, Schwarzenegger's entertainment counsel announced that all film projects currently in development were being halted: "Schwarzenegger is focusing on personal matters and is not willing to commit to any production schedules or timelines." On July 11, 2011, it was announced that Schwarzenegger was considering a comeback film, despite legal problems related to his divorce. He starred in The Expendables 2 (2012) as Trench Mauser, and starred in The Last Stand (2013), his first leading role in 10 years, and Escape Plan (2013), his first co-starring role alongside Sylvester Stallone. He starred in Sabotage, released in March 2014, and returned as Trench Mauser in The Expendables 3, released in August 2014. He starred in the fifth Terminator film Terminator Genisys in 2015, and would reprise his role as Conan the Barbarian in The Legend of Conan, later renamed Conan the Conqueror. However, in April 2017, producer Chris Morgan stated that Universal had dropped the project, although there was a possibility of a TV show. The story of the film was supposed to be set 30 years after the first, with some inspiration from Clint Eastwood's Unforgiven.
In August 2016, his filming of action-comedy Killing Gunther was temporarily interrupted by bank robbers near the filming location in Surrey, British Columbia. The film was released in September 2017. He was announced to star and produce in a film about the ruins of Sanxingdui called The Guest of Sanxingdui as an ambassador.
On February 6, 2018, Amazon Studios announced they were working with Schwarzenegger to develop a new series entitled Outrider in which he will star and executive produce. The western-drama set in the Oklahoma Indian Territory in the late 19th century will follow a deputy (portrayed by Schwarzenegger) who is tasked with apprehending a legendary outlaw in the wilderness, but is forced to partner with a ruthless Federal Marshal to make sure justice is properly served. The series will also mark as Schwarzenegger's first major scripted TV role.
Schwarzenegger returned to the Terminator franchise with Terminator: Dark Fate, which was released on November 1, 2019. It was produced by the series' co-creator James Cameron, who directed him previously in the first two films in the series and in True Lies. It was shot in Almería, Hungary and the US.
The Celebrity Apprentice
In September 2015, the media announced that Schwarzenegger was to replace Donald Trump as host of The New Celebrity Apprentice. This show, the 15th season of The Apprentice, aired during the 2016–2017 TV season. In the show, he used the phrases "you're terminated" and "get to the choppa", which are quotes from some of his famous roles (The Terminator and Predator, respectively), when firing the contestants.
In March 2017, following repeated criticisms from Trump, Schwarzenegger announced that he would not return for another season on the show. He also reacted to Trump's remarks in January 2017 via Instagram: "Hey, Donald, I have a great idea. Why don't we switch jobs? You take over TV because you're such an expert in ratings, and I take over your job, and then people can finally sleep comfortably again."
Schwarzenegger has been a registered Republican for many years. When he was an actor, his political views were always well known as they contrasted with those of many other prominent Hollywood stars, who are generally considered to be a liberal and Democratic-leaning community. At the 2004 Republican National Convention, Schwarzenegger gave a speech and explained he was a Republican because the Democrats of the 1960s sounded too much like Austrian socialists.
I finally arrived here in 1968. What a special day it was. I remember I arrived here with empty pockets but full of dreams, full of determination, full of desire. The presidential campaign was in full swing. I remember watching the Nixon–Humphrey presidential race on TV. A friend of mine who spoke German and English translated for me. I heard Humphrey saying things that sounded like socialism, which I had just left. But then I heard Nixon speak. He was talking about free enterprise, getting the government off your back, lowering the taxes and strengthening the military. Listening to Nixon speak sounded more like a breath of fresh air. I said to my friend, I said, "What party is he?" My friend said, "He's a Republican." I said, "Then I am a Republican." And I have been a Republican ever since.
In 1985, Schwarzenegger appeared in "Stop the Madness", an anti-drug music video sponsored by the Reagan administration. He first came to wide public notice as a Republican during the 1988 presidential election, accompanying then–Vice President George H. W. Bush at a campaign rally.
Schwarzenegger's first political appointment was as chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, on which he served from 1990 to 1993. He was nominated by the now-President Bush, who dubbed him "Conan the Republican". He later served as chairman for the California Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports under Governor Pete Wilson.
In an interview with Talk magazine in late 1999, Schwarzenegger was asked if he thought of running for office. He replied, "I think about it many times. The possibility is there because I feel it inside." The Hollywood Reporter claimed shortly after that Schwarzenegger sought to end speculation that he might run for governor of California. Following his initial comments, Schwarzenegger said, "I'm in show business – I am in the middle of my career. Why would I go away from that and jump into something else?"
Governor of California
Schwarzenegger announced his candidacy in the 2003 California recall election for Governor of California on the August 6, 2003, episode of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. Schwarzenegger had the most name recognition in a crowded field of candidates, but he had never held public office and his political views were unknown to most Californians. His candidacy immediately became national and international news, with media outlets dubbing him the "Governator" (referring to The Terminator movies, see above) and "The Running Man" (the name of another one of his films), and calling the recall election "Total Recall" (yet another movie starring Schwarzenegger). Schwarzenegger declined to participate in several debates with other recall replacement candidates, and appeared in only one debate on September 24, 2003.
On October 7, 2003, the recall election resulted in Governor Gray Davis being removed from office with 55.4% of the Yes vote in favor of a recall. Schwarzenegger was elected Governor of California under the second question on the ballot with 48.6% of the vote to choose a successor to Davis. Schwarzenegger defeated Democrat Cruz Bustamante, fellow Republican Tom McClintock, and others. His nearest rival, Bustamante, received 31% of the vote. In total, Schwarzenegger won the election by about 1.3 million votes. Under the regulations of the California Constitution, no runoff election was required. Schwarzenegger was the second foreign-born governor of California after Irish-born Governor John G. Downey in 1862.
Schwarzenegger is a moderate Republican. He says he is fiscally conservative and socially liberal. On the issue of abortion, he describes himself as pro-choice, but supports parental notification for minors and a ban on partial-birth abortion. He has supported gay rights, such as domestic partnerships, and he performed a same-sex marriage as Governor. However, Schwarzenegger vetoed bills that would have legalized same-sex marriage in California in 2005 and 2007. He additionally vetoed two bills that would have implemented a single-payer health care system in California in 2006 and 2008, respectively.
Schwarzenegger was entrenched in what he considered to be his mandate in cleaning up political gridlock. Building on a catchphrase from the sketch "Hans and Franz" from Saturday Night Live (which partly parodied his bodybuilding career), Schwarzenegger called the Democratic State politicians "girlie men".
Schwarzenegger's early victories included repealing an unpopular increase in the vehicle registration fee as well as preventing driver's licenses from being given out to illegal immigrants, but later he began to feel the backlash when powerful state unions began to oppose his various initiatives. Key among his reckoning with political realities was a special election he called in November 2005, in which four ballot measures he sponsored were defeated. Schwarzenegger accepted personal responsibility for the defeats and vowed to continue to seek consensus for the people of California. He would later comment that "no one could win if the opposition raised 160 million dollars to defeat you". The U.S. Supreme Court later found the public employee unions' use of compulsory fundraising during the campaign had been illegal in Knox v. Service Employees International Union, Local 1000.
Schwarzenegger, against the advice of fellow Republican strategists, appointed a Democrat, Susan Kennedy, as his Chief of Staff. He gradually moved towards a more politically moderate position, determined to build a winning legacy with only a short time to go until the next gubernatorial election.
Schwarzenegger ran for re-election against Democrat Phil Angelides, the California State Treasurer, in the 2006 elections, held on November 7, 2006. Despite a poor year nationally for the Republican party, Schwarzenegger won re-election with 56.0% of the vote compared with 38.9% for Angelides, a margin of well over 1 million votes. Around this time, many commentators saw Schwarzenegger as moving away from the right and towards the center of the political spectrum. After hearing a speech by Schwarzenegger at the 2006 Martin Luther King Jr. Day breakfast, in which Schwarzenegger said, in part "How wrong I was when I said everyone has an equal opportunity to make it in America [...] the state of California does not provide (equal) education for all of our children", San Francisco mayor & future governor of California Gavin Newsom said that "[H]e's becoming a Democrat [... H]e's running back, not even to the center. I would say center-left".
Wendy Leigh, who wrote an unofficial biography on Schwarzenegger, claims he plotted his political rise from an early age using the movie business and bodybuilding as the means to escape a depressing home. Leigh portrays Schwarzenegger as obsessed with power and quotes him as saying, "I wanted to be part of the small percentage of people who were leaders, not the large mass of followers. I think it is because I saw leaders use 100% of their potential – I was always fascinated by people in control of other people." Schwarzenegger has said that it was never his intention to enter politics, but he says, "I married into a political family. You get together with them and you hear about policy, about reaching out to help people. I was exposed to the idea of being a public servant and Eunice and Sargent Shriver became my heroes." Eunice Kennedy Shriver was the sister of John F. Kennedy, and mother-in-law to Schwarzenegger; Sargent Shriver is husband to Eunice and father-in-law to Schwarzenegger.
Schwarzenegger cannot run for U.S. president as he is not a natural-born citizen of the United States. Schwarzenegger is a dual Austrian and United States citizen. He has held Austrian citizenship since birth and U.S. citizenship since becoming naturalized in 1983. Being Austrian and thus European, he was able to win the 2007 European Voice campaigner of the year award for taking action against climate change with the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 and plans to introduce an emissions trading scheme with other US states and possibly with the EU.
Because of his personal wealth from his acting career, Schwarzenegger did not accept his governor's salary of $175,000 per year.
Schwarzenegger's endorsement in the Republican primary of the 2008 U.S. presidential election was highly sought; despite being good friends with candidates Rudy Giuliani and Senator John McCain, Schwarzenegger remained neutral throughout 2007 and early 2008. Giuliani dropped out of the presidential race on January 30, 2008, largely because of a poor showing in Florida, and endorsed McCain. Later that night, Schwarzenegger was in the audience at a Republican debate at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in California. The following day, he endorsed McCain, joking, "It's Rudy's fault!" (in reference to his friendships with both candidates and that he could not make up his mind). Schwarzenegger's endorsement was thought to be a boost for Senator McCain's campaign; both spoke about their concerns for the environment and economy.
In its April 2010 report, Progressive ethics watchdog group Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington named Schwarzenegger one of 11 "worst governors" in the United States because of various ethics issues throughout Schwarzenegger's term as governor.
Governor Schwarzenegger played a significant role in opposing Proposition 66, a proposed amendment of the Californian Three Strikes Law, in November 2004. This amendment would have required the third felony to be either violent or serious to mandate a 25-years-to-life sentence. In the last week before the ballot, Schwarzenegger launched an intense campaign against Proposition 66. He stated that "it would release 26,000 dangerous criminals and rapists".
Although he began his tenure as governor with record high approval ratings (as high as 65% in May 2004), he left office with a record low 23%, only one percent higher than that of Gray Davis, when he was recalled in October 2003.
Death of Luis Santos
In May 2010, Esteban Núñez pleaded guilty to voluntary manslaughter and was sentenced to 16 years in prison for the death of Luis Santos. Núñez is the son of Fabian Núñez, then California Assembly Speaker of the House and a close friend and staunch political ally of then governor Schwarzenegger.
As a personal favor to "a friend", just hours before he left office, and as one of his last official acts, Schwarzenegger commuted Núñez's sentence by more than half, to seven years. Against protocol, Schwarzenegger did not inform Santos' family or the San Diego County prosecutors about the commutation. They learned about it in a call from a reporter.
The Santos family, along with the San Diego district attorney, sued to stop the commutation, claiming that it violated Marsy's Law. In September 2012, Sacramento County superior court judge Lloyd Connelly stated, "Based on the evidentiary records before this court involving this case, there was an abuse of discretion...This was a distasteful commutation. It was repugnant to the bulk of the citizenry of this state." However, Connelly ruled that Schwarzenegger remained within his executive powers as governor. Subsequently, as a direct result of the way the commutation was handled, Governor Jerry Brown signed a bipartisan bill that allows offenders' victims and their families to be notified at least 10 days before any commutations. Núñez was released from prison after serving less than six years.
Drug use and allegations of sexual misconduct
During his initial campaign for governor in 2003, allegations of sexual and personal misconduct were raised against Schwarzenegger. Within the last five days before the election, news reports appeared in the Los Angeles Times recounting decades-old allegations of sexual misconduct from six individual women. Schwarzenegger responded to the allegations in 2004 admitting that he has "behaved badly sometimes" and apologized, but also stated that "a lot of [what] you see in the stories is not true". One of the women who came forward was British television personality Anna Richardson, who settled a libel lawsuit in August 2006 against Schwarzenegger; his top aide, Sean Walsh; and his publicist, Sheryl Main. A joint statement read: "The parties are content to put this matter behind them and are pleased that this legal dispute has now been settled."
During this time a 1977 interview in adult magazine Oui gained attention, in which Schwarzenegger discussed using substances such as marijuana. Schwarzenegger is shown smoking a marijuana joint after winning Mr. Olympia in 1975 in the documentary film Pumping Iron (1977). In an interview with GQ magazine in October 2007, Schwarzenegger said, "[Marijuana] is not a drug. It's a leaf. My drug was pumping iron, trust me." His spokesperson later said the comment was meant to be a joke.
Schwarzenegger became a naturalized U.S. citizen on September 17, 1983. Shortly before he gained his citizenship, he asked the Austrian authorities for the right to keep his Austrian citizenship, as Austria does not usually allow dual citizenship. His request was granted, and he retained his Austrian citizenship. In 2005, Peter Pilz, a member of the Austrian Parliament from the Austrian Green Party, unsuccessfully advocated for Parliament to revoke Schwarzenegger's Austrian citizenship due to his decision not to prevent the executions of Donald Beardslee and Stanley Williams. Pilz argued that Schwarzenegger caused damage to Austria's reputation in the international community because Austria abolished the death penalty in 1968. Pilz based his argument on Article 33 of the Austrian Citizenship Act, which states: "A citizen, who is in the public service of a foreign country, shall be deprived of his citizenship if he heavily damages the reputation or the interests of the Austrian Republic." Pilz claimed that Schwarzenegger's actions in support of the death penalty (prohibited in Austria under Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights) had damaged Austria's reputation. Schwarzenegger explained his actions by pointing out that his only duty as Governor of California with respect to the death penalty was to correct an error by the justice system by pardon or clemency if such an error had occurred.
On September 27, 2006, Schwarzenegger signed the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, creating the nation's first cap on greenhouse gas emissions. The law set new regulations on the amount of emissions utilities, refineries, and manufacturing plants are allowed to release into the atmosphere. Schwarzenegger also signed a second global warming bill that prohibits large utilities and corporations in California from making long-term contracts with suppliers who do not meet the state's greenhouse gas emission standards. The two bills are part of a plan to reduce California's emissions by 25 percent to 1990s levels by 2020. In 2005, Schwarzenegger issued an executive order calling to reduce greenhouse gases to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.
Schwarzenegger signed another executive order on October 17, 2006, allowing California to work with the Northeast's Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. They plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by issuing a limited amount of carbon credits to each power plant in participating states. Any power plants that exceed emissions for the number of carbon credits will have to purchase more credits to cover the difference. The plan took effect in 2009. In addition to using his political power to fight global warming, the governor has taken steps at his home to reduce his personal carbon footprint. Schwarzenegger has adapted one of his Hummers to run on hydrogen and another to run on biofuels. He has also installed solar panels to heat his home.
In 2011, Schwarzenegger founded the R20 Regions of Climate Action to develop a sustainable, low-carbon economy. In 2017, he joined French President Emmanuel Macron in calling for the adoption of a Global Pact for the Environment. In 2017, Schwarzenegger launched the Austrian World Summit, an international climate conference that is held annually in Vienna, Austria. The Austrian World Summit is organized by the Schwarzenegger Climate Initiative and aims is to bring together representatives from politics, civil society and business to create a broad alliance for climate protection and to identify concrete solutions to the climate crisis.
|Green||Peter Miguel Camejo||242,247||2.8|
|Republican||Arnold Schwarzenegger (incumbent)||4,850,157||55.9|
The Equal Opportunity to Govern Amendment in 2003 was widely accredited as the "Amend for Arnold" bill, which would have added an amendment to the U.S. Constitution allowing his run, as he was not a natural born citizen. In 2004, the "Amend for Arnold" campaign was launched, featuring a website and TV advertising promotion.
In October 2013, the New York Post reported that Schwarzenegger was exploring a future run for president. The former California governor would have faced a constitutional hurdle; Article II, Section I, Clause V prevents individuals who are not natural-born citizens of the United States from assuming the office. At the time he had reportedly been lobbying legislators about a possible constitutional change, or filing a legal challenge to the provision. Columbia University law professor Michael Dorf observed that Schwarzenegger's possible lawsuit could ultimately win him the right to run for the office, noting, "The law is very clear, but it's not 100 percent clear that the courts would enforce that law rather than leave it to the political process."[better source needed]
Schwarzenegger has had a highly successful business career. Following his move to the United States, Schwarzenegger became a "prolific goal setter" and would write his objectives at the start of the year on index cards, like starting a mail order business or buying a new car – and succeed in doing so. By the age of 30, Schwarzenegger was a millionaire, well before his career in Hollywood. His financial independence came from his success as a budding entrepreneur with a series of lucrative business ventures and investments.
In 1968, Schwarzenegger and fellow bodybuilder Franco Columbu started a bricklaying business. The business flourished thanks to the pair's marketing savvy and an increased demand following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. Schwarzenegger and Columbu used profits from their bricklaying venture to start a mail-order business, selling bodybuilding and fitness-related equipment and instructional tapes.
Schwarzenegger transferred profits from the mail-order business and his bodybuilding-competition winnings into his first real estate investment venture: an apartment building he purchased for $10,000. He would later go on to invest in a number of real estate holding companies.
Stallone and Schwarzenegger ended their longtime rivalry by both investing in the Planet Hollywood chain of international theme restaurants (modeled after the Hard Rock Cafe) along with Bruce Willis and Demi Moore. Schwarzenegger severed his financial ties with the business in early 2000. Schwarzenegger said the company did not have the success he had hoped for, claiming he wanted to focus his attention on "new US global business ventures" and his movie career.
He also invested in a shopping mall in Columbus, Ohio. He has talked about some of those who have helped him over the years in business: "I couldn't have learned about business without a parade of teachers guiding me... from Milton Friedman to Donald Trump... and now, Les Wexner and Warren Buffett. I even learned a thing or two from Planet Hollywood, such as when to get out! And I did!" He has significant ownership in Dimensional Fund Advisors, an investment firm. Schwarzenegger is also the owner of Arnold's Sports Festival, which he started in 1989 and is held annually in Columbus, Ohio. It is a festival that hosts thousands of international health and fitness professionals which has also expanded into a three-day expo. He also owns a movie production company called Oak Productions, Inc. and Fitness Publications, a joint publishing venture with Simon & Schuster.
In 2018, Schwarzenegger partnered with LeBron James to found Ladder, a company that developed nutritional supplements to help athletes with severe cramps. The duo sold Ladder to Openfit for an undisclosed amount in 2020 after reporting more than $4 million in sales for that year.
In 1992, Schwarzenegger and his wife opened a restaurant in Santa Monica called Schatzi On Main. Schatzi literally means "little treasure," and colloquially "honey" or "darling" in German. In 1998, he sold his restaurant.
Schwarzenegger's net worth had been conservatively estimated at $100 million to $200 million. After separating from his wife, Maria Shriver, in 2011, it was estimated that his net worth had been approximately $400 million, and even as high as $800 million, based on tax returns he filed in 2006. Over the years, he invested his bodybuilding and film earnings in an array of stocks, bonds, privately controlled companies, and real estate holdings worldwide, making his net worth as an accurate estimation difficult to calculate, particularly in light of declining real estate values owing to economic recessions in the U.S. and Europe since the late 2000s. In June 1997, he spent $38 million of his own money on a private Gulfstream jet. He once quipped, "Money doesn't make you happy. I now have $50 million, but I was just as happy when I had $48 million."
In 1969, Schwarzenegger met Barbara Outland (later Barbara Outland Baker), an English teacher with whom he lived until 1974. Schwarzenegger said of Baker in his 1977 memoir, "Basically it came down to this: she was a well-balanced woman who wanted an ordinary, solid life, and I was not a well-balanced man, and hated the very idea of ordinary life." Baker has described Schwarzenegger as a "joyful personality, totally charismatic, adventurous, and athletic" but claims that towards the end of the relationship he became "insufferable—classically conceited—the world revolved around him". Baker published her memoir in 2006, entitled Arnold and Me: In the Shadow of the Austrian Oak. Although Baker painted an unflattering portrait of her former lover at times, Schwarzenegger actually contributed to the tell-all book with a foreword, and also met with Baker for three hours.
Baker claims that she only learned of his being unfaithful after they split, and talks of a turbulent and passionate love life. Schwarzenegger has made it clear that their respective recollection of events can differ. The couple first met six to eight months after his arrival in the U.S. Their first date was watching the first Apollo Moon landing on television. They shared an apartment in Santa Monica, California, for three and a half years, and having little money, they would visit the beach all day or have barbecues in the back yard. Although Baker claims that when she first met Schwarzenegger, he had "little understanding of polite society" and she found him a turn-off, she says, "He's as much a self-made man as it's possible to be—he never got encouragement from his parents, his family, his brother. He just had this huge determination to prove himself, and that was very attractive ... I'll go to my grave knowing Arnold loved me."
Schwarzenegger met his next lover, Beverly Hills hairdresser's assistant Sue Moray, on Venice Beach in July 1977. According to Moray, the couple led an open relationship: "We were faithful when we were both in LA... but when he was out of town, we were free to do whatever we wanted." Schwarzenegger met television journalist Maria Shriver, niece of President John F. Kennedy, at the Robert F. Kennedy Tennis Tournament in August 1977. He went on to have a relationship with both Moray and Shriver until August 1978 when Moray (who knew of his relationship with Shriver) issued an ultimatum.
Marriage and family
On April 26, 1986, Schwarzenegger married Shriver in Hyannis, Massachusetts. The Rev. John Baptist Riordan performed the ceremony at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church. They have four children: Katherine Eunice Schwarzenegger (born December 13, 1989), Christina Maria Aurelia Schwarzenegger (born July 23, 1991), Patrick Arnold Shriver Schwarzenegger (born September 18, 1993), and Christopher Sargent Shriver Schwarzenegger (born September 27, 1997). All of their children were born in Los Angeles. The family lived in an 11,000-square-foot (1,000 m2) home in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, with vacation homes in Sun Valley, Idaho, and Hyannis Port, Massachusetts. They attended St. Monica's Catholic Church.
On May 9, 2011, Shriver and Schwarzenegger ended their relationship after 25 years of marriage with Shriver moving out of their Brentwood mansion. On May 16, 2011, the Los Angeles Times revealed that Schwarzenegger had fathered a son more than 14 years earlier with an employee in their household, Mildred Patricia "Patty" Baena. "After leaving the governor's office I told my wife about this event, which occurred over a decade ago," Schwarzenegger said to the Times. In the statement, Schwarzenegger did not mention that he had confessed to his wife only after she had confronted him with the information, which she had done after confirming with the housekeeper what she had suspected about the child.
Baena is of Guatemalan origin. She was employed by the family for 20 years and retired in January 2011. The pregnant Baena was working in the home while Shriver was pregnant with the youngest of the couple's four children. Baena's son with Schwarzenegger, Joseph, was born on October 2, 1997, and Shriver gave birth to Christopher a few days before on September 27, 1997. Schwarzenegger said that it took seven or eight years before he found out that he had fathered a child with his housekeeper. It was not until the boy "started looking like [him] ... that [he] put things together". Schwarzenegger has taken financial responsibility for the child "from the start and continued to provide support". KNX 1070 radio reported that, in 2010, he bought a new four-bedroom house with a pool for Baena and their son in Bakersfield, California. Baena separated from her husband, Rogelio, a few months after Joseph's birth. She filed for divorce in 2008. Rogelio said that the child's birth certificate was falsified and that he planned to sue Schwarzenegger for engaging in conspiracy to falsify a public document, a serious crime in California.
Pursuant to the divorce judgment, Schwarzenegger kept the Brentwood home, while Shriver purchased a new home nearby so that the children could travel between their parents' homes. They shared custody of the two youngest children. Schwarzenegger came under fire after the initial petition did not include spousal support and a reimbursement of attorney's fees. However, he claims this was not intentional and that he signed the initial documents without having properly read them. He filed amended divorce papers remedying this. Schwarzenegger and Shriver finalized their divorce in 2021, ten years after separating.
After the scandal, Danish-Italian actress Brigitte Nielsen came forward and stated that she too had an affair with Schwarzenegger during the production of Red Sonja, while he had just started his relationship with Shriver, saying, "Maybe I wouldn't have got into it if he said 'I'm going to marry Maria' and this is deadly serious, but he didn't, and our affair carried on." When asked in January 2014, "Of all the things you are famous for ... which are you least proud of?" Schwarzenegger replied, "I'm least proud of the mistakes I made that caused my family pain and split us up." Schwarzenegger eventually confirmed the affair in several reports.
Accidents, injuries, and other health problems
Schwarzenegger was born with a bicuspid aortic valve, an aortic valve with only two leaflets, where a normal aortic valve has three. He opted in 1997 for a replacement heart valve made from his own pulmonic valve, which itself was replaced with a cadaveric pulmonic valve, in a Ross procedure; medical experts predicted he would require heart valve replacement surgery within the next two to eight years because his valve would progressively degrade. Schwarzenegger apparently opted against a mechanical valve, the only permanent solution available at the time of his surgery, because it would have sharply limited his physical activity and capacity to exercise.
On March 29, 2018, Schwarzenegger underwent emergency open-heart surgery for replacement of his replacement pulmonic valve. He said about his recovery: "I underwent open-heart surgery this spring, I had to use a walker. I had to do breathing exercises five times a day to retrain my lungs. I was frustrated and angry, and in my worst moments, I couldn't see the way back to my old self."
In 2020, 23 years after his first surgery, Schwarzenegger underwent a surgery for a new aortic valve.
On December 9, 2001, he broke six ribs and was hospitalized for four days after a motorcycle crash in Los Angeles.
Schwarzenegger saved a drowning man in 2004 while on vacation in Hawaii by swimming out and bringing him back to shore.
On January 8, 2006, while Schwarzenegger was riding his Harley Davidson motorcycle in Los Angeles with his son Patrick in the sidecar, another driver backed into the street he was riding on, causing him and his son to collide with the car at a low speed. While his son and the other driver were unharmed, Schwarzenegger sustained an injury to his lip requiring 15 stitches. "No citations were issued," said Officer Jason Lee, a Los Angeles Police Department spokesman. Schwarzenegger did not obtain his motorcycle license until July 3, 2006.
Schwarzenegger tripped over his ski pole and broke his right femur while skiing in Sun Valley, Idaho, with his family on December 23, 2006. On December 26, he underwent a 90-minute operation in which cables and screws were used to wire the broken bone back together. He was released from St. John's Health Center on December 30, 2006.
Schwarzenegger's private jet made an emergency landing at Van Nuys Airport on June 19, 2009, after the pilot reported smoke coming from the cockpit, according to a statement released by his press secretary. No one was harmed in the incident.
On May 18, 2019, while on a visit to South Africa, Schwarzenegger was attacked and dropkicked from behind by an unknown malefactor while giving autographs to his fans at one of the local schools. Despite the surprise and unprovoked nature of the attack, he reportedly suffered no injuries and continued to interact with fans. The attacker was apprehended and Schwarzenegger declined to press charges against him.
Schwarzenegger was involved in a multi-vehicle collision on the afternoon of Friday, January 21, 2022. Schwarzenegger was driving a black GMC Yukon SUV near the intersections of Sunset Blvd and Allenford Ave in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, when his vehicle collided with a red Toyota Prius. The driver of the Prius was transported to the hospital for injuries sustained to her head. Schwarzenegger was uninjured.
Schwarzenegger's official height of 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m) has been brought into question by several articles. During his bodybuilding days in the late 1960s, it was claimed that he measured 6 ft 1.5 in (1.867 m). However, in 1988, both the Daily Mail and Time Out magazine mentioned that Schwarzenegger appeared noticeably shorter. Prior to running for governor, Schwarzenegger's height was once again questioned in an article by the Chicago Reader. As governor, Schwarzenegger engaged in a light-hearted exchange with Assemblyman Herb Wesson over their heights. At one point, Wesson made an unsuccessful attempt to, in his own words, "settle this once and for all and find out how tall he is" by using a tailor's tape measure on the Governor. Schwarzenegger retaliated by placing a pillow stitched with the words "Need a lift?" on the five-foot-five-inch (1.65 m) Wesson's chair before a negotiating session in his office. Democrat Bob Mulholland also claimed Schwarzenegger was 5 ft 10 in (1.78 m) and that he wore risers in his boots. In 1999, Men's Health magazine stated his height was 5 ft 10 in (1.78 m).
Schwarzenegger's autobiography, Total Recall, was released in October 2012. He devotes one chapter called "The Secret" to his extramarital affair. The majority of his book is about his successes in the three major chapters in his life: bodybuilder, actor, and Governor of California.
Growing up during the Allied occupation of Austria, Schwarzenegger commonly saw heavy military vehicles such as tanks as a child. As a result, he paid $20,000 to bring his Austrian Army M47 Patton tank (331) to the United States, which he previously operated during his mandatory service in 1965. However, he later obtained his vehicle in 1991/2, during his tenure as the Chairmen of the President's Council on Sports, Fitness, and Nutrition, and now uses it to support his charity. His first car ever was an Opel Kadett in 1969 after serving in the Austrian army, then he rode a Harley-Davidson Fat Boy in 1991.
Moreover, he came to develop an interest in large vehicles and became the first civilian in the U.S. to purchase a Humvee. He was so enamored by the vehicle that he lobbied the Humvee's manufacturer, AM General, to produce a street-legal, civilian version, which they did in 1992; the first two Hummer H1s they sold were also purchased by Schwarzenegger. In 2010, he had one regular and three running on non-fossil power sources; one for hydrogen, one for vegetable oil, and one for biodiesel. Schwarzenegger was in the news in 2014 for buying a rare Bugatti Veyron Grand Sport Vitesse. He was spotted and filmed in 2015 in his car, painted silver with bright aluminum forged wheels. His Bugatti has its interior adorned in dark brown leather. In 2017, Schwarzenegger acquired a Mercedes G-Class modified for all-electric drive.
The Hummers that Schwarzenegger bought in 1992 are so large—each weighs 6,300 lb (2,900 kg) and is 7 feet (2.1 m) wide—that they are classified as large trucks, and U.S. fuel economy regulations do not apply to them. During the gubernatorial recall campaign, he announced that he would convert one of his Hummers to burn hydrogen. The conversion was reported to have cost about $21,000. After the election, he signed an executive order to jump-start the building of hydrogen refueling plants called the California Hydrogen Highway Network, and gained a U.S. Department of Energy grant to help pay for its projected US$91,000,000 cost. California took delivery of the first H2H (Hydrogen Hummer) in October 2004.
Schwarzenegger has been involved with the Special Olympics for many years after they were founded by his ex-mother-in-law Eunice Kennedy Shriver. In 2007, Schwarzenegger was the official spokesperson for the Special Olympics held in Shanghai, China. Schwarzenegger believes that quality school opportunities should be made available to children who might not normally be able to access them. In 1995, he founded the Inner City Games Foundation (ICG) which provides cultural, educational and community enrichment programming to youth. ICG is active in 15 cities around the country and serves over 250,000 children in over 400 schools countrywide. He has also been involved with After-School All-Stars and founded the Los Angeles branch in 2002. ASAS is an after school program provider, educating youth about health, fitness and nutrition.
Schwarzenegger had a collection of Marxist busts, which he requested from Russian friends during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, as they were being destroyed. In 2011, he revealed that his wife had requested their removal, but he kept the one of Vladimir Lenin present, since "he was the first". In 2015, he said he kept the Lenin bust to "show losers".
Schwarzenegger is a supporter of Israel, and has participated in a Los Angeles pro-Israel rally among other similar events. In 2004, Schwarzenegger visited Israel to break ground on Simon Wiesenthal Center's Museum of Tolerance Jerusalem, and to lay a wreath at the Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial, he also met with Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and President Moshe Katsav. In 2011, at the Independence Day celebration hosted by the Israeli Consulate General in Los Angeles, Schwarzenegger said: "I love Israel. When I became governor, Israel was the first country that I visited. When I had the chance to sign a bill calling on California pension funds to divest their money from companies that do business with Iran, I immediately signed that bill", then he added, "I knew that we could not send money to these crazy dictators who hate us and threaten Israel any time they have a bad day."
Schwarzenegger supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Schwarzenegger also expressed support for the 2011 military intervention in Libya. In 2014, Schwarzenegger released a video message in support of the Euromaidan protests against Ukraine's pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych.
Schwarzenegger inspired many actors to become action heroes, including Dwayne Johnson, Matt McColm, Christian Boeving, Vidyut Jamwal, and Daniel Greene. Boeving's character in the 2003 action film When Eagles Strike was based on Schwarzenegger's image from the late 1980s: mostly on Major "Dutch" Schaefer from Predator (1987) and Colonel John Matrix from Commando (1985).
Schwarzenegger Institute for State and Global Policy
In 2012, Schwarzenegger helped to found the Schwarzenegger Institute for State and Global Policy, which is a part of the USC Price School of Public Policy at the University of Southern California. The institute's mission is to "[advance] post-partisanship, where leaders put people over political parties and work together to find the best ideas and solutions to benefit the people they serve" and to "seek to influence public policy and public debate in finding solutions to the serious challenges we face". Schwarzenegger serves as chairman of the institute.
2016 presidential election
For the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries, Schwarzenegger endorsed fellow Republican John Kasich. However, he announced in October that he would not vote for the Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump in that year's United States presidential election, with this being the first time he did not vote for the Republican candidate since becoming a citizen in 1983.
In recent years, Schwarzenegger has been advocating for eating less meat, and he is an executive producer alongside James Cameron et al. behind the documentary The Game Changers, that documents the explosive rise of plant-based eating in professional sports, in which he is also featured.
In 2019, while at the "Arnold Classic Africa" sports competition as an official, Schwarzenegger was attacked by an assailant in a flying kick. The assailant was arrested.
Following the 2021 United States Capitol attack by supporters of President Donald Trump, Schwarzenegger posted a video address on social media in which he likened the insurrection to Nazi Germany's Kristallnacht, which he described as "a night of rampage against the Jews carried out [by] the Nazi equivalent of the Proud Boys". He spoke of his father's alcoholism, domestic violence, and abuse, and how it was typical of other former Nazis and collaborators in the post-war era; and described Trump as "a failed leader. He will go down in history as the worst president ever."
In late March 2021, Schwarzenegger was interviewed by Politico about the upcoming recall election in California in which he said that "it's pretty much the same atmosphere today as it was then", and when he was asked about Newsom's claim of this being a "Republican recall" he responded that "this recall effort is sparked by ordinary folks, and that this isn't a power grab by Republicans."
- Hercules in New York (1970)
- Pumping Iron (1977)
- The Comeback (1980)
- Conan the Barbarian (1982)
- Conan the Destroyer (1984)
- The Terminator (1984)
- Commando (1985)
- Raw Deal (1986)
- Predator (1987)
- The Running Man (1987)
- Red Heat (1988)
- Twins (1988)
- Total Recall (1990)
- Kindergarten Cop (1990)
- Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)
- Last Action Hero (1993)
- True Lies (1994)
- Eraser (1996)
- Jingle All the Way (1996)
- Batman & Robin (1997)
- End of Days (1999)
- The 6th Day (2000)
- Collateral Damage (2002)
- Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003)
- The Expendables (2010)
- The Expendables 2 (2012)
- The Last Stand (2013)
- Escape Plan (2013)
- The Expendables 3 (2014)
- Sabotage (2014)
- Maggie (2015)
- Terminator Genisys (2015)
- Aftermath (2017)
- Terminator: Dark Fate (2019)
Awards and honors
- Seven-time Mr. Olympia winner
- Four-time Mr. Universe winner
- 1969 World Amateur Bodybuilding Champion
- 1977 Golden Globe Award winner
- Medal for Humanitary Merit of the Austrian Albert Schweitzer Society (2011)
- Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
- International Sports Hall of Fame (class of 2012)
- Public art mural portrait "Arnold Schwarzenegger" (2012) by Jonas Never, Venice, Los Angeles
- WWE Hall of Fame (class of 2015)
- Schwarzenegger Institute for State and Global Policy (part of the USC Price School of Public Policy at the University of Southern California) named in his honor.
- Arnold's Run ski trail at Sun Valley Resort named in his honor. The trail is categorized as a black diamond, or most difficult, for its terrain.
- "A Day for Arnold" on July 30, 2007, in Thal, Austria. For his 60th birthday, the mayor sent Schwarzenegger the enameled address sign (Thal 145) of the house where Schwarzenegger was born, declaring "This belongs to him. No one here will ever be assigned that number again".
- Inkpot Award
Government orders and decorations
- Grand Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria in Gold (1993)
- Cavalier (2011) and Commander (2017) of the French Legion of Honor
- Honorary Ring of the Federal State of Styria (Austria, June 2017)
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold (1977). Arnold: Developing a Mr. Universe Physique. Schwarzenegger. OCLC 6457784.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold; Douglas Kent Hall (1977). Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-22879-8.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold; Douglas Kent Hall (1979). Arnold's Bodyshaping for Women. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-24301-2.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold; Bill Dobbins (1981). Arnold's Bodybuilding for Men. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-25613-5.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold; Bill Dobbins (1998). The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding (Rev. ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-84374-2.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold (2012). Total Recall. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-84983-971-6.
- Typically pronounced // in the English-speaking world.
- on YouTube
- Gentilcore, Tony (March 2, 2018). "Lift Heavy To Build Muscle Like Arnold Schwarzenegger". Powerlifting.com. Archived from the original on July 15, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- "50 years of the Mr Olympia | MUSCLE INSIDER". muscleinsider.com. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Katz, Ephraim (2006). Film Encyclopedia. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-074214-0.
- Ebert, Roger (June 17, 1988). "Red Heat movie review & film summary (1988)". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- Keslassy, Elsa (October 14, 2019). "Alibaba's Youku Boards 'Stan Lee's Superhero Kindergarten' With Arnold Schwarzenegger". Variety. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
- Kurtzman, Laura (January 5, 2007). "Schwarzenegger Sworn in for Second Term". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2008.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger at University of Houston Commencement: 'None of Us Can Make It Alone'". Time. May 15, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger and Maria Shriver Officially Divorced". TMZ. December 28, 2021. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger: Biography". Schwarzenegger.com. Archived from the original on December 31, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
- Rechcigl Jr., Miloslav (2007). Czech It Out: Czech American Biography Sourcebook. ISBN 9781504920711.
- Miloslav Rechcigl Jr. (2016). Encyclopedia of Bohemian and Czech-American Biography, Volym 2. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1524620691.
- "Birth record of Wenzel Mach". Retrieved January 29, 2021.
- "Slovenka vypátrala skutočný pôvod akčného hrdinu: Žiadny Schwarzenegger, ale Arnold Mach!". Nový čas. August 18, 2020. Archived from the original on December 23, 2020. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
- "Conan the Bohemian: Arnold Schwarzenegger's Czech roots confirmed". The Prague Reporter. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
- Tracy Wilkinson; Matt Lait (August 14, 2003). "Austrian Archives Reveal Nazi Military Role of Actor's Father". Los Angeles Times.
- "Arnie: 'I was abused as child'". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. August 4, 2004. Archived from the original on August 18, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Surprised by Russia: 5 things that charmed Arnold Schwarzenegger in Moscow". Russia Beyond. February 20, 2018. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- "Records: Arnold's father was member of Nazi storm troops". USA Today. August 24, 2003. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
- "Ask Arnold". Schwarzenegger.com. 2000. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Andrews, Nigel (2003). True Myths of Arnold Schwarzenegger. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-58234-465-2.
- Brooks, Xan (August 8, 2003). "The Governator". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on August 27, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2007.
- Leigh, Wendy (1990). Arnold: An Unauthorized Biography. Pelham. ISBN 978-0-7207-1997-0.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger: Mr. Olympia – 1970–1975, 1980". BodyBuild.com. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Austrian Archives Reveal Nazi Military Role of Actor's Father". Los Angeles Times. August 14, 2003. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
- "Profile: Arnold Schwarzenegger". BBC. August 31, 2004. Archived from the original on November 1, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Mr. Everything". Schwarzenegger.com. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold (October 3, 2001). "Arnold's "Perspectives"". Schwarzenegger.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Tracy Wilkinson (September 10, 2003). "Schwarzenegger Is Still Their Hometown Hero". Los Angeles Times.
- Seth Rogovoy (July 30, 2020). "On his 73rd birthday, Arnold Schwarzenegger's secret Jewish history". Forward.
- Interview in Pumping Iron – 25th Anniversary Edition DVD extras
- Poole, Oliver (October 6, 2003). "The girl who can't escape Arnie". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on April 10, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- McIntosh, Lindsay (October 2, 2008). "Wag Bennett bodybuilder who helped Arnold Schwarzenegger". The Times. London. Archived from the original on May 25, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2008.
- Staff, Arnold Schwarzenegger: Made in Britain Archived August 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, British Film Institute. Retrieved October 3, 2008. "Wag and Dianne Bennett, an East End couple who gave Arnie a home for three years,"
- "An Austrian hick in London: Arnie's early years". The Telegraph. March 22, 2017. Archived from the original on April 13, 2018. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "A tribute by Arnold Schwarzenegger". Regpark.net. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- "Summer of '68: Mit Schwarzenegger durch Schwabing". Der Spiegel (in German). October 8, 2007. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Bradley, Bill (November 20, 2002). "Mr. California". LA Weekly. Archived from the original on August 16, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Jennings, Randy (October 21, 2003). "Ric Drasin: Arnold's lifting partner!" The Arnold Fans Website. Retrieved December 16, 2009.
- Bland, Siskind (September 4, 2007). "Schwarzenegger May Have Violated Terms Of Non-Immigrant Visa". VISALAW.COM. Archived from the original on February 20, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger A name to be reckoned with". Rotten.com. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- Paslay, Christopher (September 1, 2011). The Village Proposal: Education as a Shared Responsibility. R&L Education. p. 146. ISBN 9781610480611. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- "Campus Connection: Superior list of famous alumni?". Wisconsin State Journal. November 11, 2009. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Pro Bodybuilding Profile". Bodybuilding.com. October 11, 2015.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger's competitive bodybuilding history 1963–1966". GMV Productions. Archived from the original on May 6, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Megerian, Chris. (March 1, 2013). "Schwarzenegger to be executive editor of magazines". Archived March 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Los Angeles Times.
- "Ask Arnold Training Seminar – Arnold Schwarzenegger Talks Bodybuilding Advice – Part 1". March 6, 2011. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2011 – via YouTube.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Pro Bodybuilding Profile". Bodybuilding.com. October 11, 2015. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
- Hyson, Sean (September 14, 2012). "Interview With Arnold". Sean Hyson: Fitness Distilled. Archived from the original on August 19, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- Letterman, David (July 1994). David Letterman: Arnold Schwarzenegger interview (Television production).
- "History". Hotel Arthur.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold (2012). Total Recall. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-84983-971-6.
- KUVAT: Schwarzenegger pullisteli lihaksiaan 70-luvulla Helsingissä (in Finnish)
- Hansen, John. "The 1980 Mr. Olympia Controversy". Iron Man Magazine. Archived from the original on January 31, 2019. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- "Mr. Olympia Contest Results". getbig.com. Archived from the original on June 5, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Farrey, Tom. "Conan the Politician". ESPN. Archived from the original on March 29, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Theunissen, Steve. "Arnold & Steroids: Truth Revealed". get2net. Archived from the original on October 8, 2003. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Schwarzenegger Wins German Lawsuit". Encyclopedia.com. United Press International. December 1, 1999. Archived from the original on April 18, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- "Arnie settles $50m libel case". BBC News. December 22, 1999. Archived from the original on April 12, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold (1977). Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder – Arnold Schwarzenegger – Google Books. ISBN 9781451697117. Archived from the original on December 24, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- "Image". Getbig.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Pro Bodybuilding Profile". Bodybuilding.com. July 29, 2013. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- "The Smoking Gun: Archive". TheSmokingGun. Archived from the original on April 27, 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2007.
- Collis, Clark. "Empire Essay: The Terminator". Empire. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Daly, Steve (June 12, 1992). "Carnival in Rio". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
- Leamer, Laurence (2005). Fantastic: The life of Arnold Schwarzenegger. St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-33338-6.
- "Schwarzenegger's back as Terminator". The Independent. April 27, 2011. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
- Pearson, Ben (October 9, 2017). "Schwarzenegger Orchestrated a Legendary Hollywood Troll". /Film. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- Buck, Jerry (April 22, 1990). "Arnold Schwarzenegger directs". Spartanburg Herald-Journal. Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 3, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
- Endrst, James (April 12, 1992). "'Connecticut' could use more of Arnold's muscle". The Register-Guard. Archived from the original on September 3, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
- Ebert, Roger (July 3, 1991). "'Terminator 2: Judgment Day' review by Roger Ebert". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- "Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on December 8, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "Arnold wants 'Terminator' statue killed". Killoggs. September 27, 2002. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Arnold downplays a Terminator Salvation cameo". SCI FI Wire. Archived from the original on March 13, 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger (Virtually) Back in Terminator Salvation". TV Guide. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- "McG Talks Terminator Salvation". reelzchannel.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
- "Schwarzenegger: "Ich lese gerade drei Drehbücher" – "Krone"-Interview – Welt". krone.at. January 16, 2011. Archived from the original on January 19, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- "Arnold's Big Comeback Film May Soar with "Wings"! Schwarzenegger is Considering 3 Movie Scripts!". TheArnoldFans.com. January 16, 2011. Archived from the original on April 6, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- "TAFs Exclusive: 15 Scripts and 1 Superhero! TAFs Q&A with Arnold at the 2011 Arnold Classic!". TheArnoldFans.com. March 6, 2011. Archived from the original on April 21, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- Svetkey, Benjamin. "Arnold Schwarzenegger is back as 'The Governator'". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 19, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- Zakarin, Jordan (March 31, 2011). "'The Governator': Arnold Schwarzenegger Developing New Cartoon, Comic Book". HuffPost. Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger to make superhero show". BBC. March 31, 2011. Archived from the original on February 18, 2019. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
- Maerz, Melissa (March 31, 2011). "Arnold Schwarzenegger teams with Stan Lee on 'The Governator'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 4, 2011. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
- Hammel, Sara. "Arnold Schwarzenegger Halts All Acting Projects – Including Terminator". People. Archived from the original on September 2, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Finke, Nikki (July 11, 2011). "Arnold Books 'Last Stand': Studio To Test Schwarzenegger's Post-Scandal Popularity –". Deadline. Archived from the original on October 19, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Fleming, Mike (September 6, 2011). "'Expendables 2' Sets Action Dream Trio: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis Join Sly Stallone". Deadline. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Arnold Schwarzenegger Confirmed for 'Terminator 5' Archived August 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Screenrant.com (January 22, 2013). Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger to File Revised Divorce Papers, Not Denying Spousal Support". ABC News. July 23, 2011. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Fleming, Mike (October 25, 2012). "Arnold And 'Conan The Barbarian' Reunited: Universal Reboots Action Franchise With Schwarzenegger Archived October 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine." Deadline.com. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger reveals new title, plot details about Conan sequel (by Jonathan Dornbush)". Entertainment Weekly. January 28, 2016. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger's 'The Legend of Conan' May Not Happen After All". slashfilm.com. April 6, 2017. Archived from the original on April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- "Robber tries pulling bank heist during Schwarzenegger movie shoot". CTV News Vancouver. August 19, 2016. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- Libbey, Dirk (October 28, 2016). "Arnold Schwarzenegger to play ambassador in The Guest of Sanxingdui". Cinemablend. Archived from the original on October 29, 2016. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
- Andreeva, Nellie (February 6, 2018). "Arnold Schwarzenegger To Topline 'Outrider' Western TV Series In Works At Amazon". Deadline. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
- Bartleet, Larry (September 28, 2017). "James Cameron: 'Terminator 6 will be a sequel to Terminator 2'". NME. Archived from the original on March 1, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
- "Terminator 6: Schwarzenegger Will Be the Human Basis for the T-800". ScreenRant. August 10, 2017. Archived from the original on February 4, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
- Cárceles, Miguel (March 7, 2018). "Arnold Schwarzenegger rodará Terminator 6 en Almería". Ideal (in Spanish). Vocento. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- Brian Stelter and Frank Pallotta (September 14, 2015). "Arnold Schwarzenegger is the next host of NBC's 'Celebrity Apprentice'". CNNMoney. Archived from the original on September 16, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
- "Arnold Schwarzennegger has revealed his cheesy firing catchphrase for Celebrity Apprentice". The Independent. January 3, 2017. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
- Hale, Mike (January 3, 2017). "With Schwarzenegger as Host, 'Celebrity Apprentice' Lacks Old Bite". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 1, 2022. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger leaves 'Apprentice,' Trump says he was fired". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 12, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- "Schwarzenegger: No country more welcoming than the USA". CNN. August 31, 2004. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Noonan, Peggy (October 14, 2003). What I Saw at the Revolution: A Political Life in the Reagan Era. New York: Random House. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-8129-6989-4.
- "Arnold cast as Governor?". Schwarzenegger.com. October 4, 1999. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Grey, Barry (November 6, 2003). "First debate in California recall election: Snapshot of a political system in crisis". wsws.org. Archived from the original on May 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "California Today: Schwarzenegger's Republican Manifesto". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 28, 2018. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
- Kilgore, Ed. "Schwarzenegger, Kasich Are Going to Try to Pull the California GOP to the Middle". Intelligencer. Archived from the original on July 28, 2018. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- "Schwarzenegger on abortion, gays, environment". CNN. August 28, 2003. Archived from the original on September 16, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
- Sieczkowski, Cavan (September 30, 2012). "Arnold Schwarzenegger Married Two Gay Couples As Republican Governor Of California". HuffPost. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- Buchanan, Wyatt (September 13, 2005). "Gay rights advocates still trying to change Schwarzenegger's mind". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- "AB 43 Assembly Bill - Veto". leginfo.ca.gov.
- Korcok, Milan (October 10, 2006). "Schwarzenegger vetoes single-payer bill". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 175 (8): 860. doi:10.1503/cmaj.061200. PMC 1586096. PMID 17030932.
- "Bill Status". leginfo.legislature.ca.gov.
- Rojas, Aurelio (September 30, 2008). "Gov. Schwarzenegger again vetoes single payer bill". Physicians for a National Health Program. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
- Nicholas, Peter (July 18, 2004). "Schwarzenegger deems opponents 'girlie-men'". The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on May 4, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Opinion analysis: Knox knocks unions on mid-year assessment for non-members". SCOTUSblog. June 25, 2012. Archived from the original on April 15, 2015. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "General Election – Governor". California Secretary of State. Archived from the original on February 19, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Marinucci, Carla (January 17, 2006). "'New' Schwarzenegger gets surprisingly warm welcome / His talk at King Day breakfast has a Democratic sound". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on June 30, 2019. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
- Pomfret, John (December 23, 2006). "Schwarzenegger Remakes Himself as Environmentalist". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- Marinucci, Carla (March 22, 2009). "Predictions for Schwarzenegger's Next Big Role". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 26, 2009. Retrieved March 23, 2009.
- "BBC News: Schwarzenegger 'damages Austria'". BBC News. January 22, 2005. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
He said Mr Schwarzenegger, who has dual nationality...
- "Schwarzenegger wins European Voice campaigner of the year award". European Voice. November 27, 2007. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Nelson, Soraya (April 15, 2006). "News: Schwarzenegger releases tax returns". OCRegister.com. Archived from the original on April 13, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Arnold opens 'flood' of McCain endorsements". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- Vogel, Ed (April 21, 2010). "Gibbons named on list of worst governors". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Archived from the original on April 24, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- "Crew's Worst Governors". Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington. Archived from the original on April 24, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- "TV-commercial of Arnold Schwarzenegger against Proposition 66". April 7, 2008. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010 – via YouTube.
- Garvey, Megan; Salladay, Robert (November 1, 2004). "Prop. 66 in Tough Fight". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 23, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Jaffe, Ina (October 28, 2009). "Two Torn Families Show Flip Side Of 3 Strikes Law". NPR. Archived from the original on March 3, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- Schwarzenegger a big hit with voters, polls report / Soaring popularity cuts across party, geographical lines Archived January 2, 2018, at the Wayback Machine; San Francisco Chronicle; May 27, 2004
- Bao, George (January 4, 2011). "Schwarzenegger leaves office with huge state deficit". Xinhua English News. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "Judge: Former Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger's sentence cutting of Esteban Nunez was legal". Thereporter.com. March 10, 2006. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- "Dan Walters: Schwarzenegger leaves a foul stench". Dailynews.com. May 7, 2013. Archived from the original on October 13, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- Dillon, Nancy (April 11, 2016). "Calif. pol's son who killed college student out of prison". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- Goffard, Christopher (December 23, 2014). "On the eve of a murder trial, a deal is struck. But will it stick?". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 5, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- Lovett, Ian (January 3, 2011). "Schwarzenegger Commutes Sentence of Politician's Son". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- Lah, Kyung (July 8, 2015). "Arnold Schwarzenegger's last act as governor follows him". CNN. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- McGreevy, Patrick (October 4, 2011). "Gov. Jerry Brown signs notification bill on reducing sentences". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- "Esteban Nuñez is released from prison after his sentence was drastically reduced by Schwarzenegger". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. April 10, 2016. Archived from the original on October 12, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "Sex scandal draws Arnie apology". BBC. March 10, 2004. Archived from the original on December 18, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Schwarzenegger sorry for behaving 'badly' toward women". CNN. October 3, 2003. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Schwarzenegger admits behaving badly after groping claims". The Guardian. October 3, 2003. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
- "Schwarzenegger libel 'settled'". BBC. August 26, 2006. Archived from the original on September 9, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "UK judge allows Arnie libel case". BBC. March 23, 2005. Archived from the original on August 21, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Schwarzenegger's Sex Talk". The Smoking Gun. May 18, 2011. Archived from the original on July 4, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Governor says marijuana is not a drug, 'it's a leaf'". Los Angeles Times. October 29, 2007. Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved October 7, 2008.
- "Actor Becomes U.S. Citizen". The New York Times. United Press International. September 17, 1983. Archived from the original on January 22, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- Leamer, p. 199-200
- Young, Samantha (September 27, 2006). "Schwarzenegger Signs Global Warming Bill". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
- Matthews, Karen (October 17, 2006). "Cal Joins Northeast Global Warming Fight". Fox News. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
- "The Governator's green agenda" Archived November 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Fortune. March 23, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
- "SAE 2009 World Congress Special Opening Ceremonies to Feature Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger" Archived April 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine SAE. March 10, 2009. Retrieved April 6, 2009.
- "A New Obsession". The Global Journal. Archived from the original on May 1, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- "Macron, Schwarzenegger back global pact on environment". France 24. June 24, 2017. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
- "Schwarzenegger: Climate activists should focus on pollution". July 2021.
- "'Amend for Arnold' campaign launched / Web site, TV spot promote change to Constitution" Archived May 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, John Wildermuth. San Francisco Chronicle. November 18, 2004. Retrieved February 8, 2017
- "The 'Arnold Amendment'". CBS News. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
- "Bloomberg, Schwarzenegger ponder presidential ticket" Archived February 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, CNN. June 19, 2007. Retrieved February 8, 2017
- "My Conversation with Michael Bloomberg and Arnold Schwarzenegger". Huffpost. April 21, 2008. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
- Smith, E. (October 18, 2013). "Arnold lobbies for White House run". New York Post. Archived from the original on October 18, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
- Morgan, Kay. "Real Life Action Hero". Millionaire Magazine. Archived from the original on December 12, 2004. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- ""Working" Out". Schwarzenegger.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Williams, Lance (August 10, 2003). "Schwarzenegger reveals pumped-up finances". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 18, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Fleschner, Malcolm. "The Best Salesman in America?". Selling Power. Archived from the original on February 24, 2008. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- "Arnie's Planet Hollywood split". BBC. January 26, 2000. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- Lieberman, Paul (January 26, 2000). "It's Hasta la Vista, Planet Hollywood". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- Weinraub, Bernard (August 17, 2003). "Schwarzenegger's Next Goal On Dogged, Ambitious Path". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 30, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Andrea N. Browne (November 9, 2012). "7 self-made immigrant millionaires". Yahoo Canada. Archived from the original on October 30, 2013. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Young, Jabari (December 2, 2020). "LeBron James, Arnold Schwarzenegger's Sports Nutrition Company Sells to Fitness Platform Openfit". NBC Los Angeles. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
- "The foundation for taxpayer and consumer rights is in the wrong in its junk fax lawsuit where it falsely blames Arnold Schwarzenegger for faxes sent to promote a restaurant he doesn't own". Schwarzenegger.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Williams, Lance (August 17, 2003). "Schwarzenegger worth $100 million, experts say". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Arnold and Maria's Surprise Split: How Much is at Stake in Divorce?". Extratv.warnerbros.com. May 10, 2011. Archived from the original on September 5, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Fleming, Charles (1999). High concept: Don Simpson and the Hollywood Culture of Excess. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-4262-9.
- Takahashi, Dean (November 11, 2015). "Arnold Schwarzenegger stars in Machine Zone's modern warfare game Mobile Strike (updated)". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on November 13, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
- "Arnie's ex-girlfriend pens memoir". BBC. September 9, 2003. Archived from the original on April 22, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Williams, Lance (September 15, 2003). "Actor's old flame says he's a great guy". The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2007.
- Elsworth, Catherine (September 14, 2006). "Arnie puts his weight behind ex-lover's tell-all memoir". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on June 10, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Maria Owings Shriver Wed To Arnold Schwarzenegger". The New York Times. April 27, 1986. Archived from the original on May 28, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Pace, Eric (July 24, 1991). "Chronicle". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Brozan, Nadine (September 21, 1993). "Chronicle". The New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger and Maria Shriver's Children Face Trauma, Say Experts". ABC News. Archived from the original on February 9, 2019. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
- Brozan, Nadine (September 30, 1997). "Chronicle". The New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- Schiffman, Betsy (June 27, 2003). "Next Stop – Governor's Mansion?". Forbes. Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Lacayo, Richard (August 10, 2003). "The Mind Behind the Muscles". Time. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Dunteman, Dayna (May 2004). "Catching Up With Maria Shriver". Sacramento Magazine. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Maria Shriver Ends Her Silence On Husband's Campaign". NBC. September 8, 2003. Retrieved April 18, 2008.[permanent dead link]
- Mark Z. Barabak (May 9, 2011). "Arnold Schwarzenegger, Maria Shriver announce separation". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Hendrix, Steve (May 10, 2011). "Arnold Schwarzenegger and wife of 25 years, Maria Shriver, say they're separating". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on July 15, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
- Dan Whitcomb (May 10, 2011). "Arnold Schwarzenegger, wife Maria Shriver separate". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
- Dillon, Nancy (May 17, 2011). "Mildred 'Patty' Baena, 50, identified as the mother of Arnold Schwarzenegger's out of wedlock child: reports". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- "Schwarzenegger Fathered Child with Household Staff Member". Fox. May 17, 2011. Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
- "Mildred Patricia Baena, Mother of Arnold Schwarzenegger's Out of Wedlock Child Revealed (PHOTOS)". International Business Times. May 18, 2011. Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- "How Maria found out: Arnie's wife reportedly confronted lover about child". The Sydney Morning Herald. May 20, 2011. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
- Barabak, Mark Z.; Kim, Victoria (May 17, 2011). "Schwarzenegger fathered a with child his mistress, longtime member of the household staff". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 19, 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
- Nagourney, Adam; Steinhauer, Jennifer (May 17, 2011). "Schwarzenegger Whispers Become an Admission". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 7, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2017.
- "Arnie 'Bought Home For Love Child And Mum'". Sky. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012.
- "Schwarzenegger's son with housekeeper born days after Shriver gave birth". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on June 17, 2011.
- Duke, Alan (May 19, 2011). "Arnold Schwarzenegger's two sons born days apart". CNN. Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- Arnold Schwarzenegger: The Boy 'Started Looking Like Me' Archived February 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine People, October 1, 2012
- "Schwarzenegger: I fathered a secret child". NBC News. May 17, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- "Schwarzenegger Reportedly Fired Housekeeper 4 Weeks Ago". CBS. May 18, 2011. Archived from the original on August 14, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- "Exhusband of Schwarzenegger's mistress speaks out". Daily Express. May 25, 2011. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- s (AFP) May 29, 2011
- Reich, Ashley (July 8, 2011). "Schwarzenegger–Shriver Divorce: Settlement Decides Who Gets House, Kids". HuffPost. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- "Ministry of Gossip". Los Angeles Times. July 27, 2011. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Bennett, Jessica (December 29, 2021). "Arnold Schwarzenegger, Maria Shriver finalize divorce after 10 years". Page Six. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- chen, joyce. "Arnold Schwarzenegger and Maria Shriver are house-hunting for their kids". Architectural digest. Archived from the original on June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Zervos, Cassie (June 4, 2011). "Love rat Arnold Schwarzenegger cheated on me: Brigitte Nielsen". Herald Sun. Australia. Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold. "IamArnold. AMA 2.0". Reddit. Archived from the original on January 22, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
- [permanent dead link]
- Davison, Tamara (July 16, 2020). "Arnold Schwarzenegger 'tried every sex act' with Brigitte Nielsen in saucy fling". mirror.
- Sieczkowski, Cavan (September 29, 2012). "Arnold Schwarzenegger Admits To Affair With Brigitte Nielsen". HuffPost.
- Lim, Kenneth (August 28, 2015). "Arnold Schwarzenegger's 'Terminator Genisys' Rakes in $37.9 Million in China After Two Days of Screening". The Inquisitr News. Archived from the original on June 20, 2017. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
- "Surgery Leaves Star Undimmed". The Free Library. Farlex. April 18, 1997. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2008.
- Starnes, Dr. Vaughn A. (March 8, 2001). "Renowned Cardiac Surgeon Proclaims Medical "Facts" In Article "Represent No Facts At All"". Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- "Schwarzenegger Has Elective Heart Surgery". The New York Times. April 18, 1997. Archived from the original on May 30, 2008. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- "'I'm back': Arnold Schwarzenegger in stable condition after heart surgery". Sky News. March 30, 2018. Archived from the original on March 30, 2018. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold (December 12, 2018). "Schwarzenegger: How I fought my way back to fitness". CNN. Archived from the original on December 12, 2018.
- McNary, Janet W. Lee,Dave; Lee, Janet W.; McNary, Dave (October 24, 2020). "Arnold Schwarzenegger in 'Fantastic' Condition Following Heart Surgery". Variety. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
- "Schwarzenegger, son get in motorcycle accident". USA Today. Associated Press. January 9, 2006. Archived from the original on April 14, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Schwarzenegger helped swimmer in Maui, according to his office". USA Today. April 12, 2004. Archived from the original on March 18, 2016. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- "No Charges Against Schwarzenegger". NBC News. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- Navarro, Mireya (July 7, 2006). "Schwarzenegger Finally Gets a License". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 12, 2013. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
- "Calif. Gov. Schwarzenegger Breaks Leg in Skiing Accident in Idaho". Fox News. Associated Press. December 24, 2006. Archived from the original on April 14, 2008. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
- "Schwarzenegger cleared to resume duties after surgery". Los Angeles Times. December 26, 2006.
- Santa Cruz, Nicole (June 19, 2009). "Governor's plane makes emergency landing in Van Nuys". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- "Schwarzenegger 'will not press charges' over South Africa attack". BBC. May 19, 2019. Archived from the original on May 19, 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- Donovan-Smith, Orion (May 19, 2019). "Arnold Schwarzenegger unhurt after taking a flying kick in the back from a 'mischievous fan'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 18, 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- Sager, Jessica (May 19, 2019). "Arnold Schwarzenegger won't press charges against attacker". Fox News. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
- Andrews, N: True Myths: The Life and Times of Arnold Schwarzenegger, page 157. Bloomsbury, 2003
- Miner, Michael (September 23, 2003). "Poor Recall". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on April 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Salladay, Robert (October 23, 2003). "Incoming governor's mantra: 'Action'". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Weintraub, Daniel. "Schwarzenegger Blinked" (PDF). National Conference of State Legislators. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 4, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "The Governator II: At first it seemed like a bad joke". Arnoldwatch.org. October 7, 2004. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Mathews, Jay (August 3, 1999). "The Shrinking Field". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger talks scandal, new book with '60 Minutes'". Abclocal.go.com. September 28, 2012. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger: My army tank mistake". Archived from the original on June 26, 2019. Retrieved May 29, 2019 – via YouTube.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger paid $20,000 to ship his old tank to the US and now uses it to help kids". CNBC. July 26, 2018. Archived from the original on August 21, 2019. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger takes his own personal tank out for a spin". yahoo!. January 5, 2013.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Crushes Things with Tanks". The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon – YouTube. March 25, 2014.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger and his tank: "I like crushing things"". driving.co.uk. March 28, 2014. Archived from the original on November 2, 2018. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
- "The Hummer and Schwarzenegger: They probably won't be back". The Washington Post. February 28, 2010. Archived from the original on November 2, 2015. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
- "Terminator acelera no seu Bugatti Veyron". Archived from the original on August 12, 2015. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Lambert, Fred (January 23, 2017). "Arnold Schwarzenegger will now drive a new custom all-electric Mercedes G-Class made by Kreisel Electric". Electrek. Archived from the original on February 1, 2017. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
- "Thanks to Arnold, California, to Pave the Hydrogen Highway". BMW World. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Wickell, Dale. "HUMMER H2H Hydrogen Powered Experimental Vehicle". About.com. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Charity: Special Olympics, After-School All-Stars". Forbes. Archived from the original on August 28, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Charity Work, Events and Causes". Archived from the original on January 13, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- "Board of Directors". Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- "After-School All-Stars, Los Angeles". Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- "How Vancouver almost lost the 2010 Olympics – Vancouver 2010 Olympics". Toronto Star. Toronto. February 12, 2010. Archived from the original on February 15, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Schwarzenegger gives up Soviet statue collection" Archived February 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, WENN. NewsHub. March 4, 2011. Retrieved February 8, 2017
- "The Unkillable Arnold Schwarzenegger" Archived August 19, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Jonah Weiner. Rolling Stone. May 7, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2017
- "Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger at L.A.'s Pro-Israel rally". Archived from the original on February 16, 2014. Retrieved December 28, 2013 – via YouTube.
- Benhorin, Yitzhak. "Schwarzenegger: I love Israel". Ynet. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
- "Schwarzenegger, in Israel, Pays Tribute to Holocaust Victims". Haaretz. April 30, 2004.
- "Schwarzenegger rejects California vote on Iraq war". Reuters. September 12, 2007. Archived from the original on July 17, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger rallies to defence of David Cameron on Libya". The Guardian. March 30, 2011. Archived from the original on July 17, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Releases Message Supporting Ukrainian Protestors (VIDEO)". The Hollywood Reporter. January 27, 2014. Archived from the original on August 26, 2019. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
- "Premier League predictions: Lawro v 'Terminator: Dark Fate' star Arnold Schwarzenegger". BBC Sport. October 26, 2019. Archived from the original on October 27, 2019. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "Let's rock! Why Dwayne Johnson is the new Schwarzenegger". The Guardian. July 14, 2018. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- "Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson Is This Generation's Much-Needed Arnold Schwarzenegger". Hypebeast. July 11, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- "Movie Trends / What's happened to all the shoot-'em-up films? Who's the next Sly or Jean-Claude?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- Nowicki, Albert (December 6, 2015). "Ranking. Gwiazdy kina akcji, które zgasły prędzej niż rozbłysły". Movies Room (in Polish). Archived from the original on January 14, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- "Vidyut Jamwal wants to be the Indian Arnold Schwarzenegger". NDTV Movies. January 18, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- "Operation Balikatan (2003) − Trivia − IMDb". IMDb. Amazon. Archived from the original on March 17, 2020. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- "USC Schwarzenegger Institute for State and Global Policy | Politics & Issues – Arnold Schwarzenegger". Schwarzenegger.com. Archived from the original on January 22, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- "About the Institute | USC Schwarzenegger Institute for State and Global Policy". Schwarzenegger.usc.edu. Archived from the original on January 22, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- "Leadership | USC Schwarzenegger Institute for State and Global Policy". Schwarzenegger.usc.edu. Archived from the original on January 22, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- "Schwarzenegger: Climate change is 'the issue of our time'". MSNBC. 2015. Archived from the original on February 3, 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger: Republicans need to stop treating climate change like a political issue". Business Insider. December 9, 2015. Archived from the original on October 26, 2019. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "Schwarzenegger calls Kasich the 'Terminator'". New Hampshire Union Leader. Archived from the original on February 15, 2016.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Will Not Be Voting For Donald Trump". People. October 8, 2016. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
- "'I want to punch him': De Niro launches scathing attack on Trump". ABC News. October 9, 2016. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
- "Schwarzenegger, McCain, More Drop Support of Trump". Us Weekly. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold (July 18, 2017). Arnold Schwarzenegger on Going Vegan. Archived from the original on July 2, 2019. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
- "The Game Changers". Archived from the original on October 4, 2019. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger to white supremacists: 'Your heroes are losers'". Business Insider. August 18, 2017. Archived from the original on October 26, 2019. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "No charges over attack, says Schwarzenegger". May 19, 2019. Archived from the original on May 18, 2019. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold [@Schwarzenegger] (January 10, 2021). "(Video) My message to my fellow Americans and friends around the world following this week's attack on the Capitol" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Pengelly, Martin (January 10, 2021). "Schwarzenegger rebukes Trump and compares Capitol riot to Kristallnacht". The Guardian.
- Marinucci, Carla (March 31, 2021). "Arnold Schwarzenegger has a warning for Gavin Newsom". Politico.
- Fordham, Evie (March 31, 2021). "Newsom recall effort is sparked by 'ordinary people,' not Republican 'power grab': Arnold Schwarzenegger". Fox News.
- Haefeli, Laura (April 1, 2021). "Former California Gov. Schwarzenegger Warns Newsom To Take Looming Recall Election Seriously". sacramento.cbslocal.com. CBS Sacramento.
- "ReportCanada-USA". oeasg.org. Archived from the original on September 16, 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
- "International Sports Hall of Fame". Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- Salim, Zia (2019). "The Contours of Creativity: Public Art, Cultural Landscapes, and Urban Space in Venice, California" (PDF). The California Geographer/The California Geographical Society. 58. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
- WWE Hall of Fame 2015, every inductee!, archived from the original on December 21, 2020, retrieved January 27, 2020
- "Schwarzenegger's WWE HOF bio". WWE. Archived from the original on February 11, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "And … here's Arnold's Run". Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- "Strudel, schnitzel shower Schwarzenegger at 60th birthday bash". USA Today. Associated Press. July 30, 2007. Archived from the original on July 5, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Inkpot Award". Comic-Con International: San Diego. December 6, 2012.
- "Österreichische Nationalbibliothek – Goldenes Ehrenzeichen für Arnold Schwarzenegger". bildarchivaustria.at. Archived from the original on September 27, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
- "A bad week for the males of our species". Salon. May 19, 2011. Archived from the original on November 2, 2019. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Receives France's Highest Honor for his Environmental Work". People. Archived from the original on March 31, 2018. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
- Wutti, Kerstin (June 22, 2017). "Arnold Schwarzenegger erhielt Ehrenring des Landes Steiermark" (in German). meinbezirk.at. Archived from the original on July 29, 2019. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
- Andrews, Nigel (2003). True Myths: The Life and Times of Arnold Schwarzenegger: From Pumping Iron to Governor of California (rev. ed.). New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-58234-465-2.
- Baker, Todd (director) (November 11, 1999). Arnold Schwarzenegger: Hollywood Hero (Television production (special)).
- Blitz, Michael; Louise Krasniewicz (2004). Why Arnold Matters: The Rise of a Cultural Icon. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-03752-0.
- Borowitz, Andy (2004). Governor Arnold: A Photodiary of His First 100 Days in Office. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-6266-8.
- Brandon, Karen (2004). Arnold Schwarzenegger. San Diego: Lucent Books. ISBN 978-1-59018-539-1.
- Saunders, Dave (2008). "Arnie": Schwarzenegger and the Movies. London: I. B. Tauris.
- Sexton, Colleen A. (2005). Arnold Schwarzenegger. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications. ISBN 978-0-8225-1634-7.
- Zannos, Susan (2000). Arnold Schwarzenegger. Childs, Md.: Mitchell Lane. ISBN 978-1-883845-95-7.